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Efi Jl 




Fellow of the Royal Historical Society of Great Britain ; Member of the Architectural) 

Archaological) and Historic Society of Chester; Vice-President 

of the Record Society, 

Author of " Nooks and Corners of Lancashire and Cheshire," "Historic Sites of Lancashire 

and Cheshire," "A History of the Ancient Hall of Samlesbnry, in Lancashire," 

"Historical Memorials of the Church in Prestbury," "Old 

Manchester and its Worthies," Etc., Etc- 















E Palatine Counties of Lancaster and Chester have been 
1 aptly described as the "seed-plots of gentility," possessing, as 
they do, in proportion to their respective areas, a larger number of 
old COUNTY FAMILIES than are to be found in any other of the 
English shires ; families whose representatives have in successive 
ages borne their part in the stirring scenes that go to make up our 
"rough island story," and the names of whom are inseparably 
linked with the most important events in the nation's history men 
who have won pre-eminence by power of brain and prowess of 
arm, by ability to govern in time of peace and the capacity to 
command in time of war, and who have fought the battle of 
English liberty, and helped to lay the foundations of that larger 
freedom we now enjoy. 

Of the bygone generations that have acted their busy parts in 

"Bright embattled fields 
Of trophied helmets, spears, and shields," 

the precise genealogist and prosaic antiquary have told us little 
beyond the brief story of baptism, marriage, and burial ; details 
that, however valuable in themselves, are necessarily dry by reason 
of the rigid manner in which they are narrated. 

The aim of the present volume is to present the leading 
ascertained facts in the annals of some of these FAMILIES in a 
readable and entertaining form, and, by combining interest of 
detail with accuracy of statement, enable the reader to realise more 




vividly the byeways as well as the highways of times long since 
departed; to mark, in short, the ebb and flow of thought and 
action, recall the hopes and fears, the perils by flood and field, the 
deep feuds and deeper vengeances of those who have gone before, 
and in this way cover the dry bones of the past with muscle, flesh, 
and colouring, until the fancy is stirred anew, and the warm heart 
alone is needed to give to the shadowy forms the pulsations of 
actual life. 

The subject matter is derived from original and authentic 
evidences and other sources of information more or less scattered, 
which, in the form it is presented, will, it is hoped, be not only 
acceptable to the general reader, but enable the representatives of 
these ancient houses to possess a convenient and trustworthy 
history of their family connections and kin. 

It only remains for the Author to express his obligation to 
those friends who, by ready offers of information and in other ways, 
have made him their debtor. His thanks are specially due to W. 
\V. B. Hulton, Esq., of Hulton Park; Thomas Helsby, Esq., of 
Lincoln's Inn; John Eglington Bailey, Esq., F.S.A., of Stretford ; 
John Paul Rylands, Esq., F.S.A., of Heather Lea, Claughton; and 
Edmund R. T. Molyneux-Seel, Esq., of Kensington. 

MAY, 1887. 



The Stanleys The Stanleys of Storeton The Stanleys of 
Hooton The Stanleys of Lathom and Knowslcy The 
Stanleys of Alderley ....... i 

The Egertons Egerton of Heaton Egerton of Oulton . . 1 1 7 

The Traffords of Trafford Trafford of Croston . .166 

The Warburtons of Warburton and Arley . .218 


The Harringtons Grey of Groby Harrington of Hornby- 
Harrington of Huyton Molyneux of Huyton . . . 242 


The Hultons of Hulton 

. 267 




The Grosvenors . 

The Mosleys ...... 

The Mainwarings of Warmincham and Peover 


The Heskeths of Hesketh and Rufford . 


The Davenports . 



. 361 

. 407 






ARMS OF MAN . . . . . . . .12 




HORNBY CHURCH ........ 43 





. OF DERBY ......... 86 


BANGOR-IS-Y-COED . . . . . . .116 



SEAL OF EGERTON (ANCIENT) . . . . . -123 




CREST OF TRAFFORD ....... 167 





AND HEI.SBY ".".- .190 



AND AKI.EY . . . 220 











HAI.RIN CASTLE .... . 329 








RUFFORD HALL . . . 390 








CHESHIRE the Stanleys during many long centuries 
have held a proud pre-eminence. Descended from 
one of the fierce fighting men who followed William 
the Bastard to the Conquest and the spoil of Eng- 
land, they have, by strength of arm and power of brain, forced 
their way to the very front rank of the English nobility ; from 
age to age they have borne their part in the memorable events 
and stirring scenes that go to make up " our rough island story," 
and have given to their country many courageous, astute, brave, 
and singularly successful men, whose influence has been strongly 
impressed upon the nation's annals. 

The first known ancestor was a certain Adam de Audleigh, or 
Aldithlega, so named from the paternal estate of Audithlegh, 
in Normandy, who came over with William the Conqueror. 
Acquitting himself bravely on the field of Hastings, he was 

County Families of 

rewarded with large estates in the newly-conquered country. This 
Adam was accompanied in the expedition by his two sons, Lydulph, 
or Lyulph, and Adam de Audleigh. These sons married, and in 
due course a son was born to each grandsons of the old Norman 
warrior both of whom married into a Saxon family of noble 
rank and ancient lineage, which had been fortunate enough to 
retain possession of its estates, while confiscation had been the lot 
of those around. The family derived its name from the Manor 
of Stanleigh, or Stoneleigh the stony lea or stony field according 
to the Anglo-Saxon meaning an insignificant hamlet about three 
miles south-west of Leek, in Staffordshire, a place which Erdswick, 
the old topographer, remarks, " seems to take its name of the nature 
of the soil, which, though it be in the moorlands, is yet a rough and 
stony place, and many craggy rocks are about it." One of the 
grandsons, Adam, the son of Lyulph de Audleigh, became in right 
of his wife, Mabella, daughter and heir of Henry de Stanleigh, 
lord of Stanley, and was ancestor of the Lords Audleigh, or 
Audley of Hegleigh, of ancient times, and is represented through 
the female line by the Touchcts, Lords Audley of the present 
day. Of these Audleys was that chivalrous soldier, Lord James 
Audley, who at Poitiers " broke through the French army," and, 
though " sore hurt, fought as long as his breath served him." Of 
his interview with the Black Prince, at the close of that memorable 
day, Froissart has left us in his chronicles a graphic and touching 

The other grandson of the valiant old Norman, William, son of 
Adam de Audleigh, acquired with his wife, Joan, daughter and 
sole heir of Thomas Stanley, of Stafford, the lordship of Thalck, 
better known as Talk, or Talk-o'-th'-Hill, in the same county. 
This William seems to have conceived a liking for the Stony-lea, 
before referred to, for he gave his Manor of Talk, together with 
that of Balterley, to his cousin Adam, in exchange for it. 
Thenceforward he made Stanleigh his seat, and, as the old 
chroniclers tell us, in honour of his wife and of the great antiquity 
of her family, assumed her maiden name, and became the imme- 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 

diate founder of the Stanleys, a race associated with the most 
stirring events in English history, and which at the present day 
comprehends, in addition to the baronetcy enjoyed by the elder 
line Stanley (now Errington), of Hooton-in-Wirral the Earldom 
of Derby, of Knowsley, in Lancashire, and the Baronies of Stanley 
of Alderley, in Cheshire, and of Stanley of Preston, in Lancashire, 
besides the offshoots, the Stanleys of Dalegarth, in Cumberland, of 
Cross Hall, in Lancashire, and of Staffordshire, Sussex, Kent, and 

Sir William Stanley, the fourth in descent from the William who 
settled at the Stony-lea, and first assumed the name, gave an 
impetus to the fortunes of his family by one of those matrimonial 
alliances to which the House of Stanley owes so much of its 
prosperity. He took to himself a wife in the person of Joan, 
the youthful daughter and co-heir of Sir Philip Bamville, master 
forester of Wirral, and lord of Storeton, a place some few miles 
south of Birkenhead. 


Associated with this match is a love story that, in iis romantic 
incidents, is scarcely less interesting than the one related of the 
fair heiress of Haddon, Dorothy Vernon. The daughter of the 
House of Storeton had given her heart to young Stanley, and to 
escape the misery of a forced marriage with one for whom she 
had no love she determined to elope. While a banquet was 
being given to her father, she stole unobserved away, and, being 
joined by young William Stanley, rode swiftly across the country 
to Astbury Church, where, in the presence of Adam Hoton and 
Dawe Coupelond, the anxious lovers plighted their troth to each 
other. Six hundred years have rolled away since that scene was 
enacted, but it requires little stretch of the imagination to picture 
the anxious but resolute maiden hastening with tremulous steps 
from her father's house, the exciting ride across country, and the 
hurried joining of hands and hearts in the old Church of Astbury; 
and forgetting that all this occurred long ages ago, we wish from 

County Families of 

our hearts all happiness to the pair. The story is no mere legend, 
for the facts are to be found in those musty and unromantic 
records, the Cheshire Inquisitions, which have been unearthed, 
and their, contents made accessible to the world, by the Deputy- 
keeper of the Public Records. In a return to a writ of inquiry 
as to the betrothal of William Stanley, the inquisition sets forth- 
Thai on the Sunday after the Feast of St. Matthew the Apostle and 
Evangelist, two years ago. viz., on the 271!) September, 1282, Philip de 

Bamville, with his wife and 
family, was at a banquet given 
by Master John de Stanley (an 
ecclesiastic apparently, priests 
at that time who had an aca- 
demical degree being entitled 
to be called Master), on which 
occasion Joan (Bamville), sus- 
pecting that her father intended 
to marry her to herstepmother's 
son, took means to avoid it by 
repairing with William de 
Stanley to Astbury Church, 
where they uttered the follow- 
ing mutual promise, he saying : 
"Joan, I plight thee my troth 
to take and hold thee as my 
lawful wife until my life's end ;" 
and she replying : " I, Joan, 
take thee, William, as my lawful 
husband." The witnesses were 
Adam de Hoton and Dawe de 

By this marriage William 
Stanley became the owner of 
one-third of the Manor of 
Storeton (the remaining two-thirds he subsequently acquired), and 
also the hereditary bailiwick or chief rangership of the Forest of 
Wirral, which then overspread the peninsula lying between the 
estuaries of the Mersey and the Dee, and which was so thickly 
wooded that, according to the old saying 

From Blacon point to Hilbree 

A squirrel may leap from tree to tree. 

Lancashire and Clieshire. 

After this marriage the Stanleys migrated from the Stony-lea 
in Staffprdshire to their newly-acquired home in Cheshire, and at 
the same time Sir William, in allusion to his office of hereditary 
forester of Wirral, assumed the arms which have ever since been 
borne by his descendants in the first quarter of their shield as the 
paternal coat of Stanley, in place of those used by his ancestors, 
viz., argent, on a bend azure, three bucks' heads caboshed or; in 
other words, over a shield of silver a belt of blue crossed diagonally, 
with three bucks' heads displayed thereon, with a stag's head and 
neck for crest. 


Another and still more important addition was made to the 
patrimonial lands of the Stanleys through the marriage of Sir 
William de Stanley, the fourth though incorrectly represented in 
many of the family pedigrees as third in direct descent from the 
first of the name who held the forestership of Wirral, with Margaret, 
only daughter and heir of Sir William de Hooton, of Hooton, a 
township midway between Chester and Birkenhead, and occupying 
one of the most delightful situations which the banks of the 
estuary can boast, commanding, as Ormerod says, "a peculiarly 
beautiful view of the Forest Hills, the bend of the Mersey, and 
the opposite shore of Hale, and shaded with venerable oaks, which 
the Wirral breezes have elsewhere rarely afforded." Sir William de 
Hooton died in 1396, when Sir William Stanley entered upon 
possession of his lands, and removed from Storeton to the more 
stately house at Hooton, though he did not long remain there in 
quietude, for shortly afterwards he was with the expedition in 
Ireland, and under arrest there, having arrayed himself against his 
sovereign, as evidenced by an entry in the Recognizance Rolls, 
under date May I5th, 1399, wherein Vivian de ffoxwyst and John 
de Litherland are commanded to lead sixty archers to Ireland in his 
place. King Richard accompanied the Cheshire bowmen, and on 
the igth May set sail for Ireland, resolved on quelling the insurrec- 
tion there and punishing the murderers of Mortimer, but little 

County Families of 

dreaming of the advantage that would be taken by his enemies of 
his absence. No sooner had he gone than a number of discon- 
tented nobles met to plot his overthrow. While he was leading 
his army among the bogs and thickets of Ireland, Bolingbroke, who 
had succeeded to the dukedom of Lancaster, landed with a small 
retinue at Ravenspurg, a place at the mouth of the Humber, on the 
Yorkshire coast, and, quickly gathering round him a force of 60,000 
men, virtually made himself master of the kingdom before Richard 
was even cognisant of his presence, for ill news does not always 
travel apace, and in those days there was no trembling wire to speed 
the story of rebellion through air and sea. When he did return it was 
to find that the sceptre had fallen from his grasp, and that the 
symbol of sovereignty was but a useless bauble. Sir William 
Stanley, like many another of his race and name, gave his adhesion 
to the winning side, and must have quickly accommodated himself 
to the changed state of affairs, for in the following year we find him 
receiving letters of protection on his departure to Ireland in the train 
of his younger brother, Sir John Stanley, the founder of the House 
of Lathom; and in September, 1401, he did homage to the 
usurper, saluting him as " King Henry of that name the Fourth." 
Henry's reign was one long series of plots, and stratagems, and 
treasons. Cheshire was in a disturbed state, and almost before the 
new King had got seated on the throne, Owen Glendower, who 
claimed to be the rightful Prince of Wales, had begun to make 
inroads upon the marches. A vigorous administration was needed. 
One of the first acts of Henry was to appoint that dashing young 
soldier, Harry Percy, the Hotspur of the famous ballad of Chevy 
Chase, Chief Justice of Chester and North Wales, in the place of 
Scrope, Earl ot Wiltshire, whom he had beheaded. Wales was 
quickly put under martial law, and on the 23rd May, 1402, Sir 
William Stanley is found entering into an agreement to serve the 
new Chief Justice, who was also Constable of the Castles of Chester, 
Flint, Conway, and Caernarvon, and General Warden of the West 
Marches, and to bring a certain number of archers and others into 
the field for the King's service. Hotspur, 

Who was sweet Fortune's minion and her pride, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 

stung by the injustice of Henry, eventually turned his sword 
against the King, and resolved on overthrowing a throne which he 
had had the chief hand in establishing. Sir William Stanley and his son, 
who had then attained to manhood, joined in the insurrection. At 
Hateley Field, three miles from Shrewsbury, under " the busky hill " 
of Haughmond, the contending forces were placed against each 
other. The King's men " fell as the leaves fall on the ground after 
a frosty night at the approach of winter;" but eventually the tide 
of battle turned Hotspur fell, an arrow having pierced his brain. 
His death struck terror into the hearts of his followers, and those 
who escaped the slaughter fled to the woods and hills. Having 
succeeded in crushing the revolt, Henry was too politic to be 
unnecessarily severe. The elder Percy, who had been the chief 
instigator, escaped even without a forfeiture, and on the 3rd 
November, 1404, as appears by the Plea Rolls, a general pardon 
was granted by the King to " Sir William de Stanley, Kt., and 
William, his son, for all offences committed by them whilst in 
rebellion with Henry Percy, the son, and other rebels." 

Sir William Stanley died in 1427, at the age of sixty, having 
survived his eldest son, who had been concerned with him in the 
Percy rebellion, but who afterwards attained distinction, and was 
one of those who shared in the glories of Agincourt on that 
memorable St. Crispin's day in 1415. From the marriage of Sir 
William Stanley with the heiress of Hooton descended the Stanleys 
of Storeton and Hooton (the senior line) and their offshoots, among 
whom may be mentioned that Sir William Stanley who, in the 
reign of Elizabeth, betrayed the trust committed to him by the 
English Government in the base surrender of Deventer to the 
King of Spain. He had previously been concerned in Babington's 
conspiracy to assassinate Elizabeth, place Mary Queen of Scots 
upon the English throne, and restore the Romish religion. After 
the treasonable act at Deventer he retired to the dominions of his 
master, accepted service in the Spanish army, and was afterwards 
made Governor of Mechlin, in which town he terminated his 
traitorous career. His great-grandson, also named William, had a 


Coimty Families of 

baronetcy conferred upon him by Charles II. in 1661. Four 
generations later the direct line failed by the death ol Sir William 
Stanley in 1792, without issue, when the honours and estates passed, 
by virtue of a settlement made in 1743, to his eldest surviving uncle, 
John Stanley, who had previously assumed the name of Massey, but, 
on succeeding to the baronetcy, added that of Stanley, and he is 
now represented by his great-grandson, Sir John Massey Stanley, 
who assumed the name and arms of Errington in 1877. Sir John, 
who was born April 3oth, 1810, married in 1841 Maria, only 
daughter of Baron de Talleyrand, but has no issue. 


Turning our attention from the main line, we may now follow the 
fortunes of an offshoot that in power and splendour has over- 
shadowed the parent stock the Stanleys of Lathom, Knowsley, 
and Alderley. This stock may be properly said to commence with 
a younger brother of the Sir William Stanley who married the 
heiress of Hooton John, a cool, shrewd, and efficient man, who, 
in the literal sense of the word, " flourished " in the reigns of Richard 
II. and his successors, Henry IV. and V., and whose personal 
qualities raised him to distinction, while the properties he acquired 
in right of his marriage gave him great territorial influence in 
Lancashire and elsewhere. In 1385 Richard II. made him Lord- 
Deputy of Ireland; while there the Manor of Blake Castle was 
conferred upon him ; and four years later, when the revolution 
occurred which placed the House of Lancaster upon the throne, 
he was made Lord Justice of that kingdom. He accompanied 
the unfortunate Richard from Ireland ; was with him when 
he disembarked on the Welsh Coast, where the seven gallant 
Cheshire men, John Legh, of Booths, Thomas Cholmondeley, 
Ralph Davenport, Adam Bostock, John Done, Thomas Beeston, 
and Thomas Holford, were waiting to receive him, each with 
seventy retainers, who acted as a body guard, and wearing on their 
shoulders the King's cognizance of the " white hart rising from the 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 

ground," and keeping watch over him with their battleaxes by night 
and by day. Whilst at Conway Castle, where Percy, Earl of 
Northumberland, had been sent by Bolingbroke to meet the ill- 
starred Richard, the keen eye of Stanley discerned the catastrophe 
that was impending. Alarmed by the position or, as is more 
probable, influenced by baser motives he deserted his sovereign 
and made his submission to the victorious Lancastrian. Ingratitude 
and treason were combined in this the first of the political trans- 
actions which enriched the Stanleys of Lancashire. As a reward for 
his treachery, he was sent back to Ireland in the capacity of Lord 
Lieutenant under the new King, and on his return, after two years' 
service, his elder brother, Sir William, of Hooton, who, as we have 
seen, accompanied him, remained as his deputy. The second revolt 
of the Percies against the sovereignty of Henry of Lancaster, in 
1405, gave him the opportunity of further advancement. In that 
year he had a commission, in conjunction with Roger Leke, to seize 
the city of York and its liberties, and also the Isle of Man, a 
possession of the Percies. Scrope, Archbishop of York, had joined 
with Lord Mowbray in raising an army against the King, professedly 
for the reform of abuses) but in reality to place the Earl of March 
upon the throne. The two chief conspirators were entrapped by 
Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland the Westmoreland who 
figures so prominently in Shakespeare's King Henry IV. and 
beheaded, though Judge Gascoigne refused to sanction the Arch- 
bishop's execution on the plea that the lay courts had no jurisdiction 
over a prelate ; and when the Pope issued a temporary sentence of 
excommunication against all concerned in his death, the King, in 
a facetious spirit, sent the Archbishop's armour to his Holiness, and 
charged the messenger to deliver it with the words of Joseph's 
brethren : " Lo ! this have we found ; know now whether it be thy 
son's coat or no." In the following year the Isle of Man, which 
had been forfeited by Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, was 
given to him for life, but subsequently he obtained a grant to hold 
the island in perpetuity, with the Castle and Pile, anciently called 
Holm Town, and all the isles adjacent, as also all the legalities, 


County Families of 

franchises, &c., to be holden of the King, his heirs, and successors, 
by homage, and the service of two falcons payable on the days of 
their coronation. By this grant the Stanleys obtained an absolute 
jurisdiction over the soil, and became, with the exception of a few 
baronies, immediate landlords of every estate in the island, a semi- 
regal position which, save a brief interregnum during the Common- 
wealth period, they retained until the death, without male issue, of 
James Stanley, in 1736, when ihe lordship passed to the House of 
Athole, James Murray, the second duke, being descended from 
a daughter of James the Seventh, Earl of Derby. Thirty years later 
the Lady Charlotte Murray, Duchess-Dowager of Athole, sold her 
rights in the sovereignty of the island to the British Government for 
,70,000 and an annuity of 2,000, reserving, however, the title 
of the Lordship of Man, the manorial rights of mines, minerals, 
and treasure trove, and the patronage of the bishopric, an arrange- 
ment that continued until 1825, when her son John, fourth Duke 
of Athole, sold " the whole of his remaining interest in the island for 
the sum of ^416,114, and then the Island of Man became entirely 
and definitely, with all the rights and privileges of royalty, vested in 
the British Crown." The authority exercised by the Stanleys in 
their little kingdom was very different in degree, if not in kind, from 
that of an ordinary feudal lord, and it waa possibly this sense of their 
power and importance that justified the habit in their own eyes of 
making alliances with their kings rather than keeping fealty to them. 
In the year in which the Sovereignty of Man was conferred upon 
him, Sir John Stanley had a licence granted to him a somewhat 
rare favour in those days to "fortify, with embattled walls," a 
" house of stone and lime which he had built at Liverpool," to 
i facilitate his communications with the Isle of Man. The Tower, as 
/ it was called, thus erected, stood at the foot of the present Water 
] Street, and abutted upon the Mersey. It continued for several 
generations the chief civic residence of the family, and, when 
forsaken by them, was used successively as an assembly-room and 
a prison; but evil days came upon it, and it was, in 1819, taken 
down. During the reign of Henry IV. a steady shower of benefac- 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 


tions descended upon the representative of the Lancashire Stanleys : 
the King made him treasurer of his household, and custodian of 
endless royal parks, and palaces, and castles ; and when he died, and 
his son, "Harry of Monmouth' 1 Shakespeare's "nimble-footed 
mad-cap Harry " succeeded as Henry V., he was made a Knight 
of the Garter, and appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland for six 
years, with almost regal powers. He landed in that country once 
more in October, 1413, but died on the 
6th January in the succeeding year while 
at Ardee ; his remains were brought to 
England and interred in the Priory of 
Black Canons, founded by one of the 
earlier lords of Lathom, at Burscough 
the first of the Stanleys buried there. Sir 
John was as successful in his matrimonial 
affairs as he was distinguished as a warrior 
and negotiator. In early life he married 
Isabel, the daughter and sole heir of Sir 
Thomas Lathom, lord of Lathom, whose 
ancestors had also been heir of Sir Thomas 
de Knowsley, lord of Knowsley, and thus, 
in right of his wife, he became master of the extensive estates 
around which his descendants' princely property has accreted. By 
the marriage with the heiress of Bamville, the Stanleys, as 
already remarked, acquired the three bucks' 
heads, which have continued ever since 
to be the distinguishing charge on their 
heraldic coat; and in like manner, by 
the marriage with the heiress of Lathom, 
they obtained the second coat in the 
first grand quarter of their achieve- 
ment or, on a chief indented azure, cmt , 
three bezants as well as the crest, which to the present 
day continues to surmount their arms the well-known Eagle and 
Child, described in heraldic language as on a chapeau gvles turned 

Sealof Sir Thomas tic Lathom, 

fattier of Isabel, wife of .S7r 

Jo/in Stanley, A".<;. 


County Families of 

Seal ofjahn de 

up ermine, an eagle with wings elevated or, preying upon an infant 
swaddled of the first, banded argent. The earliest example of the 
use of the Eagle and Child as a device that has yet been discovered 
is the impression of the signet of John de Stanley, chevr., the son, 
to a deed preserved among the muniments at Lyme, 
dated December 2oth, third Henry V. (1415), the 
year following the death of Sir John. Many are the 
stories that are told respecting Sir John's elopement 
with the heiress of Lathom, and great is the amount of 
legendary lore that gathers round the crest which he 
adopted in the lady's honour, though it must be con- 
fessed that much that has been said and written is incon- 
sistent with documentary evidence of the descents of the 
Lathoms existing. About the year 1562 Bishop Stanley issued some 
uncouth rhymes " touching ye House of Stanley." Mr. Roby has ex- 
panded the tradition into an interesting little romance; but perhaps the 
most curious version is that contained in Hawe's MSS., vol. ii., printed 
by the Lancaster Herald in the seventh vol. of the Journal of the 
British Archaeological Association. The curious who wish to know 

more respecting it will find much in- 
teresting information in the Miscellanea 
Palatina (1851), and in a contribution 
to Nichol's Collectanea, by the late Dr. 
Ormerod, the historian of Cheshire, 
whose researches have thrown much 
light on the early pedigree of the 
Lathoms. Sir John Stanley made a 
further addition to the paternal coat. 
When he obtained a grant of the Isle of 
Man, he, in right of his dominion, placed 
the arms of Man in the second and third grand quarters of his 
coat gules, three legs conjoined in the fesse point in armour proper, 
garnished and spurred or a right that was, however, challenged in 
the reign of Edward IV. by John, Lord Scrope, on the ground that 
his ancestors had been lords of Man, but he failed in depriving 

Anus of .!/. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 

Stanley of the coat, and was himself ordered to forbear its use. 
From Sir John the greatness of the Stanleys may be said to date 
and derive its origin. A knight sans ptur, if not sans reproche, he 
was a rare instance of a courtier who could carry himself through 
the varying vicissitudes of four successive reigns with ever-increasing 
prosperity, and without once sustaining a reverse. 

A .younger son of Sir John, Thomas Stanley, who is erroneously 
described in many of the pedigrees as a knight, married Matilda, 
sole daughter and heiress of Sir John Arderne, of Elford and 
Alford. In right of his wife he became lord of Elford and 
Alford, as also of Alderleigh the present Alderley and was 
founder of the Stanleys of Elford and the Stanleys of Pipe, in 
Staffordshire. The eldest son, also a Sir John, fully sustained the 
dignity of the family. He was Knight of the Shire for Lancaster, 
Justice of Chester, Constable of Caernarvon Castle, and Sheriff of 
Anglesea. He married a daughter of the great House of Haryng- 
ton, then one of the most powerful names in Lancashire, and thus 
became allied with the Nevilles, the Eeauforts, and other great 
governing families of the kingdom; and dying in 1431, left, in 
addition to two sons, Richard and Edward, who were successively 
archdeacons of Chester, Thomas, who became, as his grandfather 
had been before, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, a post he held for six 
years. He was a warrior as well as a negotiator, and, having served the 
offices of Comptroller of the Household and Chamberlain to King 
Henry VI., was chosen Knight of the Shire, had the Garter 
conferred upon him, and eventually (January 20, 1456) emerged 
from among the country gentry and was summoned to the House of 
Peers as Baron Stanley, a dignity that he did not, however, long 
enjoy, his death occurring three years later. Following the example 
of others of his kin, he sought out a heiress for a mate, and found 
a fitting wife in the person of Joan, a daughter and heir of Sir 
Robert Gowsell, or Goushill, of Hoveringham, in Nottinghamshire, 
the lady's mother being Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of Richard 
Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel, and consequently a representative in her 
person not only of the family de Albine, as well as that of the Earls 

County Families of 


of Warren, but of the blood royal of England, she being, moreover, 
widow of Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, who had been fully 
recognised by the Crown as a prince of the royal blood. This 
marriage brought another quartering to the Stanley shield, that of 

Warren chequy or and azure, which 
was borne as the third coat in the 
first grand quarter. 

It remained for the eldest son of 
Thomas, the first Lord Stanley, to 
carry the fortunes of the house to 
heights before unknown. Living in an 
age when the spirit of chivalry had given 
place to a policy of subtlety, and 
success depended less on strength of 
Arms a/ ii'arn-n. arm than astuteness of head, he ran a 

career of successful faithlessness that has scarcely a parallel in 
English history. Looking always to his own interest, fighting always 
for his own hand, and changing sides at his own discretion, but 
always changing to the dominant parly, he received, as the reward 
of his consummate tact, enormous royal grants, which went to swell 
the originally great possessions of his house ; and finally, by the 
boldest and most adroit stroke of his whole life, when the rival Roses 
met on the field of Bosworth, and he had beguiled both combatants 
with the promises of sympathy, after the fate of the battle was 
decided he went over to the side of the victor, and completed his 
services by placing the battered crown of the vanquished Richard 
upon the brow of the triumphant Richmond, in this way earning for 
himself and his descendants the Earldom of Derby. 

On the 22nd May, in the year preceding the grant of a barony to 
the Stanleys (1455), the streets of St. Albans witnessed the first 
great struggle between the Red and White Roses, that " convulsive 
and bleeding agony of the feudal power" which destroyed the 
power of the English nobility and well-nigh exhausted the nation. 
The first Lord Stanley was supposed to be an adherent of the 
House of Lancaster. His son, the second lord, pursued a course 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 15 

of watchful dexterity, remaining neutral when neutrality was deemed 
the safer policy, and casting in his lot with whichever side at the 
moment had the prospect of victory. He married Eleanor, 
daughter of Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, who commanded 
the Yorkists at the battle of Bloreheath, and the sister of the stout 
Earl of Warwick, " the king-maker," an alliance that naturally brought 
him under the suspicion of the Lancastrians. The Commons 
framed articles against him in the Parliament of 1459, which record 
a line ot conduct so precisely like that he afterwards pursued that 
the accusations may be accepted as substantially true. It war, 
alleged that he had refused to summon his retainers until the last 
moment, sending a variety of excuses for the delay, and that when 
he did at last take the field he halted his force at Newcastle-under- 
Lyme, six miles short of Bloreheath, and remained there three 
days until after the battle was ended, when, excusing himself to 
Queen Margaret, he marched home again with an unbroken army. 
The Royalist forces were defeated, and the night after the battle he 
wrote to the Earl of Salisbury, who led the victorious Yorkists, 
" thanking God for the good speed of the said earl," which was 
natural to his father-in-law, but adding that he " trusted to ( lod he 
should be with the earl in other places to stand him in as good 
stead as he should have done if he had been with him there " (i.e., 
at Bloreheath), which was treason. There is reason to believe that 
he had given the earl private assurance of his sympathy, and that 
he had, moreover, encouraged his tenants to serve under his brother 
William, who had "plucked the pale and maiden blossom," and 
declared himself upon the White Rose side. Notwithstanding his 
faithlessness, so plausible did he seem or, what is more probable, 
so powerful was he known to be that the King was advised to reject 
the Commons' impeachment with " Le Roi s'aviseraf and it is a fact 
worthy of note that throughout that frightful struggle no battle was 
fought in Lancashire, neither Lancastrian nor Yorkist, as it would 
seem, caring to make an enemy of the powerful head of the House 
of Stanley, whom the people would always follow. The victor)- at 
Bloreheath was short lived, but the battle at Northampton, in J uly 


County Families of 

of the following year, restored the fortunes of the Yorkists. Queen 
Margaret sought safety in flight, and when near Chester, with her 
son, the young Prince of Wales, had a narrow escape from capture 
by a retainer of the House of Stanley. When, after the bloody 
battle at Towton, on that terrible Palm Sunday in 1461, Edward 
of York was borne to the throne upon the shoulders of the people, 
the Lord of Knowsley and Lathom declared himself a supporter of 
the King de facto, notwithstanding that the Rolls of Parliament 
(Rotuli Parliamentamni, v. 352) bore witness that a few months 
before " Dominus Stanley " was one of the peers who took a 
solemn oath of allegiance to King Henry. With his usual 
cautiousness, however, he contrived to keep neutral between the 
factions into which the dominant party was split. 

On the ist of January, in the first year of the new King's reign, 
he was made Justice of Chester for life, Sir John Nedeham acting as 
his deputy ; but, though in the confidence of the sovereign, he 
appears, for a time at least, to have prudently refrained from 
meddling with the affairs of State. Those who had opposed the 
new dynasty had an unpleasant time of it, and for a year or two 
Lancastrian peers, knights, and esquires fell "thick as autumn 
leaves." In 1464, Edward, with rash impulsiveness, contracted a 
marriage with Elizabeth Wydville, the youthful widow of a 
Lancastrian knight who had fallen in the second battle of St. 
Albans Sir John Grey, Lord Ferrers of Groby. Honours and 
riches were showered by the King upon his wife's relations. Lord 
Stanley was at the time busily engaged in seeking a suitable match 
for his eldest son, and, with an eye to the future interests of his 
heir, made choice of a daughter of the new Queen's sister, Joan, 
daughter and heir of John, Lord Strange of Knockyn, by his wife 
Jacquctta, daughter and co-heir of Richard Wydville, and the 
co-heiress of the Barony of Mohun, an alliance that not only 
brought the Stanleys in closer alliance with the Crown, but added 
to their honours the Barony of Strange of Knockyn, which 
continued to be held by the head of the house until the death of 
Ferdinando, the fifth Earl of Derby, in 1594, when it fell into 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 17 

abeyance, to be revived in the person of James, the seventh earl, in 
1627, devolving eventually on the ducal house of Athole. The rise 
of the Wydvilles provoked the animosity of the " king-maker." The 
wary Stanley, foreseeing that the estrangement would ripen into open 
hostility, while ready to profit by his son's marriage, was too astute 
to compromise himself with either faction, and when Warwick and 
Clarence rose in revolt, threw away the badges of the White Rose, 
and shouted "God bless King Henry," he consulted his own 
interests by remaining neutral, and though strongly urged by his 
brother-in-law, Warwick, who visited him at Manchester for the 
purpose, he resisted his importunities, and refused to strike a blow 
for King or king-maker. When, however, Edward had been driven 
into exile, he was ready to accompany the Bishop of Winchester to 
release the captive Henry from his keepers in the Tower, and 
convey him, " with great pomp, and appareled in a long gown of blue 
velvet," through the streets of London to the Palace of Westminster, 
when he was restored to the Crown ; and a few months later, when 
fortune had given another turn to her wheel when the " last of the 
barons" had sunk overpowered on the field of Barnet, and the 
merry peals that rang out from the bell-towers of London told that 
the victorious Edward was again in possession of the throne he 
reappeared at Court at the sovereign's right hand, rose rapidly 
in favour, and was advanced to the confidential office of Steward of 
the King's Household. In that capacity he, in 1475, accompanied 
his master in the foolish expedition that had for its object the 
recovering of the lost conquest of France, but which ended in the 
King's returning to an indignant people with a disappointed army, 
bribes and cajoleries, heartless compacts and hollow friendships, 
having taken the place of the ancient chivalrous grandeur of 

Seven years later the country was in a state of commotion. 
Edward had quarrelled with James III. of Scotland, and concluded 
an alliance with the Duke of Albany, the brother of the Scottish 
King, who was then aspiring to the royal authority, and had agreed 
to hold Scotland as a fief of England in return for the support that 

1 8 County Families of 

had been promised him. The Duke of Gloucester so soon to 
become Richard III. who was Lord of the Marches, had the chief 
command of the invading force, and marched northwards. The 
wily chief of the House of Lathom commanded the right wing, some 
4,000 strong, composed chiefly of Lancashire bowmen, who were 
ever ready to follow the standard of " the bird and baby," or " brid 
and babby," as they in their dialect phrased it. By August they 
had reached the old border town which overlooks the estuary of the 
silvery Tweed, and the scene of so many stirring events Berwick, 
which the " meek usurper," Henry VI., had surrendered when he 
fled to Scotland after his defeat at Towton. The town quickly 
yielded, but as the Castle held out, Gloucester, unwilling to lose 
time, marched northwards towards Edinburgh, leaving Lord Stanley 
and his force to prosecute the siege. On the 24th of August the 
garrison capitulated, and from that time to the present Berwick has 
remained severed from the sister kingdom. Had Gloucester had 
much discernment, he might, during that expedition, have discovered 
how little reliance was to be placed on the fidelity of a Stanley. 
Tradition says that cither in going or returning dissensions and 
jealous bickerings arose between the two commanders ; the spirit of 
hostility spread to the ranks of their respective followers, and several 
affrays occurred between Gloucester's and Stanley's men, in one 
of which, near Salford Bridge, the latter had the best of it, and 
succeeded in capturing one of Gloucester's banners, an incident thus 
commemorated in Glover's rhyming chronicle : 

Jack of Wigan, he did take 

The Duke of Gloucester's banner, 
And hung it up in Wigan Church, 

A monument of honour. 

Before another year had rolled round, Edward, who had become 
enfeebled in mind and body by long indulgence in every excess, 
died, as was surmised, of over-eating, and with his decease a new 
and eventful chapter was opened in English history. Prior to this, 
Lord Stanley, who, about the year 1472, became a widower, 
had taken to himself another wife in the person of Margaret, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 19 

daughter and sole heir of John Beaufort, a great grand- 
daughter of John of Gaunt, and the widow of Edmund, Earl 
of Richmond, half-brother of Henry VI., the earl's mother being 
Katharine of Valois, the daughter of Charles VI. of France, 
who married Sir Owen Tudor after the death of her first hus- 
band, Henry V. The marriage probably took place in 1473, 
for in that year they both obtained from the Priory of Durham 
letters of fraternity, in which she is described as Lord Stanley's 
wife.* This was alike the boldest and the most adroit stroke in 
Lord Stanley's life. Though nominally a Yorkist, he had espoused 
the mother of the new Lancastrian chief, and thus guaranteed 
himself on both sides. The lady was then forty years of age, or 
more, and it may be inferred that the marriage was as much one of 
mutual convenience as of mutual affection. Lord Stanley obtained 
what he desired a wife with great territorial possessions, and the 
widow of Sir Owen Tudor secured in her husband a powerful 
protector, high in favour with the King. 

A passion for the austerities of conventual life was then widely 
developed. Lady Stanley's mind seems to have turned towards 
seriousness, if not to sadness, and, influenced by the spirit of the 
age, she became imbued with strong religious feelings, which led 
her to devote herself to works of charity, the encouragement of 
learning and literature, and the contemplation of heavenly things. 
Though she did not actually quit the world lor the shadow of the 
cloister, her piety was unquestionably of an ascetic kind, as 
evidenced by the statement of her father-confessor, Fisher, Bishop 
of Rochester, that "long time before that he (T.ord Stanley) died 
she obtained of him (the bishop) license, and promised to live 
chaste in the hands of the reverend father my Lord of London, 

* Letters of fraternity were, in that age of vicarious religion, in great 
favour, and accounted as a kind of amulet. Sometimes they were granted 
to a single person, and at others, as in Lord Stanley's case, they included 
husband and wife. The holders were made partakers of the spiritual 
privileges of the fraternity, and had the benefit of the masses, prayers, 
fastings, watchings, and labours of the members. 


Co^lnty Families of 

which promise she renewed after her husband's death (1504) into 
my hands again." 

The body of King Edward was buried in St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor, where, afterwards, that of his ill-starred rival, Henry VI., 
was removed, so that 

Blended lie th' oppressor and th' opprest. 

Lord Stanley hastened to London, and was present at the funeral, 
having thus an advantage over the Duke of Gloucester, who was 
in the North at thj time, employed on the Scotch marches, but who 
is said to have entered York with a train of six hundred knights and 
esquires to celebrate the obsequies of the departed King, and swear 
fealty to his successor, Edward V., a statement that is, however, 
open to doubt, there being no mention of such a ceremony in the 
"Records" of that ancient city. The death of the King led to a 
great political convulsion. There were three parties in the State, 
each striving to outmanoeuvre the other, and each equally ready to 
perpetrate any act of treachery and bloodshed in the accomplish- 
ment of their purpose. Gloucester, who had caused himself to be 
made Protector, took the initiative, and struck the first blow. 
Wydville, Earl Rivers, the new King's half-brother, was seized, 
with his kinsman, Richard, Lord Grey, and Sir Thomas Vaughan, 
and sent prisoner to Pontefract Castle the same Pontefract where, 
before, Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, had been beheaded, and within 
whose walls Richard II. fell beneath the murderous battleaxe ol 
Piers Gaveston all three, without legal trial, being executed by 
Gloucester's order, a scene described by Shakespeare, who puts the 
following words into the mouth of Rivers : 

O Pomfret, Pomfret ! O thou bloody prison, 
Fatal and ominous to noble peers ! 
Within the guilty closure of thy walls, 
Richard the Second here was hack'd to death ; 
And, for more slander to thy dismal seat, 
We give thee up our guiltless blood to drink. 

King Richard III., Act. Hi., Sc. 3. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 21 

On the fall of the Wydvilles and the party of the Queen Mother, 
Lord Stanley joined himself with Lord Hastings, the two, with the 
Archbishops of Canterbury and York, and Morton, Bishop of Ely 
forming a kind of cabal at Ely House, loyal to the King, though 
hostile to the pretensions of the dowager Queen, and distrustful of 
the Gloucester and Buckingham faction, which had its meeting 
place at Crosby Hall, and there held the councils which More 
says Stanley so " much mislikcd.'' It was a hazardous game he 
played, and, if tradition may be believed, he was not unconscious of 
the risk incurred, for it is said he warned Hastings of coming 
danger by relating a dream of a boar the cognizance of Gloucester 
that had gored both their shoulders. Shakespeare had evidently 
heard the story, and thus rei>eats it : 

Before Lord Hastings' House. 
Enter a Messenger. 

Mess, (knocking). My lord ! my lord ! 
Hast, (within). Who knocks ? 
Mess. One from the Lord Stanley. 
Hast, (within). What is 't o'clock ? 
Mess. Upon the stroke of four. 

Enter Hastings. 

Hast. Cannot my Lord Stanley sleep these tedious nights ? 
Mess. So it appears by what I have to say. 

First, he commends him to your noble self. 
Hast. What then ? 
Mess. Then certifies your lordship that this night 

He dreamt the boar had razed off his helm : 

Besides, he says there are two councils held ; 

And that may be determin'd at the one, 

Which may make you and him to rue at th' other. 

Therefore he sends to know your lordship's pleasure, 

If you will presently take horse with him. 

And with all speed post with him towards the North, 

To shun the danger that his soul divines. 

King Richard III., Act Hi., Sc. 2. 

It was not long ere the prediction was fulfilled. On the i3th 
June occurred that wonderful scene which, first painted by More, 
has been reproduced by Shakespeare in imperishable colours. A 


County Families of 

council had been summoned in the Tower to arrange the solemnity 
of the Coronation of Edward. Stanley and Hastings were present, 
with the Bishop of Ely, "who had very good strawberries at his 
garden at Holborn." At a given signal from Gloucester, a body of 
armed men rushed into the council-room, seized Hastings, and 
hurried him away to execution, the Protector having declared that 
he " would not to dinner until he had seen his head off." Sir 
Thomas More says that in the melee "another let fly at the Lord 
Stanley, which shrunk at the stroke and fell under the table, or 
else his head had been cleft to the teeth ; for, as shortly as he 
shrank, yet ran the blood about his ears." Stanley was kept 
prisoner in the Tower, but his usual luck attended him. Gloucester 
visited him, set him free, and ere a month had passed he stood 
beside the usurper at Westminster, a trusty councillor, bearing the 
mace, while the circle and symbol of sovereignty was placed on 
Richard's head, his countess, "my Lady of Richmond," at the same 
time bearing the Queen's train. On that day he was constituted 
one of the commissioners for executing the office of Lord High 
Steward of England, and before the close of the year he had been 
invested with the Order of the Garter and made Constable of 
England for life. Kings and dynasties might rise and fall, but, by a 
singular dispensation of Fate, the luck of the Stanleys seemed to be 
ever in the ascendant. 

After the Coronation, and while, as popular tradition persistently 
affirms, the young princes were being disposed of in the Tower, 
Richard made a triumphant progress to the North. Stanley 
accompanied him, and on reaching York the King was greeted with 
a splendid reception by the citizens, Yorkshiremen contending to 
this day that on the occasion he and his Queen were re-crowned in 
their Minster. All seemed to promise a reign of peace and security, 
however troubled might have been its beginnings. It was, how- 
ever, but the calm presaging the coming storm. While Richard 
and Lord Stanley were being feted by the citizens of York a deep 
game was being played by the adherents of the Red Rose. 
"High-reaching Buckingham," envious of the success of Richard, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 23 

began to plot for his overthrow. Communications passed between 
him and the Countess of Richmond Lord Stanley's wife with the 
avowed object of placing her son, Henry of Richmond, upon the 
throne, and messengers passed to and fro between the countess and 
her son, who was then an attainted exile in Brittany. Lancashire 
was in a state of ferment, and there is extant a letter written at the 
time by Edward Plumpton, the secretary of Lord Stanley's eldest 
son, Lord Strange, which gives a curious side-glance at the con- 
dition of things. Writing from Lathom on the i8th October, 1483, 
the day fixed by Buckingham for the uprising, he says : " People 
in this country be so troubled in such commandment as they have 
in the King's name and otherwise, marvellously that they know not 
what to do. My Lord Straung goeth forth from Lathom upon 
Monday next with x.m. (ten thousand) men, whether we cannot 
say. The Duke of Buckingham has so many as yt," he significantly 
adds, " (it) is sayd here that he is able to go where he wyll, but I 
trust he shall be right withstanded, and all his malice and els were 
great pyty." (Plumpton Papers, pp. 44-5, Camden Soc.) 

A week before that letter was written Richard was fully aware of 
Buckingham's intention. By his energetic action the revolt was 
quickly suppressed, and Richmond, whose fleet had been scattered 
by a storm, thought it prudent to return without attempting to land 
his men. Had Lord Stanley's stepson been able to join his forces 
with those of Buckingham, on which side would his son, Lord 
Strange, have led his 10,000 men? Mr. Secretary Plumpton was 
sorely perplexed, and could not tell ; but King Richard must have 
had little doubt upon the subject if, as is alleged, he insisted that 
Lord Strange should remain in his hands as a hostage. It was a 
suspicious case, but if the King had cause for distrust, Stanley, in 
the long run, had cause for satisfaction. His wife was implicated 
in the abortive insurrection, but as he had prudently kept in the 
background, he could not be directly impeached, and with his 
customary good fortune he managed to profit by the transaction, 
for on the day that Buckingham's head rolled away from the axe 
Richard bestowed upon him " the Castle and Lordship of Kimbol- 

24 County Families of 

ton, late belonging to the great rebel and traitor, Humphrey Stafford, 
Duke of Buckingham," An Act of Parliament was passed against 
the Countess of Richmond, which set forth that 

Forasmuch as Margaret Countesse of Richmond, mother to the Kyngs 
greate Rebelle & Traytour, Henry Erie of Richemond, hath of late 
conspired, confedered & committed high Treason agenst oure Soveraigne 
Lorde the King Richard the Third, in dyvers & sundry wyses, & in 
especiall in sendying messages, writyngs, & tokens to the said Henry 
desirying, procuryng, & stirryng hym, by the same, to come into this 
Roialme, & make Werre agenst oure said Soveraigne Lorde ; to the 
which desyre, procuryng, & stirrynge the said Henry applied hym, as it 
appereth by experience by hym late shewed in that behalf. Also the said 
Countesse made chevisancez of greate somes of money, as well within the 
Citee of London, as in other places of this Roialme to be employed to the 
execution of the said Treason & malicious purpose ; & also the said 
Countesse conspired, confedered & imagyned the destruction of oure 
said Soveraigne Lorde, &. was assentyng, knDwyng, & assistyng Henry, late 
Duke of Buckyngham. 

The punishment for " high Treason agenst our Soveraigne Lorde 
the King" was, of course, public execution, but Richard, "of his 
grace and favour," as he alleges, but more probably from fear of 
the power wielded by the Countess's husband, remitted the death 
penalty, considering " the good and faithful service that Thomas, 
Lord Stanley, had done, and intendeth to do, and for the good love 
and trust that the King hath in him, for his sake remitted, and will 
forbear to her the great punishment of attainder of the said 
Countess" (Rotuli Parliamentorum, vi. 250). At the same time 
he declared all her property forfeited to the Crown, whether in fee- 
simple, fee-tail, or otherwise, though he considerately ordered that 
the forfeiture of her possessions should not be allowed to damage 
the interests of Lord Stanley. The concession was of little avail, 
and did not make either Lord Stanley or the countess one whit 
more loyal to the reigning sovereign. 

A year and a half rolled by, but the time was not idly spent by 
the enemies of Richard. Richmond was in France, where the 
preparations for invasion were busily pushed forward ; in England 
there was a secret but systematic organisation of the Lancastrian 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 25 

party, which the King, with all his penetration and caution, failed to 
guard against. Stanley could command many followers in Lancashire 
and Cheshire ; he was nominally for the King, and employed his 
authority as the sovereign's accredited officer, but at the very time 
he was pledged to Richmond's cause, and, as Steward of the King's 
Household, was sending him information of all Richard's plans. 
The confidence that Richard reposed in his fidelity, remembering 
his antecedents, savoured of judicial blindness, very different from 
the supposed temper of the man who, " while he was thinking of 
any matter, did continually bite his nether lip, as though that cruel 
nature of his did so rage against itself in that little carcase." By a 
strange infatuation Richard empowered Lord Stanley to raise an army 
in Lancashire and Cheshire. At the beginning of the year (1485) 
commissions were issued calling upon " all knights, squires, gentle- 
men, and all others the King's subjects" in the two counties to give 
their attendance upon Lord Stanley, his son, Lord Strange, and his 
brother, Sir William Stanley (of Holt), " to do the King's (I race 
service against his rebels in whatsoever place within this Royaume 
(realm) they fortune to tarry." He thus placed in the hands of the 
man of whose fidelity he had the greatest cause for suspicion the 
power of deciding a battle on the result of which depended a 
kingdom. It is said that he had some misgivings, inasmuch as that 
when Lord Stanley, in the summer, left the Court to go into 
Lancashire, he made it a condition that he should send Lord 
Strange to remain as a hostage in his hands. The circumstance is 
thus referred toby a contemporary writer, the Croyland Chronicler : 
" Thomas Stanley, Steward of the King's Household, had received 
permission to go into Lancashire to visit his house and his family, 
from whom he had long been separated. Still, however, he was 
permitted to stay there on no other condition than that of sending 
his eldest son, George, Lord Stanley (Strange ?), to the King at 
Nottingham in his stead, which he accordingly did." That the 
condition was observed we may venture to doubt, the positive 
statement of the Chronicler notwithstanding, for in Mr. Beamont's 
"Annals of the Lords of Warrington" (C/iet. Soc., v. Ixxxvii., p. 


County Families of 

343-4) reference is made to a deed in which Thomas Butler, of 
Bewsey, made a settlement of his estates. It is dated at Bewsey, 
July i8th, 3 Richard III. (1485), within three weeks of the 
successful landing of Richmond, and only five from the day on 
which the battle of Bosworth was fought, and is witnessed (inter alia) 
by Thomas, Lord Stanley, and his son George, Lord Strange ; and 
among the Lilford muniments is another deed of a similar 
character, dated at Lathom two or three weeks later, in which the 
same names occur as witnesses. It is therefore inconceivable that 
Lord Strange could, on the eve of the second outbreak, have been 
a hostage in the keeping of Richard. 

On the ist August Richmond set sail from Harfleur ; on the 
iyth of the same month he had landed at Milford Haven, where, 
well-nigh a century before, Richard II. had landed to lose a crown. 
Richard, who had taken up a position at Nottingham, in the centre 
of his kingdom, was taken by surprise, but on hearing the news 
he immediately ordered Lord Stanley to his aid, but his lordship 
found it inconvenient to comply with the command, and pleaded 
" sweating sickness " as the cause of his refusal. The old chronicler 
records that soon afterwards Lord Strange made an unsuccessful 
effort to escape. He was captured and brought back, when he 
confessed his father's treason, and prayed for mercy, pledging 
himself that the Stanleys should abandon their designs; and it is 
added that Richard, who did not want to make an inveterate enemy 
of the father, contented himself by placing the son under ward. 
The story has been oftentimes told, and has gained credence by 
reason of its frequent repetition ; but, for the reasons already 
assigned, it is doubtful if Lord Strange was ever near the King ; 
the evidence goes to show that he was at the time in his father's 
hall at Lathom safe and sound, and probably watching for the turn 
of Fortune's wheel before committing himself finally to one side or 
the other. Shakespeare has improved upon the story by repre- 
senting Richard, on receiving Lord Stanley's refusal, as ordering the 
execution of Lord Strange : 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 27 

Enter a Messenger. 

K. Richard, What says Lord Stanley ? will he bring his powers ? 
Mess. My lord, he doth deny to come. 
K. Richard. Off with his son George's head ! 
Norfolk. My lord, the enemy is pass'd the marsh. 

After the battle let George Stanley die. 

On the 2oth August Richard marched at the head of his army 
from Nottingham to Leicester, where, at the " Blue Boar" (then 
called the " White Boar " Richard's cognizance) he lay the night. 
The next morning, Sunday, he passed over Bow Bridge, and advanced 
to the Abbey of Miravale, about three miles south of Market Bos- 
worth, encamping for the night on the south-western slope of an 
eminence called Anbeame, or Amyon Hill, where, during Richard's 
slumbers, passed the procession of the ghosts of the murdered that 
will not be forgotten by the readers of Shakespeare. Richmond had 
crossed the Severn at Shrewsbury, and reached Atherstone, a few 
miles off, on the same day, having had a conference at Stafford with 
Sir William Stanley, when it was agreed that the Stanleys should 
move towards Richard's camp, as if for his support. On the fol- 
lowing morning the two armies met on Redmoor Heath, and were 
put in array against each other, Lord Stanley looking down upon 
the fray with calculating judgment, beguiling both combatants with 
promises and assurances of sympathy, while waiting to see on which 
side victory was likely to fall. At ten o'clock, while the sun, mount- 
ing high in the heavens, flashed on pike, and corslet, and helm, and 
brightened every pennon that lagged in the lazy air, with a great 
shout and a rattling shower of arrows the fight began. " Lord ! 
how hastily," says Holinshcd, " the soldiers buckled their helmets 
how quickly the archers bent their bows and frushed their feathers 
how readily the billmen shook their bills and proved their staves, 
ready to approach and join when the terrible trumpet should sound 
the bloody blast to victory or death !" The Duke of Norfolk, who 
led the van of the royal army, singled out the Earl of Oxford, and 
engaged him in a personal encounter, for in those days the leaders 
deemed it a point of honour to fight hand to hand. His vizor was 
hewn off by a single blow, an arrow from a distance pierced his brain 

28 County Families of 

through his broken helmet, and he fell lifeless to the ground. The 
brave Surrey, hurrying up to avenge the death of his father, was 
overpowered by Sir John Savage, a Cheshire man, who led the left 
wing of Richmond's army, when he requested that his life might be 
taken to save him from dying by an ignoble hand. He was led to 
the rear, but lived to be the Surrey of Flodden Field, and the worthy 
transmitter of " all the blood of all the Howards." But the man 
whom Richard had loaded with favours deserted him in the hour of 
his need with a treachery that proclaimed the knell of chivalry was 
rung. Lord Stanley, who had held a secret interview with Rich- 
mond, stirred not a finger, nor moved a man, until the fate of the 
battle was decided, when he threw off his disguise, and charged 
boldly against his master on his stepson's side. No strategy could 
now be of avail, and, in the effort of despair, Richard made the final 
charge upon his rival. Descrying Richmond, he put spurs to his 
horse, and with lance in rest rushed towards him, when, in the nick 
of time, Sir William Stanley, '' with three thousand tall men," closed 
in, and Richard fell overpowered, with wounds enough to have let 
out a hundred lives, and murmuring with his last breath, " Treason ! 
Treason ! Treason !" The royal army without its head was but a 
rope of sand; and when the shout went up that Richard, King of 
England, had bitten the turf, his troops, three-fourths of whom were 
ready to side with the strongest, rushed in inglorious retreat, the 
victors following in hot pursuit. The fight lasted but two short 
hours, yet on the morrow many a whimpled dame mourned 
the loss of her belted lord, and many a sobbing Joan and 
village Winifred grieved for a husband and lover slain at Bosworth 

When the fight was ended, Lord Stanley, ever the faithful adhe- 
rent of the party of good luck, led Richmond the descendant of 
Cadwallader, King Arthur, and the Trojan Brute to the slope of 
the hill at Stoke Golding, ever after called Crown Hill. A knight 
handed him the battered circlet of gold which adorned the chapeau 
of estate Richard had worn upon his salade or head-piece, and, 
commanding the attendants to kneel, he placed it on the brow of the 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 29 

victorious earl,* proclaiming him at the same time "Conqueror and 

Courageous Richmond, well hast thou acquit thee ! 
Lo here, this long usurped royalty, 
From the dead temples of this bloody wretch 
Have I plucked off, to grace thy brows withal ; 
Wear it, enjoy it, and make much of it. 

Thus Thomas Stanley earned for himself and his descendants the 
Earldom of Derby, the patent for the new dignity bearing date 
October 27, three days before the King's coronation. 

By crooked means or straight the Stanleys had done great things 
for the new King, and Henry was not ungrateful. Besides his 
advancement in the peerage, Thomas Stanley had conferred upon 
him various forfeited estates, which, after the battle of Stoke Field, 
June 4th, 1487, were augmented by gifts of almost all the lands for- 
feited in the North, the originally great possessions of the family 
being swollen by the estates of Sir Thomas Broughton, of Brough- 
ton, who, with the Earl of Lincoln, had headed the insurrection in 
favour of the Pretender, Lambert Simnel ; of Sir James Haryngton, 
of Hornby ; of Francis, Viscount Lovel the "Lovel the Dog" of 
the whimsical jeu d' esprit which cost its author, William Colling- 
bourne, his life ; of Sir Thomas Pilkington, of Pilkington, including 
those inherited by descent from the heiress of Chatham everything, 
in fact, save the settled estates which descended from the Yerdons, 
and embracing the whole of the land now owned by the Stanleys in 
the Salford Hundred. He had also the estates of Pooton of Pooton, 
Bythom of Bythom, and Newby of Kirkby, all in Lancashire, " with 
at least twenty gentlemen's estates more." Among the Duchy 

*It is commonly said that Stanley placed the crown upon the head of the 
victorious Richmond, but it is an absurd mistake to suppose that Richard 
wore the royal crown upon his helmet during the battle ; he was too ex- 
perienced a soldier to put on such head gear, even supposing the crown 
could have been attached to his helmet. The story probably arose from his 
wearing a circlet of gold or some other distinguishing ornament of estate 
resembling a crown, such as was worn by Henry V. upon his helmet at the 
battle of Agincourt, and which then served to break the force of the stroke 
of the Duke of Alencon's battleaxe. 

30 County Families of 

Records is an enumeration of these estates, which includes, among 
others, Holland, Nether Kelleth, Halewood, Samlesbury, Pilkington, 
Bury, Cheetham, Cheetwood, Halliwell, Broughton-in-Furness, 
Bolton-in-Furness, Underworth, Shuttleworth, Shippelbotham, 
Middleton, Overesfield, Smithells, Selbethwaite, Tottington, Elswick, 
and Urswick; he had also a grant from the King of Burford St. 
Martin, in Wiltshire. On the day that Henry received the Crown at 
Westminster, October 3oth, Thomas, Earl of Derby, as he had then 
become, was appointed one of the commissioners for executing the 
office of Lord High Steward of England, and in the month of March 
following he had a grant of the great office of Constable of England 
for life. 

But the times were not free from trouble ; the political aspect 
was disturlx:d, and distrust sat beside the King upon his usurped 
throne. Faithless himself, he doubted the fidelity of those about 
him, and, his suspicions being raised, it was not long ere a prominent 
member of the House of Lathom fell from his high estate, and left 
the Stanleys a tragic tale to tell. Sir William Stanley, a younger 
brother of the earl of whom mention has been already made, and 
concerning whom we shall have more to say anon the rich and 
powerful knight who had saved the life of Henry at Bosworth Field, 
when the onslaught of Richard would have been fatal without his 
interposition was accused by Sir Robert Clifford, who had been 
acting as a spy, of favouring the pretensions of the new impostor the 
old Duchess of Burgundy had set up- Perkin Warbeck, the 
indubitable " White Rose " as he was declared to be and of having 
said that " were he sure that he was the son of Edward he would 
never fight against him." Stanley neither denied nor attempted to 
extenuate his fault, if fault it was, and, being adjudged guilty of 
treason, was sent to the block. Though the Earl of Derby was in 
no way implicated, the blow was indirectly aimed at the head of the 
great House of Lathom, and was doubtless intended by the King as 
a timely warning to the earl which, if rightly interpreted, might 
save him the unpleasant duty of administeiing the same sharp 
medicine to his mother's husband. 

Lancashire ana Cheshire. 31 

Sir William Stanley was executed on the i5th February, 1495. 
In July of the same year the King, apparently to make peace and 
outward manifestation of his confidence in the earl's fidelity, but in 
reality, as it would seem, to ascertain from personal observation in 
what heart the earl had taken his brother's tragic death, resolved 
on making " a progresse into Lancashire, there to make merrie with 
his moother, the Countesse of Derbie, which then laie at Lathome 
in the countrie " (Holinshed, v. iii., p. 510). Whatever may have 
been Lord Derby's feelings, he prudently resolved to sink the 
brother in the subject, and to receive and entertain his sovereign 
with befitting splendour and hospitality. 

Less favoured than Cheshire, Lancashire had but seldom 
been honoured with a visit from the sovereign, and still 
less frequently had it witnessed a royal visit of a peaceful and 
social character ; great was the bustle and excitement and vast 
the preparations that in consequence were made. The " progress " 
began on the 2oth June : on the zyth of July the King, with his 
Queen, Elizabeth of York, were the guests of the Abbot of Vale 
Royal. On the following day the journey was continued through 
Cheshire into Lancashire. It was a notable day for the people of 
the two counties, for the Mersey had to be crossed at Warrington, 
and the bridge which had formerly spanned the river having fallen 
into such a ruinous condition as to be useless, if indeed it had not 
disappeared altogether, the earl, in anticipation of the coming of 
his guests, had erected a substantial bridge in its place, which had ' 
the double advantage of serving as a memorial of the event and \ 
conferring a benefit on the inhabitants of both shires. The King 
and Queen were the first to pass over, and were received by the 
earl and a vast company of retainers and others in brave liveries, 
and wearing each the Stanley badge. Thence the royal party pro- 
ceeded to Winwick, where they were received by the rector, James 
Stanley, the earl's brother, afterwards Bishop of Ely ; and the same 
day reached Lathom, where was a great gathering to bid them 

In the accounts of the " privy purse expenses of Henry VII." 

32 County Families of 

the charges incurred on this journey are enumerated with great 
particularity, and the successive stages of the "progress," both going 
and coming, are marked with the King's accustomed precision. 
Some of the entries are sufficiently curious to warrant their reproduc- 
tion here. Thus we read : 

At Vaile Roiall Abbey. 

S. (1. 

To one that lepcd at Chestre, vj viij 

For the wages of eleven pety captanes for fourteen days, every of them 

(1. li. S. d. 

ix by day. v. xv vj 

li. s. d. 

For their conduyt money i ix iij 


To the wages of 149 fotemen for fourteen days, every of them vj by 

li. s. cl_ 

day, ci x vj 

li. 5. (1. 

To their conduyt money xxvj vi viij 
s. a. H. s. 

For 142 jackets, at i v the pece xiii xj 

s. li. s. 

To fifty-five crosset men, every of them i, ii xv 
July 28, at Whonwick (Winwick) 
20 (28?) at Lathom 

s. d. li. 

To Sir Richard Pole for 200 jacquetts, price of every pece i vj, xv 


For the wages of 100 horsemen for fourteen days, every of them ix by 

day. lii 

d. li. s. 

For their conduyt for three days, every of them ix by day, xi viij 


For the wages of 100 fotemen for fourteen days, every of them vj by 

day, xxv 

d. Ii. 

For their conduyt for four days, every of them vj by day, x 

s. d. 

To the women that songe before the Kinge and Quene in reward vi viij 
Aug. 3 at Knowsley 

4 at Warrington 

,, 5 at Manchestre 

6 at Maxfield, 8 at Newcastell, 10 at Stratford 

Though the Earl of Derby was willing to forget the circumstances 
under which his brother's head had fallen upon the scaffold on 
Tower Hill, there was one in his household whose memory was 
inconveniently retentive the fool, who, in virtue of his motley 
and his cap and bells, had " as large a charter as the wind " to 
sport his wit at whom he pleased ; and this worthy stands pro- 
minently out amid the splendours that marked the King's reception. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 33 

Bishop Kennett tells a notable tradition, which he says was believed 
in his day, " how Henry, after a view of Lathom, was conducted 
by the earl to the top of the leads for a prospect of the country. 
The earl's fool was in company, who, observing the King draw near 
to the edge of the leads not guarded with banisters, he stepped up 
to the earl, and, pointing down the precipice, said, 'Tom, remember 
Will ! ' The King understood the meaning, and made all haste 
down stairs and out of the house ; and the fool long after seemed 
mightily concerned that his lord had not courage to take the oppor- 
tunity of revenging himself for the death of his brother." 

On their way home the King and Queen visited Knowsley. They 
were there on the 3rd of August ; on the following day they 
proceeded to Warrington, where they remained the night ; on the 
5th the royal party proceeded towards Manchester, whence they 
continued their journey southward, arriving at Sheen, the present 
Richmond, October 3rd. 

A little more than two years after the King's visit to Lathom the 
earl had the misfortune to lose his eldest son, George, Lord Strange, 
whose death occurred December sth, 1497. His principal act of 
historical interest after the affair at Bos worth, when, as some 
chroniclers affirm, he so narrowly escaped the vengeance of Richard, 
was his gallantry at the battle of Stoke Field, near Newark, in 1487, 
when he was one of the commanders of Henry's army, under the 
Earl of Oxford, against De la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, and Lord 
Lovel, and for his services received, in addition to the lands previously 
enumerated as bestowed upon his father, a grant of the Manors 
of Hasill>eare, West Ludford, and Blackdon, in Somersetshire. The 
Earl of Derby must at that time have begun to feel the infirmities 
of age creeping upon him, and a few years later, thinking doubtless 
that his end was not far off, he, like a prudent man, set about [jutting 
his house in order. His will, in which he describes himself as Earl 
of Derby, Lord Stanley, Lord of Man, and Great Constable of 
England, bears date July 28th, 1504. In it he bequeaths a gold 
cup to the King ; legacies to various religious houses for masses for 
the repose of his soul and the souls of his kin ; " to the making of 

34 County Families of 

Garstang Bridge 20 marcs," and to the bridge he had built at 
Warrington 300 marcs (^200), to be employed in purchasing the 
rent and tolls, to the intent that the passage should be free for all 
people for ever ; and a further sum of 500 marcs (^333 6s. 8d.) 
for making up the said bridge, that no further toll or payment be 
there asked (Collins' Peerage, vol. iii., p. 62). His death must have 
occurre d shortly afterwards, for the will was proved on the 2gth of 
November, in the same year. He was buried by the side of his 
father at Burscough Abbey, to which house in his lifetime he had 
been a liberal benefactor. 

Thus passed away, at the rii>e age of seventy years or thereabouts, 
the first Stanley* Karl of Derby a man whose career was, perhaps, 
the most remarkable of that remarkable age, who, by what his 
friends railed wisdom and foresight, and his foes faithlessness and 
treason, did more than any other man of his time to bring about 
that change in the dynasty of England which led to the destruction 
of the feudal system, and the cffacemcnt of the old landmarks of 
English society, by building up the monarchy on the complete 
subjection of the aristocracy as a caste distinct from the people, 
and who was the chief instrument in putting an end to that pro- 
tracted struggle which, during the latter half of the fifteenth 
century, had filled the kingdom with commotion and drenched it 
with civil slaughter a struggle that, in the field and on the scaffold, 
had cost the lives of more than sixty princes of the royal family, 
above one half of the nobles and principal gentlemen, and above a 
hundred thousand of the common people of England. Living in 
a time of suspicion and distrust, of political turbulence and social 
vicissitude, of fierce factions and unstable dynasties, when property 
was unsecure and no man's head was safe, the chief of the House 

* In the reign of Stephen, Robert de Ferrers was created first Earl of 
Derby, but the title was forfeited by his descendant for complicity in the 
revolt under Simon de Montfort. There was a new creation, n Edward 
III. (1337-8), when Henry of Lancaster, grandson of Henry III., and the 
father of John of Gaunt, had the dignity conferred upon him ; the earldom 
passed to his grandson, who eventually ascended the throne as Henry IV., 
when the title became merged in the higher dignity of the crown. 

Lancashire and Cfteshire. 35 

of Stanley so contrived to order his ways that all through the 
incessant strife he never once incurred the penalties of treason, was 
always on the winning side, and not only saved his house, but may 
be said to be the only noble who came out of the conflict with 
added power and splendour. 

The Countess of Derby survived her husband little more than 
four years. Though, as already stated, imbued with strong religious 
feelings, and somewhat austere in her devotions, she was highly 
accomplished, of keen foresight and ability, and familiar with the 
ways of the world. There is little doubt she exercised a powerful 
influence over her lord, and it is very certain, her piety notwith- 
standing, that she was exacting in the ceremonial etiquette which she 
believed to be due to rank and station. She was a great patroness 
of learning, and her husband's halls of Lathom and Knowsley 
became a sort of acadcmus, where, with the wisdom of the ancients, 
the " well-born youths " she received might learn better wisdom 
than Athens ever knew. Of those who owed their learning to the 
countess and the teachers she employed, three names are especially 
deserving of mention : Hugh Oldham, who, mainly through her 
influence in later life, became Bishop of Exeter, and was the founder 
of the Manchester Free Grammar School ; William Smyth, who 
rose to be Bishop of Lincoln, and was one of the founders of 
Brasenose College, Oxford ; and Thomas Butler, who founded the 
Grammar School at Warrington. The countess further testified her 
zeal for learning by founding St. John's College, and endowing 
Christ Church, Cambridge, and providing the funds for the Lady 
Margaret Professorship of Divinity at Oxford and Cambridge, and 
for the Margaret Preachership at the last-named university. She 
died on the 3rd July, 1509, and is buried in Henry VII.'s Chapel 
in Westminster Abbey, beneath a stately altar-tomb enriched with 
her armorial insignia, and bearing a recumbent effigy, brass gilt and 
enameled. Her epitaph was written by Easmus, but her memory 
is still better preserved by the charities she bequeathed, and which 
are still distributed to the poor of Westminster in the Almonry. 
Dean Stanley spoke of her as " the most beautiful and venerable 
figure the Abbey contained." 

36 County Families of 

Of the brothers of the first Earl of Derby, mention has already 
been made of Sir William Stanley, the celebrated but unfortunate 
owner of Holt, whose life was as adventurous, his rise as rapid, and 
his career, with one single exception, as prosperous, as was the case 
with the earl himself. On the accession of Edward IV., in 1461, 
he was made Chamberlain of Chester, in reward for his services in 
having donned the White Rose and openly espoused the Yorkist 
cause. In 1483 Richard III. appointed him Justice of North 
Wales, and during the brief reign of that King he received, partly in 
exchange for money and other manors, but chiefly as a royal bounty, 
immense tracts of land in Cheshire and North Wales, including the 
Manor of Ridley, in Edesbury Hundred, which Leland says he 
"made of a poore hold place the fairest gentleman's house of al 
Chestreshyre." In 1485 lie was appointed, with his brother and 
nephew, on the Commission empowered to raise an army in 
Lancashire and Cheshire for the King's service, and we have seen 
how at Bosworth Field, in the same year, he led his three thousand 
northern followers against the King, and rescued Henry of Richmond 
when actually within reach of his enemy's sword, after Richard 
had slain Sir Charles Brandon, the standard bearer, and overthrown 
Sir John Chenie in single combat. He secured for himself all the 
riches and treasure which Richard had brought to Bosworth ; 
Henry's Parliament confirmed to him and his heirs all the lands he 
had previously received ; he was made Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
and, as a further honour, had the Garter conferred upon him. 
Lord Bacon says he was "the richest subject for value in the 
kingdom," having in his Castle of Holt, in Denbighshire, " 40,000 
marks in ready money and plate, besides jewels, household stuffs, 
stocks upon the ground, and other personal estate exceeding great. 
And for his revenue in land and fee, it was .3,000 a year old rent, 
a great matter in those times." He did not , however, attain the 
]>eerage, and when, as is alleged by Holinshed (viii., p. 509), he 
solicited the Earldom of Chester, which he considered his opulence 
and services entitled him to, it was refused. The story of his defec- 
tion, as related by Clifford, we have already told. Whether the 

Lancashire and ChcsJiire. 37 

accusation was well-founded or not has never been made clear, but 
Henry had one quality which obliterated from his mind all claims 
of ancient friendship. Stanley was enormously rich, and the King 
knew that when his head had rolled among the sawdust on the 
scaffold he would have the satisfaction of transferring forty thousand 
pounds of money and plate to his own treasury, and of securing to 
the Crown lands worth ,3,000 a year. The consciousness of this 
fact sealed the fate of Stanley. No intercession could avail. On 
the i6th February, 1495, his head was struck off, and Henry was 
free to gratify his unscrupulous passion for wealth. He was not, 
however, wholly wanting in generosity to the knight who had saved 
his life on the battlefield, for in his Privy Purse Expenses (Exccrpta 
Historic, p. 101), among other items of expenditure, are two or 
three entries of payments made on the last occasion in which friend- 
ship could be shown. Thus we read : 

/ s. (1. 

Money given to Sir Wm. Stanley at his execution 10 o o 

(Supposed to be a reward to the headsman.) 

Paid for Sir William Stanley's buryall at Syon* 15 19 o 

Paid to Simon Digby, in full payment for the buryall of 

Sir Wm. Stanley 200 

Sir William, who married Joyce, daughter to Edmund Charlton 
Lord of Powis, and widow to Sir John Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester, 
left an only son, named after his father, who died in 1498, leaving 
by his wife Jane, daughter and heiress of Sir Geoffrey Massey, of 
Tatton, a daughter, Joan, his sole heiress, who married, first John 
Ashton, and secondly Sir Richard Brereton, of Malpas, Knt. 

Sir John Stanley, the third son of Thomas, first Lord Stanley, and 
younger brother of the Earl of Derby, married Elizabeth, the only 
daughter and heir of Sir Thomas Weever, Lord of Weever and 
Alderley. This lady was under age at the time of her father's death 
and consequently became a ward of the King, who gave the disposal 
of her in marriage to his favourite, Thomas, Lord Stanley, and he 

* A convent of Bridgetine nuns, on the banks of the Thames, at Isleworth. 
Founded by Henry V., in 1414. 

County Families of 

made the most of the opportunity by marrying her to his third son, 
thus securing to him and his descendants a very handsome patrimony. 
From this marriage descend the Stanleys of Alderley, of whom we 
shall have more to say hereafter. James, the fourth and youngest 
son of Thomas, Lord Stanley, was admitted to orders on the 26th of 
August, 1458. He was installed Prebendary of Holywell, alias Fins- 
bury, in St. Paul's Cathedral, London. Twenty years later he was 
collated to the Archdeaconry of Chester (not Carlisle, as incorrectly 
stated by Brydges and Collins). On the ist of November, in the 
succeeding year (1479), he had the prebend of Durham in South- 
well Collegiate Church conferred upon him. In 1481 he exchanged 
his stall in St. Paul's with Ralph Langley for the Wardenship of 
Manchester, in which he was installed July 27 ; he held the Warden-' 
ship only for about four years, and died in 1485 or 1486. 

The Earl of Derby's first wife, the Lady Eleanor Neville, bore 
him, in addition to four daughters, six sons, three of whom, however, 
died in infancy; the eldest, George, Lord Strange, attained to manhood, 
but preceded his father to the grave, and Edward and James alone 
survived. Edward was twice married, his first wife being Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Vaughan, a Breconshire knight ; at her 
death, he took to wife Anne, one of the two daughters and co-heirs of 
Sir John Haryngton, of Hornby, by whom alone he had issue. 
This second marriage was brought about by an arrangement not un- 
common in those days, by which the hands of young heiresses were 
disposed of without their likes or dislikes being considered as of any 
account. Sir John Haryngton and his father, Sir Thomas, were both 
at Bloreheath, fighting on the White Rose side, and, being captured, 
were for a time in the custody of Lord Stanley. Having obtained 
their liberty, they appeared in arms again with the Yorkist forces 
at Wakefield Green, December 3ist, 1460, when both fell fighting 
together. John Haryngton left two daughters, Anne and Elizabeth, 
his co-heirs, who at the time of his death were of the ages respectively 
of nine and eight years. Their uncle, Sir James Haryngton, took 
forcible possession of Hornby, with the intention of depriving them 
of their heritage ; but on an appeal to the Court of Chancery he was 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 39 

removed and committed to the Fleet, they, with the custody of 
their estates and their disposal in marriage, being given by the King 
to his favourite, Lord Stanley, who, with a generous regard for the 
interests of those of his own house, gave the eldest in marriage to his 
widowed son, Sir Edward, and her younger sister to his nephew, 
John Stanley, of Melling. 

This was the Sir Edward Stanley who won such glory for his 
house at Flodden Field. He was a soldier from his youth up, and 
had early gained the favour of the King, whose greeting when they 
met was, "Ho! my soldier!" "The cam])," it is said, "was his 
school, and his learning the pike and sword." In 1513, while Henry 
VIII. was besieging Terouenne, the Scottish King, James IV., 
thinking it a favourable opportunity to make a descent upon England, 
mustered a large force, crossed the Tweed, and laid waste some of the 
Border strongholds. The report of this plundering raid fired the 
ardour of the English people, and when the war-note was sounded 
Sir Edward Stanley summoned his followers and prepared himself 
for the field. The bowmen of Lancashire and Cheshire, mustering 
under the banners of their respective leaders, marched northwards to 
meet the Scottish King, and on reaching Hornby were placed under 
the command of Sir Edward : 

From Lancashire, and Cheshire, too, 

To Stanley came a noble train 
To Hornby, from whence he withdrew, 

And forward set with all his train. 

* * * # 

Sir Edward Stanley, stiff in stour,* 

He is the man on whom I mean, 
With him did pass a mighty pow'r 

Of soldiers seemly to be seen. 

This host marched on until, on the 8th September, the two armies 
met on the banks of the Till, a branch of the Tweed that flows by 
the foot of the Cheviot Hills. The Earl of Surrey, who had been 
entrusted by the Queen Regent with the command, placed one of 

* Stour, i.e., fight. 

4 o 

County Families of 

the divisions under the leadership of Sir Edward. The fight began 
about four o'clock on the following day, and was continued with un- 
flinching obstinacy and varying success, until eventually the Scottish 
ranks were thinned by the murderous discharges of the English 
archers. Their King, surrounded by a strong body of knights, fought 
on foot, and seeing the English standard almost, as he thought, 
within his grasp, he marched with steady step to secure it. It was the 
agony and very turning point of the contest, for at the same moment 
Sir Edward Stanley, heading the Lancashire and Cheshire bowmen, 
led the famous charge up the hill, which Scott has enshrined in 

imperishable verse 

Victory ! 

Charge, Chester, charge ! On, Stanley, on ! 
Were the last words of M.irmion. 

It turned the fortunes of the day. The shock was irresistible, and the 

Scottish force fell into disorder ; 10,000 of the bravest of Scotia's 
warriors were slain, and her King fell a life- 
less corpse almost within a spear's length of 
the feet of Surrey. The English loss was 
also very severe, the number slain being 
estimated at 7,000. As a reward for his 
services, Edward Stanley was created in the 
following year Lord Monteagle, and by that 
title had summons to Parliament and was 
made a Knight of the darter, the story being 
that it was to his exploit in gaining the hill, 
and there vanquishing those opposed to him, 

and to the crest of the Stanleys that the title Mount Eagle- 

was given ; and the eagle's claw and the motto 

(sword and glove) appear on the north-east of the old keep of 
Hornby to the present day. 

This scion of the House of Stanley filled a large space in the 

Lancashire and Cheshire, 

history of his time. " Twice," it is recorded, " did he and Sir 
John Wallop penetrate, with only 800 men, into the very heart of 
France ; and four times did he and Sir Thomas Lovell save Calais 
the first time by intelligence, the second by stratagem, the third 
by their valour and undaunted courage, and the fourth by their 
unwearied patience and assiduity." It is also said that in 1536, "in 
the dangerous insurrection by Aske, the captain-general of the 
Pilgrims of Grace, and Captain Cobler, his zeal for the prince's 
service and the welfare of his country caused him to outstrip his 
sovereign's commands by 
putting himself at the head 
of his troops without the 
King's commission, for which 
dangerous piece of loyalty he 
asked pardon, and received 

Tradition has busied itself 
considerably with the name 
of the hero of Flodden, and 
there have not been wanting 
rumours that the Honour of 
Hornby, with other lands of 
the Haryngtons, were unfairly come by, the 
popular belief being that John Haryngton, 
a cousin of the Lady Anne, was poisoned 
at the instigation of Sir Edward Stanley, 
for fear of his succeeding, as true heir-male, 
to the Hornby estates. Dr. Whitaker, in 
his History of Richmondsliire, favours the 
popular idea ; it is true there was much litigation and no little 
diplomatising, but there exists a large amount of documentary 
evidence that goes against the suspicion. Lord Monteagle was 
accounted a materialist and freethinker, and in that superstitious 
age was commonly believed to hold secret communings with things 
of evil ; but whatever his views might have been concerning religion, 

Tower, llornl'y Castle. 

42 County Families of 

there is ample proof that he died in the full recognition of the 
Christian faith. The year following the victory at Flodden, in 
gratitude of his success, he erected the church at Hornby, " as the 
domestic chapel of the lords of Hornby, as well as to become the 
parochial chapel for the townships of Hornby, Farleton, Roburndale, 
and Wray-with-Botton " (Raines). The tower is a beautiful example 
of architecture, but so singularly constructed as to form a somewhat 
striking feature ; the upper part is octagonal, but is set diagonally 
upon the base, which is also octagonal. On one face is a niche, 
doubtless intended to receive a figure of St. Margaret, to whom the 
church is dedicated ; on another is the heraldic achievement of the 
founder, encircled with the darter; and over the west window is 
the inscription 

<. Slanltg: miles: mis' : 

Jflontcglc : me : fieri : fee'- 

His will bears date April 5, 1523, and he must have been in 
extremis when he made it, for his death occurred the following day. 
In accordance with his desire, his body was buried in Hornby Chapel, 
which was then in course of erection. His only son, Thomas, 
succeeded. He was at the time but a youth of fifteen, and con- 
sequently could not, as Whitaker said was rumoured, have Ijeen the 
person who struck the blow which killed James of Scotland at 
Flodden, ten years previously.* He held the title and the Honour 
of Hornby for a period of thirty-six years, and, dying in 1559, left 
by his first wife, Mary, daughter of Charles Brandon, Duke of 
Suffolk, with other issue, a son, William Stanley, who succeeded as 
third Lord Monteagle. At his death, in 1580, the estates passed to 
his daughter and only child, Elizabeth, who married Edward Parker 
(Lord Morley), and it was their son, William (Lord Morley and 
Monteagle), who became historically famous as the recipient of the 

* And last of all among the lave, 

King James himself to death was brought ; 
Yet by whose act few could perceive, 
But Stanley still most like was thought. 

The Battle of Flodden Field. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 


letter which led to the discovery of the " Gunpowder Plot." The 
Monteagle barony of the Stanleys has long been extinct, but " the 
last words of Marmion " will live while the English language is spoken. 
The younger surviving brother of Lord Monteagle, the youngest 
of the six sons of the first Earl of Derby, was James Stanley. Like 
many of the younger sons of previous generations, he was brought 

HORNBY CHTKCH. (See page fi. 

up to the Church. He received his early education in the house of 
his father, under Thomas Westbury, a learned Oxonian, his 
associates being, as before-mentioned, Hugh Oldham, William 
Smyth, and Thomas Butler, all patrons of learning in their later 
years. He was admitted a scholar of Oxford University, and 
graduated at Cambridge as well. His preferment in the Church was 

44 County Families of 

rapid. After holding several appointments, including the rich rectory 
of Winwick, he was, through the influence of Archbishop William 
Booth, himself a Lancashire man, and the patron of those of his 
own county, collated in 1460 to the prebendal stall of Driffield, 
in York Cathedral, an office he resigned on becoming Warden of 
Manchester on the death of his uncle, in 1485. In July, 1506, he 
was advanced to the spiritualities of the See of Ely, and is described 
at the time as Dean of St. Martin's, London, and Archdeacon of 
Richmond, both of which dignities, together with the rectory of 
Walton-on-the-Hill, he then vacated, but continued to hold the 
Wardenship of Manchester in commendam until October of the same 
year (C/iel. Soc., v. v., p. 37, New Series). His private life was 
far from blameless, and, while inheriting the martial spirit of his 
progenitors, it must be confessed that he lacked those high qualifi- 
cations which are indispensable in a dignified ecclesiastic. The 
ancient but cruel sport of cock-fighting was then a popular pastime, 
and it is on record that the bishop agreed with Thomas Boteler, of 
Bewscy, and other friends, to have a cock-fight every Saturday at 
Winwick a somewhat unclerical preparation for the Sabbath. 
Fuller, commenting on his frailty in the infraction of his vow of 
celibacy, says, in his quaint fashion, that he blamed him not " for 
passing the summer with his brother (? nephew), the Earl of Derby, 
in Lancashire, but for living all the winter at Somersham, in 
Huntingdonshire, with one who was not his sister, and who wanted 
nothing to make her his wife save marriage." The fruit of this 
liaison was a son, the " yonge John Stanley " " that child so 
young," as Weber called him in one of his ballads who commanded 
a contingent and contributed materially to the victory at Flodden, 
receiving, as the reward of his bravery, the honour of knighthood 
on the field. The bishop showed his loyalty to the royal House of 
Tudor by his activity in raising . troops in Lancashire and Cheshire, 
having, as was said, " put in more power than any other prelate." 
It was almost his last public act, for a few months later March 2oth, 
1514-15 he made his will, his death occurring two days after. He 
was a munificent benefactor to the Church at Manchester, and also 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 45 

to Jesus College, Cambridge, and left behind him numerous proofs 
of his liberality and public spirit. In anticipation of his approach- 
ing end, he began the erection of a chantry chapel on the north side 
of the Church of Manchester, which his son completed, and here 
his remains were deposited, the inscription upon the tomb which 
covers them still supplicating the reader of his charity to pray for 
the soul of the departed prelate. 

The bishop's illegitimate son, "yonge John Stanley," the ardent 
soldier of Flodden, in later life sought the seclusion of the cloister, 
entered the Abbey of Westminster, and died there. He had 
previously married the heiress of Honford, or Handforth, by whom 
he had a son, also named John, who married, but died childless. 

On the death of the first Earl of Derby the honours and estates 
descended to his grandson, Thomas, son of the historic George, 
Lord Strange, a man of less historic note than his predecessors, 
though he maintained to a large extent the dignity and magni- 
ficence of his grandfather, and in his county exercised authority 
and used his power in an arbitrary and somewhat high-handed 
fashion, as his neighbours had cause to know. In the year in 
which he entered upon his patrimony the money-loving Henry VII. 
entered into a treaty with the Emperor Maximilian, and the young 
earl, who had just come into possession of his wealth, gave evidence 
of his loyalty and attachment to his sovereign by making himself 
liable for fifty thousand crowns by way of guarantee for its perfor- 
mance. It was an adroit stroke of policy, and showed that he had 
discovered the weak point in Henry's character, for while the 
suretyship cost him nothing, the service rendered raised him 
immensely in the royal favour. In the succeeding reign, while the 
" Stanley's proud eagle soared high " while his uncle, Sir Edward, 
was winning his coronet, and his cousin, John Stanley, the Bishop 
of Ely's illegitimate son, was winning his golden spurs on the field 
at Flodden, the Earl of Derby was assisting Henry VIII. in the 
vainglorious display at Tournay, where that monarch appeared in 
his "garment of white cloth of gold, with a red cross," and the 
needy Maximilian, while leading his German cavalry and the English 

46 County Families of 

bowmen, was content to call himself the King's soldier, and wear the 
Red Cross of St. George of England and the Red Rose. A few 
months later, the earl was at Courtray, where, at the second " Battle 
of the Spurs," in which there was less of the pomp and more of the 
circumstance of war, he bore himself gallantly and well sustained 
the reputation of his race. 

Shortly after his return to Lancashire we find him involved in a 
quarrel with his neighbour and kinsman, Sir Thomas Butler, of 
Bewscy, from which it is to be feared he did not emerge with added 
credit. The dispute arose out of the wrongful seizure by the earl 
of the wardship of the heir and the estates, with the rights thereto 
pertaining, of one of Sir Thomas's sub-infeudatories. The matter 
was referred to arbitration, but, the decision being against him, the 
carl, who at the special instance and request of his uncle, Lord 
Montcagle, had agreed to abide by the award, " of his might and 
high power," set it at nought and refused compliance. Litigation 
followed, when, apparently believing that 

Offence's gilded hand may shove by justice, 

he had recourse to the extraordinary expedient of retaining and 
feeing all the learned men of the shire, so that when the case was 
called, as we learn from the "Proceedings" in the Duchy Records, 
counsel one and all refused to appear against him, or make answer 
and avowry on behalf of his less powerful opponent. 

In the month of May the earl accompanied Henry and Wolsey, 
who was then in the plenitude of his power, to Hythe, to bid 
welcome to Charles V. on his landing on the Kentish shore, and by 
the King's command he bore the Sword of State tefore him and the 
Emperor as they rode from Dover to Canterbury, where they kept 
Whitsuntide, as we are told, " with much joy and gladness." Ix;ss 
than a year after ( 1 3th May, 1521), when the three weeks' solemnities 
of " The Field of the Cloth of Gold " were ended, we find him 
among the six earls who sat in judgment upon the peer whose name 
stands first upon the roll of illustrious nobles and knights who 
shared in the " fierce vanities," and acted as judge of the jousting 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 47 

at that rivalry of pomp and pageantry the Duke of Buckingham, 
who was adjudged guilty of treason, and, to gratify the hatred of 
Wolsey, was sent to the scaffold, as his father had been sent before 
him. It was the earl's last official act, for his death occurred only 
a few days later, May 23rd, while he was yet in the full vigour of 
his manhood. He had been the constant attendant of " Bluff King 
Hal," and one of the few men who had the good fortune to retain 
the favour without ever once incurring the displeasure of that in- 
tolerant and capricious monarch. The King had shown his affection 
for his favourite by creating him Lord Mohun, Basset-Burnal, and 
Lacy, and I-ord of Man and the Isles. Collins adds that he also 
bore the title of Viscount Kynton. At the time of his decease he 
possessed, in addition to the Lancashire property which had 
descended to him, an eighth of the Manor of Hunden St. Kynar, 
an eighth of thj Barony and Castle ofl-ewes, a fourth of the Manor 
of Brightelmstone (the present Brighton), and nine other manors in 
Sussex, of the Manor of Milton (or Middleton), in Cambridgeshire, 
and the Manors of Colham and Hillington, in Middlesex; he had 
also the Manors of Barlborough, in Derbyshire ; Hoveringham 
and Flintham, in Nottinghamshire ; Bosley, in Cheshire ; and 
Cople, in Bedfordshire. He married Anne, daughter of Kdward, 
second Lord Hastings, by whom he had, in addition to Kdward, 
his heir, three sons, one of whom, Sir James Stanley, was seated at 
Cross Hall, an old mansion, now destroyed, that occupied a com- 
manding site on the borders of the township of Lathom, near 
Ormskirk, and which in later years, from its proximity to Lathom 
House, was made a depot for the arms and armour used by the 
trained bands of the county. Sir James, who held the office o 
Marshajjifjreland, married, a year or two before his father's death, 1 
Ann, daughter of John Hart, of Lullington Castle, Kent, the \ 
widow of Edmund Talbot, of Bashall, by whom she was ancestress 
of the Talbots. Earls of Shrewsbury, and it is from this union, as 
we shall hereafter see, descends the line which now enjoys the 

Edward Stanley, who succeeded as third Earl of Derby, was but 



48 County Families of 

eleven years of age at the time of his accession, and was then in the 
retinue of Cardinal Wolsey. He held the family honours for more 
than half a century, serving with unswerving loyalty four successive 
sovereigns, and witnessing, though he prudently abstained from 
participating in, the ecclesiastical controversies which brought about 
those changes in religious thought and action, and in the teaching 
and ritual of the National Church, which marked that memorable 
epoch, preferring to adhere consistently to what he was pleased to 
call " the religion that had most good luck," finding by experience 
that the several changes, however they might affect his spiritual 
affairs, were by no means detrimental to his temporal interests. As 
a young man, he looked with equanimity on the dissolution of the 
monasteries and the sacking of their property, and was not 
unmindful of the opportunity those changes afforded of adding to 
his patrimonial estate on comparatively easy terms. He lived to 
see the faith proscribed by Henry VIII. triumphant in the reign of 
his younger daughter, and when his sovereign assumed the head- 
ship of the Church in England, he followed the laudable example, 
and proclaimed himself supreme ruler of the Church in Man. A 
zealous Catholic under Queen Mary, he was an equally zealous 
persecutor of Catholics under Elizabeth, and went far to justify the 
saying of the Jesuit, Parsons, that he had three religions to use as 
occasion served the Catholic, the Protestant, and the Puritan; 
in short, anything that did not involve the penalties of treason or 
the restitution of Church lands. Inheriting a royal descent, united 
to the daughter of the great Duke of Norfolk, and closely connected 
by the alliances of his ancestors with almost every noble family, 
this peer was one of the most powerful subjects in the realm. 

In 1532, shortly after the death of Wolsey, and while King 
Henry was waiting for the divorce from his Queen, Katharine of 
Arragon, the Earl of Derby, who had then just attained his twenty- 
first year, was in the retinue of the King when he, with the Lady 
Anne Boleyn, who he had created Marchioness of Pembroke, 
landed at Calais preparatory to the meeting with Francis I. of 
Navarre at Boulogne. The Countess of Derby for the earl had 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 49 

then taken to himself a wife, in the person of Dorothy, daughter of 
Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk accompanied her husband, and 
there were gay doings, according to the old chronicler, Hall, who 
devotes many pages to the accounts of the festivities. Francis 
danced with the Lady Anne, who, after supper, came in " with 
seven ladies in masking apparel," and " the Lady Marchioness took 
the French King, and the Countess of Derby took the King of 
Navarre, and every lady took a lord," and " the French King 
talked with the Marchioness of Pembroke apace ; " the chronicler 
adding, " the King, after his return, married privily the Lady Anne 
Boleyn on Saint Erkcnwald's Day (November 14), which mar- 
riage was kept so secret that very few knew of it.""' Be the 
marriage when it might, in the month of June following Anne 
Boleyn was crowned at Westminster. There was a grand banquet, 
and, by way of illustration of the manners of the age, we are told 
that two countesses stood one on each side the Queen during all 
the dinner, " which divers times in the dinner-time did hold a fine 
cloth before the Queen's face when she list to spit." The F^arl of 
Derby was of the company, and, as a mark of his sovereign's 
favour, was created a Knight of the Bath. 

Momentous events were then occurring. Cromwell, after the 
fall of his master, Wolsey, had gained the favour of the King, anil 
become well-nigh as powerful as the cardinal had been ; the earth 
was heaving, old institutions were beginning to topple, and ere long 
the conflict between monarchy and monasticism began. The 
dissolution of the smaller religious houses caused much distrust and 
discontent. In 1536 the " Pilgrimage of Grace," an insurrection 
instigated by the Northern monks and headed by Robert Aske, 
broke out. The new army of crusaders took possession of York 
and Hull, and shortly afterwards seized the Castle of Pontefract. 
The outbreak spread from the Tweed to the Humber, and 

* In this the chronicler is in error, for Cranmer affirmed that the 
marriage took place on St. Paul's Day (January 25), a day on which the 
Monkish rhymes tell us if it " Be fair and clear, it doth forbodc a fruitful 


5o County Families of 

threatened to involve the whole of the North of England. Lord 
Derby, with commendable zeal for his sovereign's interest, called 
out the militia of Lancashire and Cheshire, and by his promptitude 
and activity in securing the Abbey of Whalley and other houses of 
treasonable resort, kept in check the rising in Cumberland and 
Westmoreland and the northern part of Lancashire. Eventually 
the leaders were compelled to surrender to the King's forces, and 
the Abbot of Whalley and others who were implicated paid the 
penalty of their treason with their lives. The suppression of the 
larger monasteries quickly followed, and the smaller convents did 
not long survive those magnificent establishments. The Earl of 
Derby secured as much of the confiscated property as he could 
reasonably expect, the Priory of Burscough, which the Lathoms 
had founded, falling to his share, with other valuable possessions. 

In 1542 the King, having quarrelled with his nephew, James IV. 
of Scotland, set up a claim to the Scottish crown, and determined 
on a war with that country to enforce his demand. The Duke of 
Norfolk was put in command of the army of invasion, and marched 
northwards, his force being largely augmented by the men raised 
by his son-in-law, the Earl of Derby. A few years later, and 

The majestic lord 
That broke the bonds of Rome 

passed to his account, and his son, the youthful Edward, succeeded 
to the throne. The coronation took place a month later, when 
Lord Derby received the much-coveted Garter,* and was imme- 
diately afterwards appointed one of the Commissioners for advancing 
the Reformation. In the first year of th3 new King's reign the 
chantries and smaller religious houses were dissolved, and their lands 
alienated. It was a tempting opportunity for rapacious statesmen, 

* The motto which Earl Edward adopted, as shown on his Garter plate 
in St. George's Chapel, Windsor, was " Dieu et ma Foy," 22 May, 1547. 
" Sauns changier " appears first on the Garter plate of Henry, fourth Earl 
of Derby, elected KG. 23 April, 1574. Ferdinand, the fifth earl, used the 
motto. " Sans changer ma verite," as appears by his portrait, preserved at 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 5 1 

and the Earl of Derby, who, as before stated, had acquired a large 
slice of the monastic lands, and had become, as a natural conse- 
quence, a warm supporter of the Reformation, was stimulated or 
rewarded by the Protector Somerset with a grant of the College 
house and buildings at Manchester, together with a considerable 
part of the lands of the collegiate clergy there, upon the condition 
of his reserving a small portion of the rentals for the maintenance 
of certain preaching ministers. It is only just, however, to the earl 
to say that when in the beginning of 1549 this first Act of 
Uniformity was passed, his attachment to the old ceremonial was 
sufficiently strong to induce him to protest against the disuse of the 
Missal, and to oppose the Act prohibiting the simoniacal practices 
of reserving pensions out of benefices and granting advowsons while 
the incumbents lived, and the next and most necessary Act allow- 
ing the marriage of the clergy. 

On the 6th July, 1553, King Edward breathed his last, and the 
few days which followed formed an anxious time for England. 
Through the influence of her father-in-law, the Duke of North- 
umberland, the Lady Jane Grey, " the most charming of usurpers," 
was brought from her retirement at Syon, and proclaimed Queen 
on the loth. With characteristic prudence, the Earl of Derby 
contrived to avoid the snare laid by Northumberland, when he 
required the peers to sign the King's letters patent, excluding Mary 
and Elizabeth from the throne, and appointing Lady Jane Grey his 
successor ; and when Mary appealed to the nobles, the earl 
appeared in arms at the head of 20,000 men. Within a week 
Lady Jane had resigned her mock sovereignty, and on the iQth 
May Mary was proclaimed, amid the plaudits of the people. At 
the coronation, which took place on the ist October, Lord Derby 
was appointed Lord High Steward, the ancient office of his family, 
and went up from Lathom to his house at Westminster he had 
exchanged Derby House, the present College of Arms, with 
Edward VI. for other property a short time previously with a 
retinue of upwards of four-score gentlemen clothed in velvet, and 
218 yeomen in liveries. 

52 County Families of 

The first act of the Queen's first Parliament dimly shadowed the 
course in which the Government was tending. In the less 
accessible parts of Lancashire the Reformation had made but little 
progress, and in other districts many of the people showed no great 
reluctance to return to the religious observances of their fathers. 
Lord Derby was of the number. The Queen was a Papist, and 
the earl's religious principles were sufficiently elastic to enable him 
without much difficulty to accommodate himself to the changed 
circumstances of the times. Under Edward he had been a 
Commissioner for the advancing of the Reformation ; he now came 
out an orthodox Catholic, ready to persecute heretics and do 
everything good Catholics should, except restore to the Church the 
ecclesiastical property he had acquired ; and it was not long ere he 
had an opportunity of manifesting his zeal. Among those who 
had successfully preached the Reform doctrines in the late reign 
was George Marsh, the son of a small yeoman residing in Dean 
parish, who had abandoned agricultural pursuits and entered the 
Church, adding to the duties of a curate those of an instructor of 
youth. Marsh, having been charged with propagating heresy, 
surrendered himself. He underwent his first examination before 
Sir Roger liarton in Smithells Hall,* from whence he was trans- 
ferred to Lathom for further examination by the Earl of Derby. 
When charged with preaching false doctrines, he rebuked the earl 
for his inconsistency, remarking, "It is strange that your lordship, 
being of the Honourable Council of the late King Edward, con- 
senting and agreeing to acts concerning faith towards God and 
religion, should so soon after consent to put poor men to a shameful 
death for embracing the same religion ; " to which the earl is said to 
have replied that in his opinion the true religion was the one which 

* In the passage leading to the green room in Smithells Hall is a natural 
mark in the stone pavement resembling the rude impression of a man's 
foot, which was long regarded as the indelible impression of the stamp of 
Marsh when he put down his foot asserting his innocence and confirming 
the truth of his opinions a belief that furnished the subject for one of the 
most popular of Mr. Roby's Traditions of Lancashire. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 53 

had most good luck. Marsh's rebuke did not avail him much ; he 
was committed by the earl to Lancaster, when, after a time, he was 
handed over to George Cotes, the new Bishop of Chester, in the hope 
that by private expostulation and episcopal argument he might be in- 
duced to recant ; but without avail. The bishop being an ecclesiastic, 
and unable therefore to shed blood, delivered him to the secular 
power, and on the 24th April, 1555, he was burnt at the stake at 
Spittal Boughton, on the outskirts of Chester. 

In the autumn of 1557 England was in some fear of a Scottish 
invasion. Mary, at the instigation of her husband, Philip of Spain, 
had declared war against France, whereupon the French Court 
required the Queen Regent of Scotland (Mary of Guise) to make a 
diversion in their favour ; and though the Scottish nobles refused to 
declare war, the Scots in 
the Border districts crossed 
the marches and pillaged 
the northern shires. On 
the 29th September the 
Earl of Derby, as Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire and Cheshire, wrote 
to the Earl of Shrewsbury, the King and Queen's Lieutenant of the 
North, notifying him of the measures taken to array the levies of 
Lancashire and Cheshire " against the Scottish doings," and inform- 
ing him that he had a force of 5,000 men ready to march to 
support him. But there was another border Ijesidts that of Scot- 
land, and of no less importance for the security of the kingdom, 
that had to be guarded. The marches of Calais were in peril. 
The city that had been in the possession of England for over two 
hundred years was attacked, and after a short siege was compelled 
to capitulate. The loss filled the whole kingdom with murmurs : 
England had fallen ; the Queen was in despair, and in her dying 
moments exclaimed that the loss of Calais would be found written 
on her heart. 

On the i yth November, 1558, Queen Mary breathed her last, 
and the bells of London pealed merrily in honour of the glad 
advent of her half-sister and successor, Elizabeth. Notwithstanding 

54 County Families of 

his acquiescence in Mary's policy, the Earl of Derby had ordered 
his movements so adroitly as to win the confidence of the new 
Queen. On her accession he was sworn of the Privy Council, and in 
the following year was made Chamberlain of Chester for life, and 
appointed one of the Commissioners of the North to see that no 
man held office who had not taken the oath of supremacy ; to 
enjoin the adoption of the new book of service, and inquire into 
the late religious persecutions ; duties, it is needless to say, he cheer- 
fully undertook, so that the persecutor of George Marsh now 
became a Commissioner for the suppression of Popery. Lancashire 
had at that time the reputation of being the most Catholic county 
in the kingdom. Downham, who had been appointed Bishop of 
Chester, in which diocese the larger portion of the Lancashire 
parishes were then situate, was a Protestant of a very mild type, 
and not much troubled with earnest scruples of any kind, so that 
Papists and Puritans were left to pursue their several courses without 
much episcopal interference. With so negligent a bishop, the 
Reformation, as might be expected, progressed but slowly ; 
Romanism held its own, and the gentry openly defied the Act of 
Uniformity, or complied with it only to such an extent as would 
save them from trouble. This becoming known to the Court, a 
letter was addressed by the Queen to the Earl of Derby, in which 
the bishop was required to make personal visitations to the most 
remote parts of his diocese, and to see that the various churches 
were provided with " honest men and learned curates." A letter 
of remonstrance, couched in her usual tone of decision, was also 
addressed by Elizabeth to the bishop himself, reminding him of his 
duty, and requiring of him its more vigilant performance.* These 

* Froude says that on the 2oth December, in the year in which the Queen 
remonstrated with the bishop (1567), the Recorder of Chester stated that 
there were five hundred Lancashire men of the best sort who had sworn 
not to come at the communion or receive the sacrament during the Queen's 
reign, and that these people greatly rejoiced at the news of the coming of 
Philip of Spain, as it would enable them to take order for setting up their 
Popish kingdom and rooting out all Lutherans and heretics. His. Eng., 
v. ix., p. 173 n. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 55 

admonitions produced an immediate effect ; the bishop entered 
upon his visitation with all convenient despatch, and was ably 
seconded in his efforts in hunting recusants by the Earl of Derby 
whose zeal had before been so warmly eulogised by the Queen. 
There had been many plots to subvert the established faith, but the 
exercise of severity had the effect, for a time at least, of securing 
public tranquillity. There was peace, but concord was further off 
than before. 

Throughout the reign of Elizabeth there were frequent plots and 
conspiracies to deprive her of her crown and life : both Mary 
Queen of Scots and her son James were suggested as occupants of 
the throne to be forfeited, and the Earl of Derby was also named 
if only he would once more turn Catholic. Mary of Scotland fully 
relied on the earl's adherence to her cause; but had the opportunity 
offered it is doubtful whether he would not have considered the 
title of a Stanley, in whose veins coursed the blood of Henry III., 
better than either that of Elizabeth Tudor or Mary Stuart. In 
1568 secret conferences were held at York between the Bishops of 
Ross and Liddington, friends of the Scottish Queen, and the Duke 
of Norfolk, to procure the Queen's liberty and secure the duke's 
marriage clandestinely with her, to which certain Lancashire men 
were believed to have been privy. In the following year the Earls 
of Northumberland and Westmoreland took up arms to restore the 
old faith, and addressed a letter to the Earl of 1 )erby, two of whose 
sons they had then won over, requesting him to join their standard 
and procure them such aid as he could to effect "their honourable 
and godly enterprise." The rebel earls appear to have had every 
hope of his lordship's support, and even Sir Francis Leek seems to 
have had some misgivings as to how far his loyalty could be relied 
on, for in one of his letters to Cecil he remarks, as if mistrusting 
the earl, that " all the keyes of Lancashire do not at present hange 
at the Earl of Derby's owlde gyrdell " (Sharp's Memorials of the 
Rebellion in 1569, p. 374). The northern earls were out in their 
reckoning on Lord Derby's supjxDrt, Catholic though he might be 
in heart; the family instinct was prominently developed, and without 

56 County Families of 

hesitating a moment he sent the letter to the Queen, and, to remove 
any possible doubt of his sincerity, redoubled his efforts in harassing 
and imprisoning the Catholics in his county. The " Rising of the 
North," as it was called, occurred in November, under the leader- 
ship of Percy, Earl of Northumberland : 

Erie Percy there his ancyent spred, 

The half-moone shining all soe faire ; 
The Notions ancyent had the crosse, 

And the five wounds our lord did beare. 

A more ill-concocted and more disastrous enterprise was never 
engaged in. Lord Derby mustered the forces of Lancashire and 
Cheshire, but the rebellion, to use the words of the historian, 
" flashed in the pan/' and the earl and his men were not required to 
take part in its suppression. The destruction of lives and estates 
which followed was wide and sweeping enough ; the Earl of North- 
umberland was executed, and the princely house of Neville was 
overwhelmed in utter and irretrievable ruin. No sooner was the 
rebellion suppressed than another abortive act of treason occurred. 
To guard against any fresh attempt to disturb the public tranquillity, 
the earl, as head of the Lieutenancy of Lanca hire and Cheshire, 
made another demand of men, arms, and money, which the counties 
liberally responded to ; forced loans were at the same time had 
recourse to by the Government loans that might more correctly 
have been termed benevolences or compulsory gifts, for they were 
never intended to be repaid. 

Notwithstanding his great services and long-proved loyalty to 
Elizabeth, the earl was maligned and accused of traitorous intentions, 
and, what was worse, charged with keeping a conjurer in his house 
conjuring being a term for witchcraft. There is preserved among 
Lord Burghley's State Papers (I., p. 603) a private letter addressed 
by the Earl of Huntington to Cecil, the Queen's Secretary of State, 
which, after communicating his suspicions, he desired might be 
burned as soon as read and the writer's name forgot, but which has 
happily been preserved. In this letter, which is dated Ashby, 24th 
August, 1570, he says: 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 57 

Among the Papists of Lancashire, Cheshire, and the Cosynes (?), great 
hope and expectation there is that Derby will play as foul a part this year 
as the two earls did the last year. (Northumberland and Westmoreland in 
the '' Rising of the North.") I hope better of him for my part, and for my 
respects, both general and particular, I wish him to do better. I know he 
hath hitherto been loyal, and even the last year, as you know, gave good 
testimony of his fidelity, and of his own disposition, I think, will do so 
still ; but he may be drawn by evil counsel, God knoweth to what. I fear 
he hath even at this time many wicked counsellors, and some too near him. 
There is one Browne, a conjurer, in his house kept secretly. There is also 
one Uphalle, who was a pirate, and had lately his pardon, that could tell 
somewhat, as I hear, if you could get him. 

There does not appear to have been any substantial ground for 
suspecting the loyalty of the earl, which remained unshaken through 
another ordeal the conspiracy of the Duke of Norfolk to marry 
the Queen of Scots and place her upon the English throne. The 
Bishop of Ross, however, gave evidence that in Mary's design in 
1571 to escape from the custody of the Earl of Shrewsbury at 
Sheffield Castle to the continent she was aided by several Lanca- 
shire gentlemen ; and adds that she wrote a letter by a little priest 
of Rolleston's to Sir Thomas Stanley. The prelate further stated 
that if the Queen (Mary) would get two men landed in Lancashire, 
Sir Thomas Stanley and Sir Edward Stanley (the earl's son and 
grandson), along with Sir Thomas Gerrard and Rolleston, would 
effect her escape to France or Flanders; upon which evidence 
Sir Thomas Stanley, with Sir Thomas Gerrard and Rolleston, were 
apprehended and committed to the Tower. The earl's life, it will 
thus be seen, was anything but free from care, vexation, and anxiety; 
but for these disturbing incidents he in some measure recompensed 
himself by the princely life he led in his stately home of Lathom, 
where hospitality was maintained with so much profusion and 
magnificence that the admiring chroniclers of the time described it 
as unsurpassed by any nobleman in England. The " Household 
Books" of the Earls of Derby, printed by the Chetham Society, 
give a very clear idea of the magnitude of the domestic and servile 
establishment of the head of the House of Stanley in the Tudor 
reigns, the enormous quantities of animal food that were consumed, 

58 County Families of 

and the various luxuries that found their way into the larders, 
storerooms, and cellars. The consumption when the earl was at 
Lathom was about an ox and twenty sheep every week, besides 
large quantities of venison from the park, game from the woods, 
and water-fowl and fish from the streams and pools. The supply 
of beer was enormous, about fifteen hogsheads being drank every 
week, and in one year the consumption of wine was no less than 
thirteen tuns and a half; while for " spices and fruits brought from 
London" there was paid the sum of ^131 135. 4d. Holinshed 
and Stow tell us of his " goodly disposition to his tenants, 
never forcing any service at their hands but due payment of their 
rent ; his liberality to strangers, his ' famous housekeeping,' and 
' eleven score ' menial attendants without discontinuance for 
twelve years ; his feeding three score and odd aged persons twice a 
day, besides all comers thrice a week; and 'every Good Friday, 
these thirty-five years, one with another, 2,700 with meat, drink, 
money, and money's worth.'" He spent, they tell us, annually, 
,4,000 on his housekeeping, and was also celebrated for his skill 
in setting bones and in surgery, and this last qualification probably 
gives rise to the belief that he practised the black arts, for in the 
Boyle MSS. there is a memorandum written by Richard lk>yle, 
first Earl of Cork, in which he says " Mumford resorteth to 
Stanley's house in Lancashire, within six miles of Leerpoole. There 
he is to be had. There he lately cast out divels." He was, more- 
over, a poet as well as a warrior, and none of his remarkable race 
were more remarkable than he. 

On the 24th of October, 1572, the great and munificent earl 
passed to his rest at his house at Lathom, and, in the opinion of 
Camden, " when he died hospitality in England died with him ; " for, 
adds the annalist, " then came in great bravery of building to the 
marvellous beautifying of the realm, but to the decay of manners," 
which the old antiquary valued more. Few English noblemen had 
lived in so much state and grandeur, and the pomp and pageantry 
of his funeral obsequies were in full accord with the princely 
splendour and semi-regal state he had maintained in life. After 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 59 

lying in state at Lathom for six weeks, the body was borne on the 
4th December to the family resting-place at Ormskirk. The 
relatives of the deceased, his retainers, his tenantry, his servants, 
and the representatives of all the great county families were there, 
with their banners and other heraldic bravery. Such a funeral 
procession had never on any previous occasion been witnessed in 
Lancashire. Arrived at Ormskirk, the simple service of the 
Reformed Church was read to the wonderment of the country 
people assembled, who looked for masses, oblations, incensings, 
and other ceremonies as more in accord with the stately splendour 
of the funeral cavalcade. Sir Peter Legh, of Bruche, as one of the 
mourners, joined Thomas Butler, of Bewsey, in offering up the 
deceased's sword, and the body was then deposited in the Stanley 
Chapel at the south-east corner of the chancel of Ormskirk Church, 
which he had erected as a sepulchre for his family, and to which he- 
had previously removed the bones of his ancestors from the ruined 
priory of Burscough. " He there slept with his fathers," says a 
pleasant writer, " and Henry, his son, considering the state which 
he maintained after the example of his father, may be almost said 
to have reigned in his stead, king in Man, and something like a 
king in Lancashire." 

The earl was thrice married. By his first wife, Dorothy, 
daughter of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, he had in addition 
to Henry, his heir, Thomas, who received the order of knighthood, 
and married Margaret, one of the daughters and co-heirs of Sir 
George Vernon, of Haddon, the renowned " King of the Peak," 
and the sister of Dorothy Vernon, and four daughters, all of whom 
married. His second wife was Margaret, daughter of Ellis Barlow, 
of Barlow, in Lancashire, by whom he had a son George, who died 
in infancy, and two daughters. By his third wife, Mary, daughter 
of Sir George Cotton, of Combermere, in Cheshire, he had no issue. 
This lady, who survived him, married Edward Grey, Earl of Kent, 
and died in 1580. 

Henry Stanley, who succeeded as fourth earl, had reached his 
forty-second year when he came in possession of his patrimony. He 

6o County Families of 

was one of the few representatives of his house who remained con- 
stant through life to one opinion, and, notwithstanding the fear 
expressed by Camden, he fully equalled, if indeed he did not 
surpass, his father in the splendour of his establishment and the 
profusion and magnificence of his hospitalities. As Lord Strange, 
and while yet a youth, he had been a favourite with Edward VI., 
and Thomas Challoner, writing in 1576, said he was " with Eliza- 
beth queene well lik't, and of her subjects in grete favour." While 
his father's religious opinions were alternating between Romanism 
and Anglicanism, he never wavered in his adherence to the Reformed 
faith, and he remained an uncompromising Protestant after his 
succession to the earldom, with a decided leaning towards Puritanism, 
if we may judge from the names of the divines who " pretched " 
tafore him, and of others who enjoyed his confidence and were 
frequent visitors at Lathom. 

With the view of carrying on a more vigorous crusade against 
recusancy in its stronghold, a zealous Lancashire Puritan, William 
Chadderton, was in 1579 appointed as Downham's successor in the 
See of Chester, and with him, as the moving spirit of the Ecclesi- 
astical Commission for the North of England, Lord Derby heartily 
co-operated. The bishop took up his abode at Manchester, the 
wardenship of which was conferred upon him, and the earl, to be 
in closer communion, removed to his house at Alport Park, on 
the confines of the town. The work was a labour of love : the two 
commissioners asserted their authority to some purpose ; new and 
more severe measures were adopted, and for some few years 
recusants who resorted to the secret mass had an uncomfortable 
time of it. The New Fleet and other places of detention in 
Manchester were filled with prisoners, and Dodd affirsm that the 
bishop devised an ingenious method of convincing the inmates of 
their error ; his clergy being ordered to read prayers in the apart- 
ments where the prisoners were confined, especially at meal times, 
so that they had the unpleasant alternative of taking theological 
knowledge with their food, or going without victuals altogether. 
Staunch as the earl's Puritanism undoubtedly was, it does not 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 61 

appear to have been of a very ascetic kind, or that his Sabbata- 
rianism was as rigid as some of his more austere chaplains might 
have wished. There were many sermons, but the gravity of the 
" pretcher " was frequently followed by the gaiety of the player. 
Thus we read in the " Household Books ": " Sondaye Mr. 
Caldewall (the rector of Winwick) pretched, & that night the 
Plaiers plaied; Monday my L. Bushoppe pretched, & at nyght a 
Playe was had in the Halle." How " my L. Bushoppe " liked the 
acting of the " Plaiers " is not recorded, nor are we told what that 
stern Puritan, Richard Midgley " Mr. Vicar of Ratchedaile," as 
he is called, who once so effectually rebuked a brother clergyman 
for playing at bowls on a Saturday afternoon, " so near the Sabbath," 
that he never forgot it thought of such doings. The earl was a 
patron of the drama, then in its puling infancy, as well as of letters, 
and is frequently found in communication with actors and poets. 
In the Vale Royal it is recorded that at Chester, in July, 1577, 
"the Earl of Derby, the Lord Mountegle, the Lord Strange, with 
many others, came to this city, and were honourably received by 
the Mayor and citizens. The Shepperds play was played at the 
High Cross, and other triumphs at the Rood Eye." On that 
occasion " the Earle of Uarbie did lye 2 nightes at his (the Mayor's) 
house." A few years after (1583), when Elizabeth's favourite, the 
Earl of Leicester, was Chamberlain of Chester, he and the Earls of 
Derby and Essex met in that city, when Mr. Thorp, who was 
afterwards Mayor, made an oration professedly in honour of 
Leicester, but in which the compliments were reserved for the 
Earl of Derby, and gave offence in consequence " Mr. Thorp, a 

youth, speech to the Earl of Leicester, 1583, made by Mr. kt 

and gott by hart of the said Mr. Thorp, and said out of St. 
Brigett's Churchyard : but it was not well liked off because he did 
direct it to Earl Derby, and having ended said ' God bless the 
Earl of Derby'" (Harl. JlfSS., 2150, fo. i8 2 b). The earl, 
though a patron of poets, is rarely mentioned by the verse writers 
of his time, Thomas Newton, the Cheshire poet, whose latinity 
excited the admiration of his contemporaries, being one of the few 


County Families of 

who makes allusion to him. His uncle, Marmaduke Newton, was 
gentleman usher in the earl's household, and in certain Encomia et 
Eulogia, annexed to Leland's Encomia, which the ]x>et edited in 
1589, he indulges in some laudations of his lordship. 

In 1584-5 the earl went as Ambassador to France, and in 1587-8 
he was despatched upon a like mission to the Low Countries. 
Within that period the country was startled by the discovery of 
Babington's insane plot to assassinate Elizabeth and liberate Mary 
Queen of Scots from her captivity at Winfield. Many were 
accused of complicity in the scheme, and the nation being alarmed 
by the well-founded apprehensions of a Spanish invasion, and by 
decisive indications of plots for the deposition of Elizabeth and the 
recognition of Mary's claims to the English Crown, a Commission 
was, in 1586, appointed for the trial of the captive Queen. The 
Earl of Derby was one of the peers named on the Commission, the 
decision of which, with its tragic sequel, are matters of history. In 
the year following Mary's execution the news came that the 
" Invincible Armada," so long threatened and so long deferred, had 
unfurled its sails and was actually advancing towards the English 
shores. When the signal fires announcing the approach of the 
enemy (lashed along the Southern coasts, a spirit of patriotism was 
aroused, and Romanist and Reformer, Recusant and Puritan, 
forgot their religious feuds, and united as one man to repel the 
haughty Spaniard. The Queen issued a proclamation to her Sheriffs 
and others, urging them, by every consideration of social and 
domestic security, to call forth the united energies of their respec- 
tive counties, in common with the country in general, to resist the 
meditated attack. Lord Derby, as Lord Lieutenant, was com- 
missioned to prepare the counties of Lancaster and Chester without 
delay. The commission was addressed to the earl, but as he was 
known to be at the time on the Queen's business in Flanders, as 
head of the Commission to endeavour to effect a peace with the Prince 
of Parma, the representative of the King of Spain in the Low Countries, 
the addition was made to the superscription " And in his absence 
to our right-trusty and well-beloved Lord Strange," the earl's son, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 

and one of his deputy-lieutenants, who was acting as locum tenens, 
and who, without loss of time, issued his precept to all concerned. 
There is in the Lancashire documents of this time a note of a 
TaxaCon " for the watchinge of the Beacon att Ryven (Rivington) 
Pyke," and "carryinge of Armo r from Crosse Hall," Rivington 
Pike being one of the signal stations to give notice of danger, and 
Cross Hall, as before named, the place where the armour of the 
county was deposited. The earl must have hastened home 
on receiving intelligence of the despatch of the invading fleet, for 
in the local annals of Chester is the entry " 1588, Great rejoicings 
1 3th August by the citizens of Chester for the happy return of the 
Earl of Derby from his embassage out of Flanders, and many bon- 
fires were made in Chester." He was at Lathom on the 26th 
September, the interval having pro- 
bably been employed in attending 
upon the Queen and the Privy 
Council, as evidenced by a letter 
he addressed on that day to the 
deputy-lieutenants and justices of 
Lancashire, urging them to secure 
the observance of the Christian duty of prayer and thanksgiving 
throughout the county for the "late ou'throwe of o' Enemies." 

Scarcely had the excitement of the Armada passed away than the 
earl had to confront a danger from another source. Up to this 
time recusants had been the only object of grave solicitude to the 
Government, but now the Puritans, who had largely contributed to 
crush the followers of the old faith, became themselves troublesome. 
It was the beginning of a great struggle. Calling to their aid that 
powerful auxiliary, the Press, they dispersed their satirical 
pamphlets, denouncing the Episcopal constitution of the Anglican 
Church, and proclaiming the superiority of the Genevan model, and 
flooded the country with seditious and scurrilous libels intended to 
bring the Church and her ministers into contempt. A royal procla- 
mation was issued against these publications, but with little effect, 
the authors having set up a private printing press, which appears to 

64 County Families of 

have been carried from place to place to avoid discovery. From it 
was issued the notorious " Martin Marprelate " tracts, which were 
read with avidity on account of their bitterness and coarse humour. 
This itinerating press eventually found its way into Lancashire. 
After a brief sojourn at Warrington it was set up in the neighbour- 
hood of Manchester, and this coming to the knowledge of the Earl of 
Derby, who was at the time residing at Alport Park, on the outskirts 
of the town, he determined to make short work of it. A search was 
ordered to Ix: made, and the press was found in a house in Newton 
Lane (the present Oldham Road) while employed in printing 
a tract, " Ha' y'any more work for a cooper ? " when it was seized 
and destroyed, and the type put into the melting pot. 

Having performed this duty, the earl found leisure to pay a visit 
to his Kingdom of Man, but returned in 1590 to take part in the trial 
of his cousin, Philip Howard, Earl of Arundel, who was attainted and 
committed to the Tower, where he remained prisoner until his death, 
in 1595. After the trial he returned to, and remained there 
until his death, which occurred on the 251)1 September, 1594. He 
was buried at Ormskirk, with honours almost equal to those which 
distinguished the magnificent funeral of his father, Edward Stanley, 
and a sermon was preached by " Bushoppe " Chadderton, in which 
his virtues were duly lauded. In the Derby Chapel in Ormskirk 
Church, next the chancel, are effigies of the earl and his countess. 
He bears upon his surcoat counterchanged the insignia of Man, 
and quarterly, first and fourth, Stanley ; second, Clifford (his wife) ; 
and third, Lathom. Both Clifford and Lathom are wrong in 
blazonry, the former being minus the fess, which may, however, 
have been worn away, and the latter having on the indented chief 
eight plates instead of three. He married in 1554 Margaret, only 
child of Henry Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, the grand-daughter 
of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, by Mary, Queen-Dowager 
of France, the younger sister of Henry VIII. The nuptials 
were celebrated with much festivity and rejoicing, and among the 
entertainments, as we learn from Stowe, was a masque Jube the 
Sane, supposed to be a moral which was performed by the royal 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 65 

players. This lady, like her father-in-law, was suspected of having 
recourse to unhallowed practices, and charged with consulting 
wizards and cunning men,* a womanly curiosity that brought her 
under the displeasure of Elizabeth, which seems a little inconsistent, 
for the Queen herself was a believer in necromancy and conjuring, and 
not only consulted the astrologer Dee as to "a propitious day" for her 
coronation, but had her nativity cast by him in order to ascertain 
whether she could marry with advantage to the nation. It is 
probable that the real offence was not so much holding consulta- 
tion with wizards as the fact that, being one of the Suffolk line, she 
stood in dangerously close relation to the throne. By this marriage 
the earl had issue Edward, Lord Stanley, and Francis, who both 
died young ; Ferdinando, who succeeded as fifth earl ; and William, 
who became heir to his brother Ferdinando. In addition, he had, 
by Jane Halsall, of Knowsley, an illegitimate son, Thomas, the 
father of Ferdinando Stanley, of Broughton, near Manchester, who 
died in 1664, and two daughters, Dorothy and Ursula. 

Among the family portraits at Worden, believed to have been 
given to William ffarington, the comptroller of the household at 
Lathom, are those of the earl and his father, in which the peculiar 
characteristics of each are strikingly indicated in the expression of the 
features. The portrait of Earl Edward represents a man of hard, 
calculating, resolute energy, while in the son there are the indica- 
tions of grace and gentleness of manners altogether wanting in the 
father. Earl Edward was a courtier from policy and prudence ; his 
son, from nature and disposition. The principle of self-interest was 
equally strong, but while Edward might be considered the more 
powerful soldier, Henry, influenced by the spirit of the age, was the 
more polished courtier. 

Ferdinando Stanley, the eldest surviving son, who had married, in 
1579, Alice, the youngest of the six daughters of Sir John Spencer, 

*In the Harl. MSS. (cod. 787, fol. i6b.) there is preserved a curious letter 
to Secretary Walsingham by the countess, in which she protests that the 
slanderous accusation " doth more vex my heart & spirit, than ever any 
infirmityes have done my bodye." 


66 County Families of 

of Althorp, succeeded, but he only held the earldom about seven 
months, his death occurring April i6th, 1595. He was a man of 
high spirit and cultivated taste, with a fondness for letters, and is 
even said to have occasionally given vent to his feelings in verse, 
though, if we except a long pastoral ballad which Sir John Hawkins 
has inserted in the Antiquarian Repository, his writings have 
remained undiscovered. Comparatively little is known respecting 
him, and he is chiefly noted for having died, as was popularly 
believed, "of witchcraft." The cause of his death was inexplicable 
to his medical attendants : being inexplicable, it was by them 
conveniently assigned to sorcery and witchcraft; and in a report 
drawn up at the time many absurd stories were related of the 
"strange dreams" and "divinations" that preceded his end. Every- 
body believed he was either consumed by the witches or poisoned 
by the Papists ; and while his physicians attributed his mortal 
sickness to the former, his chaplain, who had a horror of Popery, 
was equally confident in assigning the cause to the wickedness of 
the latter. The late Dr. Ormerod, in his prefatory Memoirs to the 
Tracts relating to the Military Proceedings of Lancashire, says, 
though he gives no evidence in support of the statement : " It is 
well known that Jesuitical intrigue led to his death by poison." He 
is said to have been tampered with by a member of the Hesketh 
family to assume the title of King in right of his grandmother, and 
the supposition is that, having indignantly rejected the proposition, 
he was poisoned by the conspirators. 

Earl Fcrdinando had no male issue. He left three daughters 
Anne, Frances, and Elizabeth who married respectively Lord 
Chandos, the Earl of Castlehaven, and the Earl of Bridgewater. 
Among the descendants of these daughters the Baronies of Strange, 
of Knockyn, Mohun, and Stanley are in abeyance, and a great part 
of the vast possessions which had been accumulating through this 
dynastic change of successive centuries was carried by them into 
other families. Sufficient, however, remained to make the earl's 
brother, William, who succeeded to the title and the estates 
inalienable from the earldom, one of the wealthiest men in the 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 67 

county. The widowed Countess of Derby married, in 1600, Sir 
Thomas Egerton, first Baron Ellesmere, Lord Chancellor of 
England, and, surviving him, died January 26, 1635-6, at the age 
of 74, and was buried at Harefield, county Middlesex. 

Sir William Stanley was born at Lalhom in 1562, and was conse- 
quently thirty-two years of age when, by his brother's premature 
decease, he became Earl of Derby. Tradition makes him out to 
have been a great traveller, and the story of his supposed exploits 
and journeyings in various parts of the world, his imprisonment in 
Turkey, and his safe return to Lathom after a twenty-one years' 
absence, was long popular in the North of England, and furnished 
a favourite theme for the verse writers and ballad singers of the 
time. He is said to have been in Russia when he received the 
intelligence of the deaths of his father and brother, and was then 
supposed by his family to be dead, a statement the accuracy of 
which may be questioned, for the reason that in 1593 and 1594, 
the years of his father's and brother's deaths, he appears to have 
been quietly discharging the duties of Governor of the Isle of Man. 
The probability is that the adventures and moving accidents abroad 
of another member of the Stanley family Sir John, of the House 
of Hooton were liberally used to adorn the ballads composed in 
honour of his descendant, Sir William, of Lathom. Be that as it 
may, Sir William, on succeeding to the earldom, found that he had 
also succeeded to a long and costly series of lawsuits with his 
widowed sister-in-law, who stoutly championed the cause of her 
three fatherless daughters, in which there is some probability that 
she was seconded by the famous Lord Chancellor Ellesmere, who, 
as already stated, she afterwards married, the result being that Sir 
William retained the Earldom of Derby, with the greater part of the 
Lancashire estates, but had to forego the " Baronies of Strange, 
Mohun, Barnwell, Basset, and Lacy, with all the houses, castles, 
manors, and lands thereto belonging, with several other manors and 
large estates lying in most counties of England, and many in Wales " 
(Seacome, p. 97). The Lordship of Man he saved by purchasing 
the rights, real or assumed, of his nieces, and, procuring a new grant 
from the Crown, obtained also an Act of Parliament to ratify it. 

68 County Families of 

The costly and almost ruinous litigation in which the new earl 
found himself involved did not deter him from entering the 
marriage state, for on the 26th June, 1594, little more than two 
months after his brother's death, he took to himself a wife in the 
person of Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Edward Vere, seventeenth 
Earl of Oxford, and hereditary Great Chamberlain of England, the 
lady's mother being a daughter of Queen Elizabeth's favourite and 
famous minister, Cecil, Lord Burghley, and co-heir of her distin 
guished brother Henry, Earl of Oxford ; and in honour of the 
occasion Thomas Gossen wrote a ballad A Lancashire Man's Joy e 
for the Late Marriage of the Right Honourable the Earl of 

At the beginning of the following year Bishop Chadderton 
resigned the Wardenship of Manchester, when Elizabeth, with a 
regard for the fitness of things, and thinking, possibly, that a pro- 
fessor of alchemy and astrology might be acceptable to the 
"witches" of Lancashire, presented her old friend Dr. Dee to the 
vacant office. Though the building of the College had been 
acquired by the Earls of Derby under the confiscating act of 
Edward VI., the Wardens of Manchester, with the permission of the 
succeeding carls, had continued to occupy the old official residence. 
When Dee who, by the way, had never been ordained came to - 
preside over the College and direct the spiritual affairs of the great 
Parish of Manchester, he found that his fame had gone before him, 
and the people were naturally curious to see and know something 
of the great philosopher, whose marvellous skill had astonished half 
the Courts of Europe, and about whom rumour had told so many 
strange tales. Dee arrived in Manchester in February, 1596, and 
a short time after, as we learn from his "Diary," the Earl of Derby, 
with a company of friends, paid a visit to him at the College : 

1596. June 26. The Erie of Derby with the Lady Gerard, Sir (Richard) 
Molynox and his Lady, dawghter to the Lady Gerard, Master Hawghton 
and others, cam suddenly uppon (me) after three of the clok. I made them 
a skoler's collation, and it was taken in good part. I browght his honor 
and the ladyes to Ardwyk grene toward Lyme, at Mr. Legh his house 12 
myles of, &c. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 69 

The earl, who had passed much of his time in foreign countries, 
and, to use a modern euphuism, had " roughed it '' abroad, would 
doubtless find abundant excuse for the " skoler's collation " in the 
learned conversation of the great philosopher whose fame had gone 
through the world. Unlike his predecessors, Earl William was an 
unambitious man, and withal somewhat imprudent, if we may judge 
from a letter written by his uncle George, Earl of Cumberland, to 
Lord Treasurer Burghley, on the 24th November, 1596, in which 
he says: "I hartely thanck your lo. for your care of him (Lord 
Derby) who cares not for himselfe." Possibly his lawsuits taught 
him a wholesome lesson, for in later life he became much more 
cautious and prudent. 

In March, 1603, James Stuart ascended the English throne. On 
the 5th April he set out from Edinburgh on his " progress " to his 
new kingdom, feasting at many houses on his way to London. The 
Earl of Derby, with his countess and the dowager-countess, -who 
had then become Lady Ellesmere, rode in the procession ; and on 
Sunday, the 24th July following, the King, who was then at St. James's, 
invested the earl with the honour of a Knight of the Bath. The 
Countess of Derby, who was a niece of Robert Cecil, whom James 
created Earl of Salisbury and made Lord Treasurer, was still young 
and volatile, and became a frequenter of the Court, where she was 
a favourite with the King. On the 3oth October, in the year in 
which James came to the English crown, the earl was made 
Chamberlain of Chester for life, an office that had been held by 
several of his progenitors. He retained the post for more than 
twenty years, when, at his request, letters patent were issued 
granting the office to him and his son, James Stanley, Lord Strange, 
his heir apparent, jointly for both their lives, and to the survivor. 
The high estimation in which the earl was held by the first of the 
Stuart kings may be inferred from the mutual interchange of New 
Year's gifts in 1606. 

In the following year there was joy in the ancestral halls of the 
Stanleys, for on the 3ist January (1607) the first anniversary of the 
execution of Guy Faux and those implicated with him in the Gun- 

70 County Families of 

powder Plot the countess, who was then at Knowsley, gave birth 
to a son. The rejoicing on the occasion was the greater for the 
reason that the earl had been married more than ten years, and the 
hopes of a heir to the earldom were passing away ; but of those 
who shared in the festivities how few there were who dreamt of the 
cup of sorrow that was in store for that infant scion of the House 
of Stanley, or that, as The Martyr Earl of Derby, he would 
become one of the great characters of English history. King James, 
after whom the child was named, presented him with a service of 
plate at his christening, an obligation that in later years was 
requited on the scaffold. 

After this time the earl seems to have gradually withdrawn 
himself from the Court, in which he had " neither plotted nor 
dissembled," and spent much of his time in Lancashire and 
Cheshire, discharging the duties of his several offices, and identify- 
ing himself in various ways with the interests of the two counties, 
living socially among his people, and not unfrequently relieving the 
more arduous duties of his station by the cultivation of literature, 
in which he took delight, as his brother had done before him. A 
courtier's life, with its hollowness and insincerity, was hardly con- 
genial to one of his habits and feelings ; but if he preferred the 
quietude of his country home to the gaiety and frivolity of the 
ante-room of the coarse and faithless James, he was always warmly 
attached to the person of his sovereign, and ever ready to fulfil 
those duties which his station imposed upon him. 

In the summer of 1617 King James, in returning from Scotland, 
resolved on making a royal progress through the heart of Lanca- 
shire. He was received with every demonstration of joy, but, 
unfortunately, during the revels and the hilarity in celebration of 
the event, he made that fatal concession and promised those 
indulgences which provoked the ire of the " Puritans and precise 
people," and sowed the seeds of discontent so wide and so deep as 
to shake the stability of the throne in the succeeding reign. When 
the King's intention became known, the gentry of the county 
determined to make as loyal and as magnificent a display as 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 71 

possible, and the Earl of Derby was not behind his neighbours. 
The chief interest of that progress centres in Hoghton Tower, 
where the preparations were on such a scale of magnificence that it 
must have been many years before the Hoghton family recovered, 
if they ever recovered, from the inconvenience which the expendi- 
ture entailed upon them. James sojourned three days at Hoghton. 
Sunday, August i7th, was the last day, and it was one long 
memorable in Lancashire. The " Bushopp of Chester pretched " 
before the King in the morning; in the afternoon his sacred 
Majesty granted to the people of the " merry county " license to 
indulge in " lawful recreation and honest exercises " on the Sunday. 
There was a " rush-bearing and pipeing " in the evening ; and the 
proceedings of the day were appropriately concluded with dancing 
and " a mask of noblemen, knights, gentlemen, and courtiers in the 
garden at night." The following morning the King set out for 
Lathom, where he remained the guest of the Earl of Derby for two 
nights, and before taking his departure, on the 2oth, he knighted 
Sir William Massey, Sir Robert Bendloes, Sir Gilbert Clifton, Sir 
John Talbot, of Preston, Sir Gilbert Ireland, of The Hutt, and Sir 
Edward Osbaldeston, all Lancashire gentlemen. From Lathom the 
King went by way of Bewsey and Vale Royal to Chester, where the 
earl, as Chief Chamberlain of the county, carried the Sword of 
Estate before him, and the Mayor presented him with "a fair 
standing cup, with a cover, double gilt, and therein an hundred 
jacobins of gold." 

On the ayth March, 1625, King James died at Theobalds, and 
on the same day his son Charles was proclaimed his successor to 
the crown. In the second Parliament of that year the earl's eldest 
son, who had just reached his twentieth year, was returned as one 
of the members for the borough of Liverpool, his colleague being 
Edward More, the representative of a family that had long been 
among the leaders of the Puritan party; and on the 3ist January, 
in the succeeding year, the day before the coronation, he was 
elected a Knight of the Bath, not as Lord Strange, but as Sir James 

72 County Families of 

Stanley.* On the 26th June, in the same year (1626), Sir James 
Stanley was united in marriage with Charlotte, daughter of the Due 
de la Tre"moille, a French nobleman, and distinguished companion- 
in-arms of Henry Quatre. The ceremony, which was attended with 
an unusual display of magnificence, was performed " in a palace of 
the Prince of Orange, at The Hague, in the presence of the King 
and Queen of Bohemia and many royal and noble personages." 
After the wedding young Stanley brought his wife to England, the 
King granted letters of denization to the lady, and she, with her 
youthful husband, were received at Court with great honour. 

But the sounds of rejoicing were soon turned to those of sorrow 
and lamentation, for scarcely had the wedding festivities ended when 
the earl had to mourn the loss of his tender and affectionate 
countess. Her death, in all probability, occurred in London, for 
her remains were interred in the Chapel of St. Nicholas, West- 
minster Abbey, March n, 1626-7, sne having then completed her 
5 ist year. It was a sorrowful episode in his domestic career, and one 
that seemed to loosen the cords of life. He ceased to find pleasure 
in the pursuits in which he had previously delighted, and, having 
then become aged and infirm, he retired from active public life, and 
left the management of his affairs and property, including the 
government of the Isle of Man, to his son. The circumstance is 
thus referred to in a letter from James, seventh Earl of Derby, to 
his son Charles, Lord Strange: "My father, upon the death of 
my mother, growing infirm and disconsolate, and willing to repose 
himself from the troubles of the world, purchased a house on the 
side of the river Dee, near Chester, and retired to it, reserving to 
himself a thousand pounds a year for life, and put the rest of his 
estate and revenue into my hands, which I fear I shall not be so soon 
able to do with you, nor with such latitude of power." During the 
winter he resided mostly at Chester, but his favourite summer abode 

* The title of Lord Strange was not unfrequently assumed by the heir 
to the Earldom of Derby, though, as already shown, it passed into abeyance 
with the division of the estates between the daughters and co-heirs of 
Ferdinando, the fifth earl. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 


was at Bidston, an old manor house that he had in part re-built 
during the time of his unhappy litigation with his nieces, and which 
occupied a commanding position near the western extremity of the 
Hundred of VVirral, swept by the invigorating breezes from across 
the Irish Sea. The Lady Charlotte, writing to her mother a year 
or two after her marriage, says : " I wrote you word, madame, that 
I had seen my father-in-law at Chester, where he always lives never 
desiring to go to any of his other houses. He has been there now 
for three or four years. He spoke to me in French, and said very 


kind things to me, calling me lady and mistress of the house a 
position which he said he wished no other woman to hold that I 
had the law in my own hands entirely. We were very well received 
in the town. Though we were not expected, many people came to 
meet us. I told you also, madame, how much I liked Lathom 
House, and that I had every reason to thank God and you for 
having married me so happily." 

The earl, who never married again, lived to the age of 80 years, 
and died at Chester on Thursday, September 29, 1642, his remains 
being removed to Ormskirk, where they were laid by the side of his 


County Families of 

fathers. In addition to his son James, who succeeded, the earl had 
Charles, who died in infancy ; Robert, who was made a Knight of 
the Bath, married, and had issue ; and four daughters, one only of 
whom married. 

The year in which he died was an eventful one for England, for 
the country was just on the verge of the great Civil War. As he lay 
upon his death-bed he could hear the marchings and counter- 
marchings of the train-bands, for the King was then within his 
"loyal city of Chester," with a numerous company of nobility and 
gentry, and remained at the Episcopal Palace until the day preced- 
ing the earl's death, when he moved on to Wrexham. While the 
funeral plumes waved over his coffin the trumpet blast of discontent 
was sweeping over the land ; men's hearts were stirred, and the 
feeling of dissatisfaction was quickly fanned into the flame of open 
resistance. A month before Charles had raised the blood-red ensign 
at Nottingham, King and Parliament were divided, the olive branch 
was cast aside, and sovereign and people were alike eager to 
determine by an appeal to arms whether the monarchical or the 
democratic estate should have the ruling power. 

In Elizabeth's time the Puritans had been comparatively insig- 
nificant in numbers, but before the close of James's reign they had 
grown formidable, and their stubbornness made them impatient of 
uniformity in rites and ceremonies and the decorous adjuncts of a 
National Church ; and after the accession of Charles they became 
aggressive, and ready to resist to the death " imposts," and " levies," 
and "compositions," and the worse mockery of "loans," which no 
man was free to refuse. The issuing of the writ for the levying of 
" ship money " that word of lasting sound in the memory of this 
kingdom, as Clarendon calls it lit the fires of revolution. The 
power of the sovereign had waned, while that of the people had 
increased. Parliament, while bent upon abridging the ancient 
prerogative of the Crown, was equally resolute in the extension of 
its own. Moderation was no longer thought of, the time for com- 
promise was past, and sovereign and subject, distrusting and 
wearied of each other, cared no longer for peace. It was in 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 75 

Lancashire the storm burst. At Manchester, on the isth July, 
1642 a month before the unfurling of the standard at Nottingham, 
while the Earl of Derby's son, Lord Strange, was being entertained 
by the townsmen a tumult broke out, and a poor linen weaver 
looking on was accidentally slain. It was the first shot fired and 
the first blood shed in that memorable struggle, which convulsed 
the kingdom and drenched it in civil slaughter. In the autumn of 
the same year Lord Strange was ordered by the King to march 
with the forces he had raised in Lancashire, and secure the town of 
Manchester. He appeared on Sunday, the 25th September, with 
4,300 soldiers. The attack began on the following morning, and 
continued, though with little success, to the end of the week, when 
his lordship received two despatches, each of which had probably 
some influence in inducing him to raise the siege. The first of 
these was an order from the King requiring him to march with his 
whole force to join the royal army at Shrewsbury ; the other was of 
a domestic nature, and announced that his aged father had paid 
the debt of nature, and that his lordship, as heir apparent, had 
succeeded to the Earldom of Derby and the Lordship of Man. 

James, " The Martyr Earl of Derby," by which designation he 
was long popularly known in Lancashire, stands out as perhaps the 
most conspicuous personage in the historic line of Stanley ; his 
chivalrous career, his tragic end, his heroic wife, and her gallant 
defence of his ancient home, all combining to place him in the fore- 
front of his illustrious race. Of the circumstances attending his 
birth mention has already been made. Brown, in his History of 
Bolton, states upon authority " considered to be reliable," that 
Lord Strange was sent in his boyhood to a respectable day school 
near the Old Hall at Rhodes, a few miles from Bolton ; that he 
boarded at the house of Ralph Seddon, at Prestolee, and became 
intimate with his twin sons, who were nearly of the same age, and 
William, one of the twins, accompanied him to college. It is added 
that William Seddon took orders, and was the first clergyman who 
preached in Ringley Chapel. The Seddons were well-to-do people, 
ranking among the lesser gentry, and had been tenants of the 

76 County Families of 

Earls of Derby for many generations. Ralph Seddon had twins 
born in 1604, and one of them, William, took his degree at 
Magdalen College, Cambridge. He was presented to the living of 
Eastham, in Cheshire, in 1637, holding it conjointly with another 
in the city of Chester, and, after suffering deprivation and imprison- 
ment under the Cromwellian rule, was, at the restoration, presented 
to the rectory of Grappenhall, in which parish he died in 1671. 
There is no positive evidence that Lord Strange went to school at 
Rhodes, nor is there any certainty that he went to college. No 
trace of him has been discovered at Cambridge, though this may 
arise from the fact that the record of admissions there does not go 
back further than 1644. The probability is that he received his 
early education in his father's house at Lathom ; certain it is that 
he had for his classical tutors George Murray, B.D., of King's 
College, Cambridge, an offshoot of the House of Tullibardine, and 
brother of Richard Murray, rector of Stockport, whom King James 
made Warden of Manchester, and Charles Herle, M.A., of Exeter 
College, Oxford. Murray, who was probably a High Churchman, 
was subsequently presented to the rectory of Bury, and Herle, who 
was a Presbyterian, and sat as one of the representatives of Lanca- 
shire in the Westminster Assembly of Divines, was in 1626 
presented to the living of Winwick. Under their tuition he grew 
up a well-read, thoughtful, serious man, " a great countenancer of 
religion," inclining to Puritanism in his theology, but an ardent 
upholder of prelacy in regard to ecclesiastical matters. While yet 
a minor, as we have seen, he was chosen one of the members for 
Liverpool, the Stanley interest in the town having at the time 
eclipsed that of the Molyneux. In the year in which he was 
elected, 1625, he went abroad to enjoy the advantages of travel, 
and to obtain a knowledge of foreign manners and accomplishments, 
and it was while on a visit at the Dutch Court at the Hague that he 
made the acquaintance of the lady whom he afterwards married, 
Charlotte de la Tremoille, and who, in later years, as the heroic 
defender of Lathom House, became distinguished in English 
history. This marriage has already been referred to, and on their 

Lancashire and Cheshire, 77 

return they were received at the English Court with every mark of 
distinction. In the autumn of that year he was joined with his 
father in the Lieutenancy of Lancashire and Cheshire; on the 27th 
March, 1628, he was summoned to the House of Lords as Sir 
James Stanley de Strange, chevalier, and about the same time he 
had the Lieutenancy of North Wales conferred upon him. On the 
1 9th January of this year a son was born, the heir to the family 
honours and estates. The King became sponsor, and presented his 
godson with " two guilt cups," and, as a special honour, sent the 
mother a " pretty present," decked with diamonds, " worth quite 
two thousand crowns." At this time Lord Derby, who, as 
already stated, had become a widower, retired from public life, 
and relinquished the management of his affairs to his son a 
duty for which his quick discernment and habits of business 
well qualified him. Though the estates had been greatly impaired 
by litigation, he upheld the dignity of his house with almost 
princely splendour. His town residence in Cannon Row a 
stately mansion built by Earl William was the resort of dis- 
tinguished statesmen, foreigners, and scholars ; and at Court, 
where he and his countess were ever welcome, he entered with 
spirit into the masks, revels, and pageants that were so popular with 
the gay and fascinating Queen Henrietta. In 1630, when ISen 
Jonson's Lore's Triumph through Callifolis was acted at Court, 
he played the part of the seventh lover, the King being in the 
centre ; and shortly after, when the masque of Chlorindia, by the 
same author, was produced, his wife, Lady Strange, was one of the 
fourteen nymphs who sat round the Queen in her bower, in dresses 
of white, embroidered with silver. In that year Roger Cocks 
published his Hebdomada Sacra, to which he prefaced the following 
metrical dedication : 


Poetry, noble Lord, in these loose times 
Wherein men rather love than loath their crimes, 
If hand in hand with Piety she goe 
(Though without blushing she her face may show), 

78 County Families of 

Finds but cold welcome. Such things only take 
As flatter Greatnesse, or fond Fancie make 
A band to base delight ; yet graver eyes 
No sacred lines, though rudely drawne, despise; 
And such are yours. Upon this work of mine 
Vouchsafe to let them fall, or rather shine ; 
With kind acceptance do but daigne to grace it, 
And Envie shall want power to deface it. 

The attractions of the Court did not prevent the earl identifying 
himself with the interests of Lancashire and Cheshire ; the duties 
of the high offices that devolved upon him there were discharged 
with care and efficiency. Lathom and Knovvsley were the scenes 
of much gaiety and display, and frequent visits were made to 
Chester, of which city Lord Strange was Chamberlain. In 1630 
the Duchess de la Tremoille, the mother of Lady Strange, honoured 
her son-in-law with a visit at Knowsley, and before the return to 
her 6wn country she was conducted to the ancient city upon the 
Dee, the inhabitants of which turned out in all their bravery to bid 
her welcome. Thus runs the ancient chronicle : 

1630. Upon the xviiith day of September, came to Chester, being 
Saturday, the Duches of Tremoyle in France, and mother-in-law to the 
lord Strange, and many other great estates, and all the gentry of Cheshier, 
Flintshier, and Denbighshier, went to meet her at Hoole Heath, with the 
earle of Derby ; being at least Ooo horse, all the gentle men of the Artelery 
yard lately erected in Chester, met her in Cow lane, in very statly manner, 
all w"' greate white and blew fithers, and went, before her chariot in a 
march to the Bishops Pallas, and making a yaid, let her thro' the midest, 
and there gave her 3 volleys of shot, and so returned to their yard ; also 
the maior and aldermen in their best gownes and aparrel were on a stage 
in the Estgat-street to entertayn her, and the next day she came to the 
Pentise after the sermon in the afternoone to a banquet, being invited by 
the maior, and the next day went to Whichurch, but it was reported that so 
many knights, esquires, and gentlemen never were in Chester together, no, 
not to meet the king James when he came to Chester. (Chester Annals, 
Hurl. MSS.) 

Lord Strange did not attend Parliament the first session he was 
summoned to take his seat in the House of Peers : in the House of 
Commons another personage did that person was Oliver Cromwell, 
who had been returned for the borough of Huntingdon. The 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 79 

Parliament met again in January of the succeeding year, and Lord 
Strange was present. Clouds were then gathering upon the political 
horizon that presaged a great political and religious tempest. Before 
they would grant the supplies necessary to retrieve the disasters result- 
ing from Buckingham's inglorious expedition to France, the Com- 
mons extorted from the King the Petition of Rights, confirming the 
liberties that were already the birthright of Englishmen a measure 
which, had it been accepted by its authors as final, would have 
spared the country the calamities of civil war; but the seeds of strife 
were sown and nurtured both by King and Parliament, and the 
olive branch, if held out, was stripped of its leaves, and appeared 
only as a dry and sapless twig. Lord Clarendon speaks of Lord 
Strange at this time as having been " disobliged by the Court," by 
which it may be inferred that the Garter, to which his lordship 
considered he had a claim, had been withheld. Be that as it may, 
Lord Strange was a devoted Royalist, and would have done more 
service to his party had the King been wise enough to follow his 
counsel and trust his fidelity. He was prepared at all costs to 
defend the Crown, but he was not less anxious about the principles 
of constitutional liberty. 

It would be an almost endless task to follow the contending 
factions in their disputes about prerogatives on the one side and 
privilege on the other. In 1634 was issued the writ for the levying 
of ship money an act that lit up the torch of revolution, and for 
years kept the country in almost uninterrupted strife. The fatal 
separation having been made, each party strove to obtain the 
control of the militia, and with this object appointed as Lords 
Lieutenant, in the several counties, those on whom they could rely 
the King, at York, by his " commands," and the Parliament, at 
Westminster, by its " ordinances." Up to this time Lord Strange, 
who had removed himself from the Court and its politics, was 
believed to be an adherent of the popular party. Like his uncle 
and grandfather, he had been diligent in hunting recusants, and his 
zeal for the Protestant cause, both in Lancashire and Cheshire, had 
been acknowledged by the House of Commons. There were some 

8o County Families of 

misgivings as to his leanings towards the King in 1641, but they 
must have quickly been removed, for in the following year he was 
in the list of Lords Lieutenant trusted by the Parliament, and 
presented to the King as their nominee for Cheshire, and Lanca- 
shire would have been added to his jurisdiction but for the inter- 
ference of his neighbour, the Puritan lawyer Rigby the " insolent 
rebell, Rigby," as Charlotte Tre"moille called him in later days 
who then represented Wigan in Parliament, and whose influence, it 
is said, led to his being afterwards deprived of the lieutenancy of 
Cheshire and North Wales. That he was in any way influenced, as 
some have supposed, by the action of Rigby, is extremely improbable j 
but when the crisis had arrived, and the King had withdrawn him- 
self to York, he felt obliged by the tics of religion and loyalty to 
offer his life and his fortune to his sovereign; and when Sir John 
Girlington, the high sheriff, by the King's command convened a 
meeting at Preston on the 28th June, 1642, he attended, and, as 
acting head of the House of Stanley, declared "For the King ! " 
He immediately raised five thousand auxiliaries, providing them 
with arms and ammunition at his own expense, and also placed 
^40,000 in money at the service of the King. As one of the 
commissioners of array he seized the magazines in defiance of the 
orders of the Commons, and, joining the King at York, was 
appointed by his Majesty Lord Lieutenant of the two Palatine 
Counties, and ordered to put his commission in force without 
delay. On the 4th July he returned to Lathom to prepare for the 
King's reception, the intention at that time being to raise the 
standard at Warrington. Large quantities of gunpowder and 
match, which had been stored at Preston and Liverpool, were 
seized for the King's service, and then, collecting a body of men in 
the neighbourhood of Bury, his lordship proceeded to Manchester 
to demand the surrender of the ammunition and materials of war 
that were known to be stored in his own building of the College. 
The deputy-lieutenants refused compliance, and Lord Strange with- 
drew his forces, but returned a few days later to be entertained at a 
banquet by the townsmen, and it was on this occasion the outbreak 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 81 

occurred in which the " first blood " in the great rebellion was shed. 
The affray, which partook of the nature of a street row, was greatly 
exaggerated, and though two or three over-zealous Parliamentarians 
were the real offenders, the chief instigator being Sir Thomas 
Stanley, of Bickerstaffe, an anti-Royalist and distant connection of the 
House of Lathom, it was made the excuse for impeaching Lord 
Strange, who, by a strange perversion of facts, was charged with 
" levying war against the King, Parliament, and kingdom." Parlia- 
ment stigmatised him a rebel, guilty of high treason, and ordered him 
to be so denounced by the clergy and constables in all the churches 
and towns of Lancashire and Cheshire. 

After the affair at Manchester his lordship mustered the county 
in three places on Cockey Moor, near Bury; Houghton Moor, near 
Ormskirk ; and Fulwood Moor, near Preston in all 60,000 efficient 
men, many of them his own tenantry and tried followers of the 
House of Stanley; at each of these places a large body of men 
appeared in arms, and he was proceeding to call out the forces in 
Cheshire and North Wales for the same service, when he was 
stopped by an intimation from the King's Council that the noisy 
musters he had made were interpreted as in furtherance of his own 
ambitious designs. Suspicions had been insidiously expressed as to 
his sincerity in the Royal cause, and it was feared that his near 
alliance to the Crown might make him a dangerous person to be 
entrusted with any considerable military power. Though indignant 
at these reflections upon his patriotism and honour, his loyalty 
never flagged and his fidelity never wavered ; but the distrust of 
the King's advisers had a depressing effect upon many of the loyal 
inhabitants of Lancashire, and in a corresponding degree encouraged 
the boldness of the disaffected. It was a fatal mistake, and one to 
which many of the disasters which followed may be traced. Charles, 
with his usual policy, endeavoured to conciliate him, made him 
General of the Forces in Lancashire and Cheshire, and directed him 
to recover the town of Manchester, which had then been put in a 
state of defence and become the stronghold and rallying point of 
the anti-Royalist party. In obedience to these orders he marched 

82 County Families of 

from the rendezvous at Warrington, and on the morning of Sunday, 
September 25, 1642, appeared before the town. The siege began 
on the following day, and continued to the end of the week, when he 
received intelligence of the demise of his father, Earl William, at 
Chester, and at the same time an express arrived ordering him to 
raise the siege and repair with all despatch to join the King at 
Shrewsbury. His military engagements prevented him visiting the 
death-bed of his father, and the urgent command of his sovereign 
now deprived him of the opportunity of doing honour to his 
remains. Manchester was thus abandoned to the enemy, and 
Lancashire was virtually lost to the Royalist cause. 

Though deeply mortified at his peremptory and apparently 
capricious recall, the earl, as he had now become, without loss of 
time marched with his forces to Shrewsbury, and thence advanced 
into Warwickshire, where an unsuccessful attempt was made to take 
the town of Birmingham. Returning to Shrewsbury, where the 
King lay, he was, to use his own phrase, " shifted forth into another 
air." On the pretext that his presence in Lancashire would be 
serviceable in checking the influence of the rebels, he was ordered 
to repair thither, but a body of Newcastle's troops were assigned 
him instead of the men he had himself raised, a procedure that 
deprived him to a large extent of the power and influence he would 
otherwise have had in controlling the war in his own county. With 
these men, who were very ill-provided with arms and ammunition, 
he returned to Lancashire, and established his rendezvous at 
Warrington, satisfied that he had " discharged a good conscience in 
all," and that his " honour was safe in spite of his worst detractors." 

During the remainder of the year Warrington and Wigan were 
the Royalist strongholds, the headquarters of the opposing party 
being at Manchester and Bolton. Wigan, from its proximity to 
Lathom House, as well as from the strength of its position and the 
undeviating attachment of the inhabitants to the Earl of Derby, 
played a distinguished part, and remained a kind of central garrison 
for the Royalist party, retaining all through the period of that great 
conflict the character of " the faithful town of Wigan." Bolton was 

Lancashire and Clieshire. 83 

within easy distance, and was a thorn in the flesh of malignant 
Wigan, and Wigan was as a standing menace to the Boltonian 
Parliamentarians. The desire of each was to capture and destroy 
the other, and it was not long before the opportunity was afforded. 
In the month of January, 1642-3, Sir Thomas Fairfax arrived in 
Manchester, and there established his headquarters, his chief object 
being to gain possession of Preston, which was then the great strong- 
hold of the Royalists. A body oi troops was sent from Manchester, 
which was largely augmented by a force from Bolton, and no sooner 
was it known at Wigan that Bolton was left comparatively unpro- 
tected than Lord Derby, with a body of Royalists, hurried as from 
ambush, with the intention of striking a sudden blow which should 
intimidate his enemies and restore the confidence of his friends. 
Intelligence reached the town, however, in advance of the earl, and 
the inhabitants, gathering behind their temporary fortifications, 
prepared themselves for the attack. The assault was terrible ; the 
defence was desperate. The force and impetuosity of the assailants 
enabled them to carry some of the barricades, and for a time a 
portion of the town was in their possession ; but they were quickly 
driven back. The fighting continued for four hours, during which 
time large numbers of the townsmen were slain, but a much larger 
number of the Wiganers were made to bite the dust, and eventually 
the Royalists had to retreat through the breaches they themselves 
had made. Both sides " raged and fought like lions," and the 
cruelties perpetrated that day were long remembered in Bolton. 

Disappointed by his failure, the earl next resolved upon the 
recovery of Lancaster, which had been seized by the Puritans and put 
in a state of defence with " twenty-one great pieces of ordnance " 
that had been recovered from a Spanish ship which had been 
stranded on the sands of Morecambe Bay. In this enterprise he 
was joined by Sir John Girlington and the brave Sir Thomas 
Tyldesley. Lancaster was reached on the i8th March, the town 
being immediately summoned to surrender on promise of " fair 
usage ;" but the inhabitants refused, whereupon the attack was 
made, and with much more success than at Bolton. A great part 

84 County Families of 

of the town was burned, and many of its defenders were put to the 
sword. The Castle still held out, but, hearing that a large force 
was advancing for its relief, the earl prudently withdrew his men, 
and falling back upon Preston, which had been left unprotected, 
took possession without much resistance being offered. 

The men of Rolton held "a solemn fast and humiliation" for the 
fall of Preston, and Lord Derby, elated with his success, determined 
on making another effort to reduce that great Puritan stronghold, 
but was again unsuccessful. The Boltonians were eager to repay 
the compliment by making an attack on Wigan. While that town 
proudly held its own, Bolton, which had been twice attacked, was 
accounted an inferior rival. The idea of inferiority was not to be 
endured, and hence a besieging force, aided by the train-bands from 
Manchester, was despatched with the object of accomplishing its 
overthrow. Wigan was equal to the occasion ; earthworks were 
hastily thrown up, the walls were manned, and every preparation 
made to give the enemy a warm reception. After a short parley, 
the town was stormed, and a breach having been unexpectedly 
made in the walls, the Boltonians rushed in, and, fired by a spirit of 
revenge, sacked the town and carried all before them ; but a report 
arriving that Earl Derby was advancing with a considerable force to 
the relief, they secured what booty they could and then beat a 
retreat, the Manchester men hurrying to Warrington, where, in an 
attempt to take the town, they sustained a defeat. 

Prompt, vigorous, and self-reliant, the earl lost no time in 
following up the moral advantage gained by the unsuccessful attack 
of the Parliament forces on Wigan. Gathering a force said to 
consist of " eleven troops of horse, seven hundred foot, and infinite 
clubmen," he marched from Preston, crossed the Ribble at Rib- 
chester, and proceeded to Whalley, with the intention of clearing 
the Blackburn Hundred of the Parliamentarian forces. Dismayed 
by his valour and recent successes, the enemy retired before him ; 
but Colonel Assheton coming to their assistance, a running fire took 
place at Ribchester and along the valley of the Ribble, which ended 
in the earl being repulsed and driven out of that part of the country. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 85 

At this juncture a despatch was received from the King, notifying 
him that the rebels, favoured by a confederacy within, had formed a 
project for seizing the Isle of Man, and specially requesting him to 
proceed thither without delay. Taking ship, he arrived at Castle 
Rushen in the month of June, 1643, and summoning his officers, 
spiritual and temporal, to meet him at Peel town, began an investi- 
gation of the grievances of which complaint had been made. 
During his absence the Countess of Derby, with her children, 
remained at Lathom House, which had been strengthened and 
supplied with provisions, ammunition, and men, to enable it to resist 
an attack, which in the then state of affairs seemed extremely 
probable. It was not long before the wisdom of these precautions 
was apparent. The withdrawal of Lord Derby had a deadening 
influence upon the Royalist cause in Lancashire. Victory after 
victory was gained by the Parliamentarians, and fortress after 
fortress was demolished by their orders. Manchester had scorned 
the summons of Prince Rupert ; YVarrington had yielded ; Wigan 
"faithful Wigan" could no longer hold its own ; Thurland Castle, 
the last remaining stronghold in North Lancashire, had capitulated ; 
and Lathom alone held out. The winter of 1643-4 was employed 
in strengthening the defences of the several towns in the county, all 
of which were then in the hands of the King's enemies, and vast 
preparations were made for the renewal of the conflict. On Satur- 
day, the 24th February, a council of Parliamentary officers the 
Holy State, as it was called was held at Manchester, when it was 
resolved that an attack should be made upon Lathom House. Sir 
Thomas Fairfax undertook the command, with the assistance of 
Colonel Assheton, of Middleton ; Colonel More, of Bank Hall ; 
and the irrepressible Colonel Rigby, who, in the interest of the 
Parliament, was head and heart and hand, and almost everything 
else of importance, in the county. Proceeding by way of Bolton, 
Wigan, and Standish, the besieging force arrived within a mile or 
two of the house on the zyth, and after "fasting and humiliation" 
and "much preaching and prayer," in which the "seven-towered 
Lathom " was declared to be the seven-headed beast of prophecy, 


County Families of 

and its heroic defender, the Countess of Derby, the scarlet lady of 
the apocalypse, preparations were made for the siege. That siege 
was the most memorable in the annals of Lancashire. 

Unfortunately, no 
authentic illustration of 
Lathom House, as it 
appeared in its pristine 
state, has been preserved, 
though some idea of its 



^ (^ ^ ^^ / 

/ I 

s//-))<n / 

Autograph of Charlotte lie la Trtii 
Countess of Derby. 

/yyf magnitude and general features may 
ff ' be formed from the verbal descrip- 

//{^st/l/l/? tions of the time - Tne building 
itself was of vast extent, with a 
massive keep the Eagle Tower 
rising in the midst, and surrounded 
by embattled curtain walls, strength- 
ened by seven lofty towers, the whole being encircled by a wide ditch 
or moat, across which access was gained by a drawbridge communi- 
cating with a portcullised gateway. " The place," says the late Canon 
Raines, " had been rebuilt about the year 1496, and was con- 
structed of timber and plaster, brick and stone, and is said to have 
furnished Henry VII. with a model for his new palace at Richmond.* 

* The Kinge thus satiate with delights, surveying Lathom Hall, 
Enamour'd of the frame and forme, and other buildings all, 
At his home-cominge pull'd downe Richmont, faire in man's estimation, 
An built that new, in all respects like Lathom Hall in fashion. 

N teal's Progresses of K. fames, v. iii., p. 403. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 87 

Lathom was rich in the historic memories of the family for at least 
five centuries. Here, before the reign of Richard I., lived the 
Torbocks, who from that time were called, from their principal 
residence, de Lathom. Here Plantagenet warriors and statesmen 
assembled ; and here Sir John Stanley, the Edwardian soldier, 
brought his victorious trophies from Ireland, and married the great 
heiress of Sir Thomas de Lathom. Here King Henry VII. visited 
his pious mother and his sagacious stepfather, Thomas, the first 
Earl of Derby, and the Constable of England. Here came Bessy 
of York and Prince Arthur, and were received with sumptuous 
hospitality. Here had sojourned the victorious Somerset, Warwick 
the King-maker, and Henry, the good Earl of Cumberland. Here 
had lived and here were educated, as in ' a school of the prophets,' 
William Smith, the liberal-minded Bishop of Lincoln, and co-founder 
of Brasenose College, Oxford ; Hugh Oldham, the far-seeing Bishop 
of Exeter, and co-founder of Manchester School ; Nicholas Asheton, 
the charitable Archdeacon of York ; and other ecclesiastics of devout 
and exalted minds. Here had ruled, in what was popularly called 
'the Northern Court,' the magnificence and princely noblemen, 
Edward and Henry, the third and fourth Earls of Derby. Here 
James I. and his Court had been entertained in regal style ; and 
here Prince Rupert was welcomed as a conqueror and a relative by 
Lady Derby, the royal descendant of the Houses of Bourbon and 
Montpensier. . . . Lathom had done good service not only to 
its owner, but also to the whole county ; and, defiant as its aspect 
was, the Republicans regarded it as their own by anticipation, 
whilst its noble occupant proudly looked upon it as her city of 

The countess had within her walls a force of three hundred men, 
commanded by six gentlemen of good family Captains Henry Ogle, 
of Prescot ; Edward Chisenhale, of Chisenhale ; Edward Raws- 
thorne, of Newhall ; William Fanner, a Scotchman Molyneux 
Radcliffe, of Manchester ; and Richard Fox, of Rhodes ; her 
principal adviser being Mr. Henry ffarington, of Worden Hall, the 
representative of a family that had for many generations held high 

88 County Families of 

office in the Derby household. The negotiations for surrender 
began with a message from Sir Thomas Fairfax, who had established 
his quarters at New Park, offering mercy to Lord Derby if his 
house were given up to the Parliament. With the view of gaining 
time, the countess replied: "She much wondered that Sir Thomas 
Fairfax should require her to give up her lord's house without any 
offence on her part done to the Parliament, desiring that in a 
business of such weight, which struck both at her religion and her 
life, and that so nearly concerned her sovereign, her lord, and her 
whole posterity, she might have a week's consideration to resolve 
the doubts of conscience and to have advice in matters of law and 
honour." The week asked for was refused, and instead the countess 
was invited to confer with Sir Thomas and his officers at a house 
in the park named. To this invitation she sent the following 
reply : " Say to Sir Thomas Fairfax that, notwithstanding my 
present position, I do not forget either the honour of my lord or of 
my own birth, and that I conceive it more knightly that Sir Thomas 
Fairfax should wait upon me than I upon him." Negotiations 
being in vain, the Parliamentary colonels determined to proceed 
with resolution and vigour. Batteries were erected, trenches were 
dug, and orders given for a formal siege. 

The siege of Lathom has been so frequently described, that there 
is no occasion to repeat the oft-told story here ; suffice it to say that 
hostilities were carried on with "dreary indecision" from the 6th 
March to the 24th April, 1644, when Fairfax, whose patience 
appears to have been worn out, quitted the scene, and returned to 
Yorkshire, leaving the conduct of the siege mainly in the hands of 
Rigby. In the meantime, the Earl of Derby, having restored order 
among the discontented Manxmen, hastened from the island to 
Chester, from whence he made a forcible appeal to Prince Rupert 
for succour for his countess and the beleaguered garrison at Lathom, 
and this was backed up by a memorial from the leading citizens 
of Chester Richard Grosvenor, of Eton, an ancestor of the present 
Duke of Westminster, being among the signatories urging the 
prince speedily to relieve his "very heroic kinswoman," as they 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 89 

styled the countess. Many long, weary, and anxious weeks passed 
before the request was complied with. At length the much- 
desired help was given. On the 25th May, Rupert entered Lanca- 
shire, dashing over the narrow bridge at Stockport. An attempt 
was made by Colonels Dukinfield and Mainwaring to prevent his 
progress, but their forces were beaten off with considerable loss, and 
the victorious Royalists proceeded on their way without further 
resistance to Bolton, where they were joined by the Earl of Derby 
at the head of a considerable force, breathing vengeance against the 
assailants of his house. 

Rigby, on hearing of the turn affairs had taken, deemed it 
imprudent to remain longer before the walls of Lathom. On the 
ayth May he drew off his men, under cover of the night, and 
abandoned the siege, which had then lasted three months. After 
halting at Eccleston Green, in uncertainty which way to march, he 
fell back upon Bolton. With an army weakened and dispirited, he 
entered that stronghold of Puritanism on the morning of the 28th, 
and within an hour or two of his arrival Prince Rupert and the 
Earl of Derby, with their united forces, flushed by recent victories, 
appeared before the town, when " the insolent rebel " found the 
tables turned upon himself, and, instead of being the besieger, was 
now the besieged. There was little time to prepare for defence. 
The Royalists were eager for the conflict. A brave resistance was 
offered, but bravery was of little avail against the overwhelming 
numbers of Rupert's cavaliers. Lord Derby led the assault with 
two companies of his own men, and, scaling the walls, burst into 
the very heart of the town. The contest raged on both sides with 
terrific fury ; quarter was neither asked nor given ; indiscriminate 
slaughter prevailed, and the carnage was frightful. Rigby contrived 
to make his escape, and fled into Yorkshire ; but it was said there 
was scarcely a Puritan family for miles round Bolton that had not to 
mourn the loss of some member who had fallen in the fight. On 
that May morning, while the dawn was deepening into day, a 
besieging force was hastening from before the walls of Lathom ; 
the sun, as it sank down in the west, shed its warm rays upon the 

County Families of 

plumed helmets and glistening corslets of a triumphant army cross- 
ing the draw-bridge, with drums beating and colours flying, and 
entering the great courtyard, to tell the story of the victory it had 
won. It was a fatal day for Bolton, and one in the end scarcely 
less fatal to the head of the House of Stanley, for the cruelties then 
practised were repaid with vengeance a few years later. 

The appearance of Rupert's army in Lancashire spread consterna- 
tion in the ranks of the anti-Royalists. After the destruction of 
Rigby's force at Bolton, he followed the lawyer-soldier's companion- 
in-arms, Colonel More, to Liverpool, laid siege to the town, and 
after some resistance carried it by storm. His stay in Liverpool 
was brief, and, having harried the county to his satisfaction, he led 
his men across the moorland border towards York, where the 
Marquis of Newcastle was then besieged by the combined armies of 
England and Scotland. Charles had written to the prince, com- 
manding that, " all new enterprises laid aside," he should march with 
all his force to the relief of York. He did march. Marston Moor 
was the result. Lord Derby accompanied Rupert, and was in the 
thick of the fight at Marston. Three times, we are told, he rallied 
his men ; but at Marston, as at Edge Hill, the rash impetuosity of 
the prince turned victory into disaster, and the King's cause was 
lost. Rupert retreated with the wreck of his army to Chester, and 
the Earl of Derby returned to Lathom. After this reverse, fearing 
a second attack upon his house, the earl, at the urgent request of 
Prince Rupert, sent the countess, with her three sons, the eldest of 
whom, Charles, was then eighteen, and her three daughters, for 
safety to the Isle of Man, and shortly afterwards, leaving Lathom, 
which had been repaired, strengthened, and revictualled, to the care 
of Colonel Sir Edward Rawsthorne, he followed them. 

Sir John Meldrum was sent into Lancashire with reinforcements 
to assist the friends of the Parliament. Liverpool and the other 
positions which Prince Rupert had taken were one after another 
recovered, and the county remained for a time in a state of compara- 
tive tranquillity, though occasionally harassed in the Fylde district 
by the action of Sir Thomas Tyldesley. With the object of dis- 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 

lodging this resolute and uncompromising partisan, Sir John set 
out with a force from Manchester, and a fierce encounter took 
place on Freckleton Marsh. Tyldesley rallied and re-formed his 
men. but his efforts were unavailing. Victory followed victory, one 
position after another was forced, and one detachment after another 
was dispersed, until, as Rushworth wrote, "there remained of 
unreduced garrisons belonging to the King in Lancashire only 
Lathom House and Green(halgh) Castle." 

Greenhalgh Castle was an embattled and moated structure, which 
had been built by the first Earl of Derby, on the banks of the 
Wyre, near Garstang, in 1490, when, as Camden says, the earl " was 
under apprehensions of danger from certain of the nobility of the 
county who had been outlawed, and whose estates had been given 
to him by Henry VII.," and was then garrisoned for the King. 

The two fortified mansions of Greenhalgh and Lathom were 
naturally regarded with aversion by the ruling powers, as ostensibly 
obstructing the public peace and defying the authority of the 
Republican party, and in consequence Sir John Meldrum determined 
to effect their reduction. In August, 1644, Colonel Deciding was 
ordered to march his regiment home, "and to provide himself to 
beleaguer Greenall Castle, then possessed by the Cavaliers." The 
garrison, which was under the command of Colonel Anderton, of 
Euxton, made a gallant defence, and oftentimes, in the sorties made 
at night for the purpose of obtaining supplies, managed to inflict 
considerable injury upon the besiegers. The siege was not brought 
to a successful issue until the following year, for in May, 1645, 
Rushworth mentions "Greenhaugh Castle" as one of the eight 
strongholds north of the Trent then still holding out. Eventually, 
after the death of the governor, the garrison yielded, and the 
building, by an ordinance of Parliament dated March 27, 1649, 
was demolished. Meanwhile, the garrison at Lathom having made 
itself especially obnoxious by the " daily roberyes and plundering " of 
neighbouring Roundheads, its submission was resolved upon. At the 
outset negotiations were entered into with the earl, who was then 
in the Isle of Man, with the view of securing the withdrawal of the 

92 County Families of 

force stationed there without recourse to arms ; but these coming to 
nothing, it was determined to make another attempt to seize the 
stronghold, which had so long been a refuge and safe protection for 
the Cavaliers of Lancashire. 

The story of the second siege of Lathom House lacks the element 
of romance which gives so much interest to that of the first, for the 
intrepid Charlotte de la Tremoille was no longer the central figure 
in the defence. The garrison, nevertheless, did its duty to the last, 
and if the assaults ( were vigorous, the resistance was no less obstinate. 
Colonel Egcrton, of Shaw, had the nominal command of the 
besieging force, but Rigby was the moving spirit, and directed the 
operations. For a considerable period little or no progress could 
Ix; made, the garrison, in its nightly sorties, destroying the trenches 
and earthworks constructed by its assailants during the day. For 
long weary months the siege was continued, but the garrison, 
though enfeebled and distressed, would listen to no proposal for 
surrender. As the winter approached, their sufferings became more 
severe ; but they bravely held out, and it was not until the 2nd 
December, 1645, that, at the express command of the King, and 
with starvation staring them in the face, they submitted, and 
then only upon the condition of their being allowed to return to 
their homes with their personal property, though some of them were 
so weakened by starvation that they were unable to walk even into 
the neighbouring villages ; in fact, to such an extremity had these 
brave men been reduced that, as one who was present at the siege 
has recorded, " the smell and taste of their garments beuraied it." 
The fall of Lathom House was the occasion of rejoicing in every 
Puritan town in Lancashire ; " the horns of the great beast were all 
broken," and the relentless victors, in violation of the conditions of 
surrender, set to work with wild fury to hack and destroy every- 
thing that came in their way : the buildings were dismantled, the 
lead was stripped from the roofs, and the towers razed with the 
ground, while the common soldiers were allowed to plunder and 
carry away with them whatever valuables they could lay their hands 
on. Lathom was the glory of Lancashire, and even the bitterest 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 93 

enemy of the Stanleys, remembering the associations that gathered 
round it and the lavish hospitality that had been maintained within 
its walls, could not but regret that Rigby's fanatical soldiery had 
not stayed their hands before its absolute destruction had been 
accomplished. Lord Derby, on receiving the sad intelligence, 
expressed himself in sorrow more than in anger, and nothing can be 
more touching than his reflections upon the loss, or more apposite 
than the texts of Scripture he, at the time, entered in his book of 
" Private Devotions." " Our holy and our beautiful house," hu 
writes, " where our fathers praised Thee, is burned with fire ; and 
all our pleasant things are laid waste" (Isaiah Ixiv., 11). "I 
have forsaken mine house; I have left mine heritage; 1 have given 
the dearly beloved of my soul to the hand of her enemies. Mine 
heritage is unto me as a lion in the forest ; it crieth out against 
me" (Jeremiah xii., 7-8). 

For four or five years the earl remained in retirement in his 
island. He was beyond the sounds of civil conflict and internecine 
strife, and in the seclusion of that ancient home of the old Scandi- 
navian kings Castle Rushen surrounded by his children, 
administering the affairs of his little kingdom, and dispensing such 
hospitalities to fugitive Royalists as his straitened means would 
afford, he passed some of the happiest years of his life. At an 
earlier period of the struggle his Lancashire estates had fallen under 
the sequestrating ordinance of the Parliament. It was a great haul 
for the sequestrators, but after much solicitation on the part of the 
countess, the powers sanctioned the allowance to her for the support 
and education of the younger children one-fifth part of the estates, 
and ordered that "the Manor of Knowsley, in the county of Lan- 
caster, thereto belonging, be part of the said one-fifth part ; and 
that no timber be felled upon the said earl's lands, but that the 
same be preserved according to the order of the sequestration ;" but 
she failed to effect any improvement in her husband's position. 

Events in England had been marching rapidly. Marston had been 
followed by Naseby, the most decisive as well as the most disastrous 
of all Charles's military engagements, for the victory gained there put 

94 County Families of 

the Parliamentarians in possession of nearly all the chief cities of the 
kingdom, and the King was now in the power of his enemies. In 

the negotiations at Newcastle the Earl of Derby was included in the 
number specially excluded from the amnesty that was proposed, a 
circumstance that gave much anxiety to the countess, who straight- 
way proceeded to London to make appeal on his behalf. She 
embarked in an unseaworthy boat, and was forty-eight hours in 
crossing to the mainland. In February, 1647, we find her in 
" Lenguisher," near one of the earl's houses, endeavouring to raise 
a loan among his tenantry for the necessary expenses of her journey. 
Having obtained some trifling help, she proceeded to London upon 
the earl's " great business," and was so far successful that she 
obtained leave for her children to remove from the Isle of Man, and 
the further promise that she should have for their maintenance one- 
fifth of their father's confiscated revenue, as before stated. On the 
faith of this promise two of Lord Derby's daughters the Ladies 
Catharine and Amelia entered upon the possession of Knowsley, 
and were for a time permitted to draw the allowance granted them 
by Parliament. The arrangement was distasteful to the military 
governor of Liverpool, Colonel Thomas Birch, the most intolerant 
and vandalistic soldier of his day, who, on the pretence that the 
Isle of Man had not been surrendered into the hands of the Crom- 
wellian party, seized the young ladies, with their attendants, and 
committed them to prison. Complaint was made to Fairfax, who 
replied that if the earl would deliver up the Isle of Man to the 
Parliament's commands the King had then been beheaded "his 
children should be set at liberty, and that he himself might peaceably 
retire to England, and enjoy one moiety of all his estates," a condi- 
tion that was unhesitatingly rejected. 

On the i6th June, 1650, Charles II., who had nominally 
succeeded to the Crown, landed in Scotland; on the 3rd September, 
Dunbar was fought and lost. Having succeeded in rallying his 
supporters, he received the circle and symbol of sovereignty at 
Scone on the ist January, 1651, and on the 3ist July following set 
out from Stirling on his march southward, taking the western road 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 


by Carlisle. In August the Royal Standard was floated once more 
over the battlemented tower of old John o' Gaunt " time-honoured 
Lancaster" and Charles was proclaimed King. In the meanwhile 
the Earl of Derby, who had received intelligence of the King's move- 
ments, quitted the Isle of Man, with Sir Thomas Tyldesley, who had 
sought safety there, and arrived in the Wyre water on the 15111 
August, with a few hundred men to whom he had given shelter, and 


immediately set about collecting auxiliaries, with which he hastened to 
Preston, while the King marched southwards to Worcester. Colonel 
Birch, on receiving intelligence of the earl's arrival in Lancashire, 
immediately took measures to defeat the object of his mission, and 
despatched a force under Colonel Lilburne to intercept him. On 
the 25th August the two armies met in a lane on the north side of the 
dismantled town of Wigan. The conflict began about mid-day, and 

g6 County Families of 

for two hours raged with unceasing fury, every inch of ground being 
hotly contested. Lord Derby and his second in command, Sir 
Thomas Tyldesley, fought with the utmost bravery and determina- 
tion, but in vain. During the struggle the gallant Tyldesley fell 
covered with wounds, and when it was over his body was found 
among a heap of slain. Again and again was the engagement 
renewed. Victory seemed to alternate, but eventually a deadly 
discharge from the firelocks threw the Royalists into confusion. 
After a stubborn and desperate resistance, their lines wavered, when 
Lilburne's horse dashed up and drove the remnant of them in 
confusion from their position. Lord Derby, weary and wounded, 
escaped into the town, and found shelter in "The Dog" Tavern, 
near the Market Place. In the struggle he had received seven shots 
upon his breast-plate, thirteen cuts on his beaver, which he wore 
over a cap of steel, besides five or six slight wounds on his arms 
and shoulders. Having got his wounds dressed, he set out with two 
or three attendants, and pursued his way by Warrington to Worcester; 
but, as events proved, he only escaped from danger to death. 

Within a week of the disaster at Wigane Lane, Worcester had been 
lost, and "Charles Stuart, son of the late tyrant," as the Cromwellians 
styled him, was a sorrowful fugitive, hastening for life from the fatal 
field in the endeavour to escape from his merciless pursuers. After 
the "crowning mercy," as Cromwell phrased it, at Worcester, the earl 
accompanied Charles in his flight until he was safe in the care of 
the Pendrells, when, with Lord Lauderdale, Lord Talbot, and about 
forty troopers, he started northwards in the hope of overtaking the 
remnant of the Scotch army ; but when near Nantwich the fugitives 
fell into the hands of Oliver Edge, of Birch Hall Houses, in 
Rusholme, a captain in the Manchester regiment, also returning 
from Worcester. Quarter having been given by his captor, the earl 
naturally believed that he would be entitled to the immunities of a 
prisoner of war ; but he soon found himself in close confinement in 
Chester Castle, of which his old enemy, Colonel Dukinfield, was at 
the time governor. Cromwell, having got his most formidable foe in 
his power, resolved to get for ever rid of him by the shortest process 

Lancashire and CJteshire. 97 

that time and circumstances admitted. The captive was therefore 
brought without delay before Colonel Henry Bradshaw, the brother 
of Judge Bradshaw, and the other members appointed on the court- 
martial, on the charge of high treason in contravening an Act of 
Parliament passed only a few weeks before, and of which, as his 
accusers were well aware, he could have had no knowledge ; and, in 
defiance of the recognised laws of war and the conditions on which 
he had surrendered, he was pronounced guilty, and sentenced to be 
beheaded at Bolton. Every effort was made by the earl's eldest son 
and others to obtain a commutation of the sentence, and the earl 
addressed a manly letter to Cromwell, but without avail. Seacombe 
attributed the refusal to the "inveterate malice" of President Brad- 
shaw, Rigby, and Birch : Bradshaw, because of the earl's refusing 
him the Vice-Chamberlainship of Chester in 1640, when Orlando 
Bridgman, son of the Bishop of Chester, was appointed in his stead ; 
Rigby, because of his ill-success at the siege of Lathom House , 
and Birch, in his lordship having trailed him under a hay cart at 
Manchester on the occasion of the tumult there in July, 1642, by 
which he got among his own party the cognomen of "Lord Derby's 
carter." On the nth October the earl wrote to Lcnthall, the 
Speaker, petitioning the House of Commons for a respite, but his 
enemies were implacable. Wednesday, the isth, was the day fixed 
for the execution ; on the Monday preceding he wrote his tender 
and loving letters to his countess, the Lady Mary, and his sons in 
the Isle of Man, and held converse with Lord Strange and the 
Ladies Catherine and Amelia, who were with him. The next 
morning he set out from Chester. When he came to the Castle 
gate, as his chaplain, Humphrey Baggaley, records, " Mr. Crossen 
and three other gentlemen which were condemned came out of the 
prison at his request, kissed his hand, and wept to take their leave." 
The " Mr. Crossen " was probably Jeremy, or Jeremiah, son of John 
Croston, of Bury and Heath Charnock, who married Elizabeth le 
Playt, a personal attendant of the countess, and the brother of 
John Croston, who was admitted at St. John's College, Cambridge, 
June 13, 1634, and seven years later recommended for a Fellowship 

98 County Families of 

of the College by Lord Derby, then Lord Strange, " for the good 
affection I beare him, for his father's sake. :> Leigh was reached the 
same evening, and on passing through the town the earl expressed 
an earnest wish that he might be permitted to dismount from his 
horse and go into S. Nicholas's Chapel, to cast a last look at the 
honoured grave of his faithful companion-in-arms, Sir Thomas 
Tyldesley ; but even this simple request was refused. On arriving 
at Bolton, at noon on the Wednesday, the scaffold, which had been 
erected at the Market Cross, not being quite ready, he was taken 
into a house close by. Several accounts have been given of his 
death, which differ only in some minor particulars. About three 
o'clock he ascended the ladder, and, standing in front of the 
scaffold, after " submitting to the mercy of God," asserted his inno- 
cence of encouraging the Bolton massacre. While he was speaking 
some confusion arose, from the people not hearing or not under- 
standing him. Having desired that his coffin, which had been 
brought upon the scaffold, should be opened, he turned to his atten- 
dant, William Prescot, of Ayrficld, in Upholland "Faithful 
Prescot," as he called him and asked him to place his foot against 
his (the earl's), that he might not start at the fall of the axe ; and, 
giving him his gloves, hat and band, together with a Queen 
Elizabeth sixpence (the only coin he had left in his pocket) relics 
that have descended as heirlooms of the family, and were until 
recently in the possession of the late Rector of Stockport of that 
name bade the executioner to strike rightly. Kneeling down, 
he offered his last prayer " The Lord bless my wife and children, 
and the Lord bless us all '' ; then, laying his neck upon the block, 
stretched out his hand as the death signal. The executioner did 
his work with a single blow ; the head was severed from the body, 
and so passed away James, the Martyr Earl of Derby, at the early 
age of forty-four. The mangled remains were placed in the coffin, 
into which a slip of paper had been thrown with the following 
couplet written upon it 

Bounty, Witt, Courage, here in one lye dead, 

A STANLEY'S hand, VERB'S heart, and CECIL'S head 

Lancashire and C/ieshire. 99 

the allusions being to his mother, who was a Vere, and his 
maternal grandmother, who was a Cecil and were then removed 
by a few faithful friends to Ormskirk, where he was laid by the side 
of his father in the sepulchre of the Stanleys. 

When Lord Derby's head had fallen, his enemies were not long 
in possessing themselves of the Isle of Man. While he was in 
confinement at Chester, Colonel Birch had resolved upon an 
expedition against it, and in October he and Colonel Dukinfield 
anchored with a force in Ramsey Bay. With little loss of time an 
agreement was come to with the widowed countess for its surrender 
a procedure the earl himself had recommended when the lord- 
ship of the island was conferred upon Fairfax. The Dowager Lady 
Derby returned to England, where she resided in very straitened 
circumstances until the Restoration. Cromwell's major-generals 
dealt hardly with her ; and though Charles II. treated her with great 
kindness and sympathy, he rendered no substantial aid, nor moved 
a step to recover for her or her family any part of her husband's 
forfeited possessions. She died at Knowsley, March 31, 1664, and 
was buried in the Stanley Chapel in Ormskirk Church, having 
survived the earl more than twelve years. In her will, which was 
made on the Qth May preceding, she bequeathed to her son 
"Charles, Earl of Derby, five pounds"- a sentence that may be 
taken as expressing her sense of the treatment she had received 
at his hands. 

In addition to his son Charles, who succeeded to the earldom, 
Lord Derby had issue Henry Frederick and James, who both died 
in infancy, in 1638, and two sons who survived him, but died 
unmarried, one of whom became a cornet in the Guards, and the 
other received the appointment of "first and sole gentleman of the 
bedchamber" to the Duke of York, afterwards James II.; and 
four daughters, one of whom, named after her heroic mother, died 
in infancy Catherine, Henrietta Maria, and Amelia Sophia. The 
countess, notwithstanding her misfortunes and the comparative 
poverty to which she was reduced, succeeded in finding good 
alliances for her surviving daughters. The eldest, the Lady 

ioo County Families of 

Catherine, became the second wife of William Pierrepoint, Marquis 
of Dorsetshire ; Henrietta Maria married, in 1654, William Went- 
worth, who, on the reversal of the attainder of his father, the great 
but unfortunate Earl of Stafford, succeeded to that earldom ; and 
the youngest, the Lady Amelia Sophia, according to her own state- 
ment, " was made the happiest creature alive " by her marriage, in 
1659, with John Murray, second Earl and first Marquis of Athole. 
Her grandson, James, who succeeded as second Duke of Athole, 
inherited, in 1736, as only surviving descendant of James, the 
" Martyr" Earl of Derby, the lordship of Man, a property that, as 
previously stated, was subsequently purchased from his representa- 
tives by the Government. 

Charles Stanley, who succeeded as eighth Earl of Derby, had 
been a cause of anxiety during his father's lifetime, and is alleged 
to have treated his mother with much want of consideration, not to 
say harshness, during her widowhood. While the earl was in retire- 
ment in the Isle of Man, at the time of the second siege of Lathom 
House, he " stole away" from the island and went to France, where 
his aunt, the Duchess de la Tremoille, then was, and after a time 
proceeded to Holland, where, to the dissatisfaction of his high-spirited 
mother, he spent his time " in idleness," and, what was of more 
serious consequence, fell in love with a German lady of good family, 
but without fortune or corresponding rank Dorothea Helena, 
daughter of John Kirkhoven, Baron de Rupa, who had been maid 
of honour to Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia ; and in spite of the 
opposition of his parents, married her. The countess was furious 
at the mesalliance of her eldest son, and would have rushed to 
Holland to prevent the marriage taking place, but was prevented by 
her inability to obtain a passport ; and the earl was so angered at the 
act of filial disobedience, that in a will made at the time he desired 
that his "chief honour and estates" might, by the grace and power 
of the King (Charles II.), descend to his younger children and 
their issue. Notwithstanding the stern severity and injustice of the 
parent, the son did all that a son could do when the earl was in 
great emergency. Immediately he heard of his father's capture he 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 101 

hastened to Chester to render whatever help and comfort was in his 
power, and when, on the day of the court-martial, the petitions to 
Parliament were drawn up, he, " having before laid horses ready, 
rode post to London in one day and night" to present them. " My 
son," wrote the earl in one of his last letters, " shows great affection, 
and is gone to London, with exceeding concern and passion of my 
good." The " great affection " and "exceeding concern" must have 
softened the father's heart, for three days before the execution he wrote 
to the countess : " I must forgive all the world, else I could not go out 
of it as a good Christian ought to do, and I hold myself in duty 
bound and in discretion to desire you to forgive my son and his 
bedfellow " the feeling of resentment was evidently not wholly 
extinguished, for he would not call her his wife; "she hath more 
judgment than I looked for, which is not a little pleasing to me, and 
it may be of good use to him and the rest of our children. She 
takes care of him, and I am deceived much if you and I have not 
been greatly misinformed when we were told ill of her. I hope you 
will have reason to think so, too." Though the earl forgave, he did 
not revoke the will he had made in haste and anger, a circumstance 
that may not unlikely be due to the fact that he had discovered that 
the provisions by which he sought to set aside the direct descent 
were illegal, and consequently of non-effect. Though desired by her 
husband to forgive, the imperious countess does not appear ever to 
have become reconciled either to her son or his wife the " Delilah," 
as she persisted in calling her. In a letter to her sister, written a 
few months after the execution of the carl, she complains that "my 
son, the Earl of Derby, does nothing to comfort me, both he and 
his wife showing great bitterness of feeling towards me ; " and a 
short time before her death she wrote : " The Isle of Man was 
restored to my son Derby immediately after the arrival of the King. 
Monsieur his late father gave it to me for twenty-one years ; and 
my son, without saying a word to me, after I had helped him in 
prison, and maintained him and all his family, has treated me in 
this manner. Our friends advise me strongly to come to some 
agreement by which I should have half the revenue ; but I do not 

IO2 County Families of 

believe I shall get anything except by force. His wife is a person 
without a single good quality. What shocks- me most of all in her 
is that she never speaks the truth, and that she makes her husband 
do things that are quite unworthy of him, which, however, I fear he 
is too much inclined to do." The haughty spirit of Charlotte 
Tremoille could not brook the idea of compromise or agreement 
with her child. The "great bitterness of feeling" was doubtless 
fully reciprocated, and continued to the end, finding expression in 
the poor old lady's last will and testament. 

The help in prison of which mention is made doubtless had 
reference to her son's incarceration after the " Cheshire Rising." 
When Richard Cromwell, in 1659, laid aside the sceptre which had 
proved too heavy for his grasp, Sir George Booth, of Dunham, 
appeared in arms, and obtained possession of Chester, his object 
being to recall the exiled Stuarts. The young Earl of Derby 
joined the movement, which quickly assumed a threatening char- 
acter. Colonel Lambert was sent by the Government with a well- 
disciplined force to suppress the revolt, and an engagement took 
place near Northwich, where Sir George and his army which 
Adam Martindale likened to " Mahomet's Angellical Cocks, made 
up of fire and snow" was completely routed, and the Earl of 
Derby, whose followers had given offence to Booth's "Angellical 
Cocks" by their "boisterous merriment and profanity," was 
captured " in the habit of a serving man," and kept prisoner. 

At the Restoration the earl was restored in blood, and had liberty 
to hold the Isle of Man, with its rights, under the entail created by 
the statute of 7 James I., rights which he exercised with rather 
a high hand, as William Christian, the receiver-general of the 
island, had cause to know; but the other estates of the family 
having been formally confiscated by Act of Parliament during the 
usurpation, except Knowsley and Lathom and such as escaped 
actual sale by the agents of the sequestration, were never recovered, 
and scarcely sufficient remained to the earl to support the honour 
and dignity of his position. An attempt was made to recover some 
of the estates that had been gained " by force and fraud," and a 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 103 

bill for restitution passed the Lords, but was rejected by the 
Commons, so that in regard to them the earl was placed at the 
mercy of unscrupulous lawyers, and, in consideration of such small 
pittances as they chose to offer on behalf of the occupiers, was in a 
measure compelled to submit to final alienation. Among the 
properties named in the rejected Bill of Restitution, and which had 
been obtained from the sequestrators without the consent, expressed 
or implied, of Earl Charles, was the domain of Hawarden, in Flint- 
shire, which had been in the possession of the Derby family from 
the time of Henry VIII. It had found its way into the hands 
of that notorious time-server, Sergeant Glyn,* immortalised in 
Hiidibras : 

Was not the king by proclamation 
Declared a rebel all o'er the nation ? 
Did not the learned Glyn and Maynard 
To make good subjects traitors strain hard ? 

Changing his principles with the change of Government, the 
crafty sergeant contrived to retain possession after the Restoration, 
and the property has continued in his descendants ever since, the 
present occupant of Hawarden being the Right Hon. W. E. 
Gladstone, M.P., who married a daughter of Sir Stephen Richard 

Consequent upon the embarrassment in which his house was 
involved, Earl Charles took up his residence at Bidston, which had 
been the favourite retreat of his grandfather. Lathom House, the 
chief seat of the family, was a heap of ruins, and Knowsley was in 
little better state. With these calamities, and the greater part of the 
hereditary estates alienated, the unfortunate peer sought retirement 
in his Wirral home, to practice economy and heal the feelings of a 
broken heart, leaving it to his successor to assert that " he possessed 
no estate in Lancashire, Cumberland, Westmoreland, Yorkshire, 

* This was the Glyn who, in spite of his professed adherence to Republican 
principles, pressed the acceptance of the crown on Cromwell, and when the 
Protector had passed away, and the King had " got his own again," with 
charming effrontery referred to his act as a proof of his love of monarchy. 

iO4 County Families of 

Cheshire, Warwickshire, or Wales, whence he could not see another 
of equal or greater value lost by his grandfather for his loyalty and 
his service to his King and country." 

Earl Charles, who had had the Lieutenancy of Lancashire and 
Cheshire conferred on him, died, after a lingering illness, on the 2ist 
December, 1672, and was buried at Ormskirk. Though he 
inherited his parents' dislike of the Romish religion, and was, as 
Oliver Heywood said, " a great bulwark against the Papists," his 
Protestantism was not of a very austere type. Dr. Halley, in his 
"Lancashire Puritanism and Nonconformity," bears this kindly 
testimony to his tolerant and forbearing disposition : " It is due to 
the memory of Charles, Earl of Derby, the son of James, who was 
beheaded at Bolton, to observe that, instead of showing any disposi- 
tion to avenge the death of his father upon the Nonconformists, he 
was rather disposed, as Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire, to protect 
them, and to execute the several laws of which he was the reluctant 
minister with as much leniency and forbearance as possible." His 
wife the " I Milah " of the Countess Charlotte survived him, and 
retained her widowhood for the long period of thirty years and 
more, her death occurring in 1703. A sermon was preached on 
the occasion of her funeral, in which her virtues were extolled, and 
full testimony borne to "her great care for the poor." 

Earl Charles had a numerous family nine sons and six daughters, 
though the greater portion of them died in infancy. Of the three 
sons who survived him, William Richard George succeeded as ninth 
earl. Though living in the exciting time of the Revolution of 
1688, and sympathising with William of Orange, he took little or no 
part in the political agitations which then disturbed the country, 
profiting, it may be, by the experience of his grandfather, and 
preferring to lead the life of a country gentleman. He married a 
sister of James, Duke of Ormond, who bore him, in addition to two 
daughters, Henrietta and Elizabeth, a son, James, who died 
unmarried, in the lifetime of his father, November 5th, 1702. The 
earl's next brother, Robert Thomas, who had never married, had 
been killed in a duel with the Duke of Grafton, and the honours 

Lancashire and Chesliire. 105 

consequently devolved on the younger surviving brother, James, 
who succeeded as tenth earl. He had served under William of 
Orange in the wars in Flanders, and sat in the Convention Parlia- 
ment, January 22, 1688-9, for Preston, and for the county of 
Lancaster from 1695 until his accession to the peerage. He rebuilt 
the ancestral hall of Knowsley in the Classic style, and over the 
entrance on the south front, beneath the family arms, placed this 
inscription, to mark his sense of the ingratitude of Charl'js II. : 


Pennant, in his zeal for the Stuart race, declared the inscription 
" calumniating," and the journals of Parliament show that, however 
true it may be in spirit, it is inaccurate in the letter. 

The earl, who married Mary, daughter and heiress of Sir William 
Morley, K.B., of Halnaker, Sussex, died February ist, 1735-6, 
having had issue an only son, James, who died in infancy, January 
31, 1709-10, when the direct line terminated, the Barony of Strange, 
of the creation of 1628, with the sovereignty of Man, descending 
to the heir-general, James, second Duke of Athole, a grandson of 
the third daughter of James, the " Martyr '' earl, the Earldom of 
Derby reverting to Sir Edward Stanley, of Bickerstaffe, as 
descendant of James Stanley, the third son of the first Lord 
Strange, of Knockyn, of this house, who thus l)ecame eleventh Earl 
of Derby. 

The subsequent history of the Stanleys of Knowsley may be told 
very briefly. Edward, the fifth earl, who married Elizabeth, the 
only daughter and heir of Robert Hesketh, of Rufford, had, with 
other issue, a son, James, Lord Stanley, but improperly styled 
Lord Strange, who, marrying the heiress of Hugh Smith, of Weald 
Hall, in Essex, assumed the name of Smith, in addition to his own 

io6 County Families of 

patronymic, and thus originated the fallacy that the Stanleys were 
not of ancient race. He pre-deceased his father, and his eldest son, 
Edward Smith Stanley, succeeded his grandfather as twelfth earl 
in 1776, he being then in his twenty-fourth year. He was appointed 
to the Lieutenancy of the county on succeeding to the title, and he 
held that office for the long period of fifty-eight years. Though 
not personally taking any active part in politics, he was an adherent 
of the Whig party, but was better known for his fondness for the 
turf* and his love of the old English sport of cock-fighting. His 
lordship was twice married. After the death, March I4th, 1797, 
of his first wife, Elizabeth, only daughter of James, sixth Duke of 
Hamilton and lirandon, from whom he had been for some years 
separated, he married, May ist, 1797, Miss Eliza Earren, the 
famous actress. He survived his second wife, and died October 
2 ist, 1834, when his eldest son, Edward Smith Stanley, who had 
been raised to the peerage in his lifetime, succeeded as thirteenth 
earl. Like his father, he was staunch in his adherence to the 
Whigs, but he was chiefly remarkable for his knowledge of orni- 
thology and the interest he took in natural history. His collection 
of birds and mammalia at Knowsley was famed throughout Europe, 
and he also formed an extensive museum, which he bequeathed to 
the town of Liverpool, and which now forms part of the collection 
preserved in the Eree Library there. He died July 2nd, 1851, at 
the advanced age of ninety-six. His eldest son, Edward Geoffrey 
Smith Stanley, who succeeded, was born March 29th, 1799, and sat 
for many years in the House of Commons, first as member, in 1821, 
for the borough of Stockbridgc, and subsequently for Preston, 
Windsor, and North Lancashire. This distinguished scholar, 
orator, and statesman was educated at Eton and Christ Church, 
Oxford, where, in 1819, he gained the chancellor's prize lor Latin 

* He is said to have been the founder, in 1780, of the " Derby," which 
has now attained a world-wide fame, though there is reason to believe the 
origin may be traced to a still earlier time, when James, the seventh earl, 
and the Royalist refugees used to assemble together, on the 28th July, to 
witness the race run by horses bred on the Isle of Man for the silver cup 
given as a prize by the earl. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 107 

verse. A man of impassioned eloquence and of marvellous power 
and resource, he may be said to have recovered for his house that 
political influence which it lost when the head of James, the seventh 
earl, rolled upon the scaffold at the Market Cross at Bolton. He 
filled many offices of State was Under-Secretary for the Colonies 
during a part of the Goderich Administration ; Chief Secretary for 
Ireland from 1830 to March, 1833 ; Secretary of State for the 
Colonies from March, 1833, to July, 1834, and from September, 
1841, to December, 1845 ; First Lord of the Treasury from 
December, 1852, 1858, and again in 1866-7. ^ s a debater he was 
brilliant and powerful, and his knowledge of the science of Parlia- 
mentary defence seemed to bean instinct. Professor Pryme, speak- 
ing of his manner, said: "I have heard Pitt, Fox, and other great 
speakers, but never any equal to Lord Derby, when Mr. Stanley, 
for eloquence and sweetness of expression ;" and in Lord Lytton's 
poem, " The New Timon," he is thus referred to : 

The brilliant chief, irregularly great, 

Frank, haughty, rash the Rupert of Debate. 


Yet who not listens, with delighted smile, 
To the pure Saxon of that silvery style ? 
In the clear style a heart as clear is seen 
Prompt to be rash, revolting from the mean. 

He was elected Lord Rector of the University of Glasgow in 1834 : 
Chancellor of the University of Oxford, October, 1852 ; in September, 
1844, he was summoned to the Upper House in his father's barony 
as Baron Stanley, of Bickerstaffe ; and in 1859 he was made a 
Knight of the Garter. His lordship died at Knowsley, October 23 
1869, leaving by his wife Emma Caroline, second daughter of 
Edward Wilbraham, first Lord Skelmersdale, who survived him, 
and died April z6th, 1876, in addition to a son, Frederick Arthur 
Stanley, who married, May 31, 1864, the Lady Constance Villiers, 
eldest daughter of George, fourth Earl of Clarendon, and was 
raised to the peerage by the title of Baron Stanley of Preston 
in August, 1886, having previously sat in the House of Commons 
from 1865, the heir presumptive to the earldom, and a daughter, 

loS County Families of 

Lady Emma Charlotte Stanley, married, October nth, 1860, to 
Lieut. -Colonel the Hon. Wellington Patrick Manvers Chetwynd- 
Talbot, younger brother of Henry John, eighteenth Earl of Shrews- 
bury, Edward Henry Stanley, born 2ist July, 1826, who succeeded 
as fifteenth Earl of Derby, the present possessor of that dignity. 

Lathom House, which had for generations been the chief resi- 
dence of the head of the House of Stanley, returned in its dis- 
mantled state into the possession of the family after the Restoration 
m 1660, and was occasionally inhabited by them until 1714, when 
the estate was transferred by marriage to Lord Ashburnham. He 
disposed of it to Mr. Henry Furnese, who in turn, in 1724, 
conveyed it to Sir Thomas Bootle, of Melling, from whom it has 
descended through the Wilbrahams to the present owner, Edward 
Bootle-Wilbraham, Karl of Lathom. Knowslcy still remains to the 
Stanleys, and though Fortune made sad havoc with their hereditary 
possessions in the days of the Stuarts, and their petty sovereignty 
of Man has passed away, the "fickle jade" has since compensated 
them for the losses then sustained. The industrial activity and 
commercial enterprise of Lancashire and the development of the 
great port of Liverpool have combined to pour untold wealth into 
the lap of the Stanleys, and the possessor of the Earldom of Derby 
in the present day may vie in social dignity with the proudest who 
ever bore the title. 


\Vi; may now turn our attention to an offshoot of the great House 
of Lathom the Stanleys of Alderley. Among the many gifts 
the "meek usurper" Henry VI. bestowed upon Thomas, the first 
Lord Stanley, not the least important was the wardship of the 
heiress of Thomas de Weever, Lord of Weever and Alderley, in 
Cheshire. This Thomas, at his death in 1445, left an only 
daughter, Elizabeth, who, being at the time under age, became, in 
accordance with the practice of the time, a ward of the Crown. The 
King, in consideration of the services rendered by his favourite, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 109 

gave him the wardship and marriage of the infant heiress, and Lord 
Stanley (then Sir Thomas), with commendable care for the worldly 
interests of his younger son John, made the most of the opportunity 
by bestowing the young lady and her lands upon him, thus securing 
or him and his descendants a very handsome patrimony, embracing 
the Manor of Weever, the lands in Over and Nether Alderley, and 
other estates in Cheshire. 

It is not our purpose to trace the descent of this branch of the 
Stanleys through successive generations. We therefore pass over 
their history to the time of Sir Thomas, the sixth in descent from 
John Stanley, who married the heiress of Weever, and the one wlio 
added a baronetcy to the honours of the Alderley line an interval 
of nearly two centuries, during which time the family estates had 
been largely increased, partly from the possessions of the dissolved 
Abbey of Dieulacres, and partly from lands acquired at different 
times through prudent marriages, as evidenced by the inquisition 
taken in 1606 after the death of Sir Thomas Stanley, Knt., who 
had married the heiress of Sir Peter Warburton, of Grafton, Chief 
Justice of the Common Pleas, and which shows that at his decease 
he held the Manors of Weever, Over Alderley, Nether Alderley, 
Clive, Little Meols, and Pulton Launcelyn; and lands in those and 
the following places : Barretspool, Wimbaldesley, Stanthorne, 
Spittle, Middlewich, Rushton, Bredbury, Upton (near Macclesfield), 
Chorley, Hough, Warford, Chclford, Astle, Uirtles, Mobberley, 
Ollerton, Torkington, Offerton, Norbury, Occleston, Sutton, &c., 
all in the county of Chester. This Thomas, who had been 
knighted by James I. while at Worksop Manor on his progress to 
London after the death of Elizabeth, was succeeded by his eldest 
son, Thomas Stanley, who was only eight years of age at the time 
of his father's death. 

Shortly after he came of age Thomas Stanley married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir James Pytts, of Kyre, a Worcestershire knight, 
and in 1634 had the shrievalty of his county conferred upon him. 
It was the year preceding the arbitrary levy of ship money, when the 
storm was gathering that ere long was to break with such disastrous 


County Families of 

force upon the head of the ill-fated Charles. When the sword was 
drawn the head of the Alderley Stanleys, unlike his kinsman of 
I.athom, ranged himself on the side of those who contended for the 
privileges of Parliament and against the King. He does not, 
however, appear to have engaged in any of the great military enter- 
prises which marked that stirring period, and of which Cheshire 
was for a time the theatre, the help he rendered to the cause being 
mainly limited to the discharge of the civil functions which devolved 
upon him as a magistrate, and in the performance of which he was 
very energetic. Though a staunch Puritan, he can hardly be said 
to have been a violent supporter of the party, and, except in the 
exercise of his magisterial office, took little part in the events then 
transpiring. Possibly it was the moderation he had shown that 
led to his being included among the Cheshire gentlemen on whom 
baronetcies were conferred on the occasion of the Restoration of 
Charles II., and curiously enough his name appears first on the 
list of those in the county on whom that dignity was bestowed. 
Sometime before 1640 he added to his possessions by the purchase 
of Chorley Hall, an old mansion of the Davenports, in Wilmslow 
parish, which still exists, though shorn of many of its ancient 
glories. Up to this time the hall at Weever had been the principal 
residence of the family, but Sir Thomas, who appears to have 
prospered while many of his neighbours were suffering from the 
effects of civil discord, after the acquisition of Chorley Hall, set 
about the improvement of his residence at Alderley, enlarged the 
building, and erected in front of it a handsome stone-arched gate- 
way, two of the pillars of which may still be seen in the wall 
bordering the roadside. It is said that he also planted the beech- 
woods bordering upon the mere, which now form such a pleasant 
adjunct of the park. 

From the time of Sir Thomas until the present century the 
succeeding representatives of the family took little active interest in 
national affairs, preferring the quieter and less exciting life of 
country gentlemen. They passed much of their time in their own 
county, improving their estates and employing their leisure in the 

Lancashire and Cheshire. \ 1 1 

indulgence of their literary tastes. Peter Stanley, who succeeded 
as second baronet on the death of his father, Sir Thomas, in 1672, 
served the office of Sheriff in 1678, and died five years later, at 
the age of fifty-seven, having had by his wife, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Sir John Leigh, of Northcourt, Isle of Wight, to whom he was 
married in 1650, two sons and seven daughters. The marriage is 
thus referred to in the autobiography of Henry Newcome, p. 19 : 
" Mr. Stephenson, of Alderley " (Nicholas Stevenson, who had been 
obtruded into the rectory of Alderley during the usurpation), 
"being gone to London upon the occasion of the marriage of Mr. 
Peter Stanley, had engaged me to preach at Alderley, April 28th 
(1650); for that day I had wrote to Mr. Machin to come over to 
supply my place at Gawsworth." 

Thomas Stanley, the eldest son, who succeeded to the baronetcy 
and estates, was born at Alderley on the 251!! March, 1652, and 
baptised there on the I5th April following. He added to the 
family possessions by his marriage with Christiana, daughter and 
heiress of Sir Stephen Leonard, of West Wickham, Kent, Jiart. 
During his time the old hall at Weever, a half-timbered mansion, 
pleasantly situated on an acclivity that rises from the banks of the 
river of the same name, and which had come into the possession of 
the Stanleys as early as the reign of Henry VI., and been their 
principal residence until 1660 or thereabouts, was sold, the pur- 
chaser being Randle Wilbraham, of Townshend, direct ancestor of 
the Wilbrahams, of Delamere House, the present owners. Lady 
Stanley, who died February i6th, 1711-12, bore him, in addition to 
two daughters, both of whom died young, two sons, who in turn 
succeeded to the honours and estates of the family. Sir Thomas 
died at West Wickham in 1721, when the eldest 01 his two sons, 
James Stanley, succeeded as heir. He married in November, 1740, 
Frances, youngest daughter of George Butler, of Ballyragget, in the At' ' 
county Kilkenny, in Ireland, but by her he had no issue. He 
seems to have been a somewhat eccentric personage, if we may 
judge from a remark made by Miss Stanley. She says, quoting 
from the recollections of John Finlow, an old retainer of the family, 

1 1 2 County Families of 

that "Sir James used to drive up to the Edge almost daily in his 
carriage, drawn by four black long-tailed mares, always accom- 
panied by a running footman of the name of Critchley." She adds 
that her informant, Finlow, was a lad then, and used to get up 
behind the carriage. Notwithstanding his little foibles, the old 
baronet is represented as having been of a remarkably mild and 
placid temperament, a character that seems to be borne out by- 
some lines he is believed to have written, and which were found 
amongst his papers after his death : 

The grace of God and a quiet life, 
A mind content and an honest wife, 
A good report and a friend in store, 
What need a man to wish for more. 

Sir James died March iyth, 1746-7, and was buried at Alderlcy, 
when the baronetcy, as well as the patrimonial lands, devolved upon 
his younger brother, Edward, who succeeded as fifth baronet. He 
did not, however, long enjoy possession of the estates, for in 1755, 
while returning from Adlington, where he had been on a visit to 
Charles I.egh, he was suddenly seized with a fit of apoplexy, and 
died in his carriage before he could be conveyed home. He 
married Mary, daughter of Thomas Ward, a wealthy trader of 
London, and by this lady, who survived him, and died at Bath in 
1771, he had two sons James, who died in infancy, and John 
Thomas, born 26th March, 1735, who succeeded as sixth baronet, 
and who was then in his twenty-first year. He filled the offices of 
gentleman of the Privy Chamber to George III., and clerk of the 
cheque to the Yeomen of the Guards, and married, April z8th, 1763, 
Margaret, daughter and heiress of Hugh Owen, of Penrhos, in 
Anglesey, a well-wooded estate, about a mile from the town and 
harbour of Holyhead, which became part of the Stanley patrimony. 
When he came into possession of his father's estates, the steep, 
rocky promontory known as Alderley Edge, with which every 
Manchester holiday-maker is familiar, was a wild, dreary common, 
without any sign of cultivation except the few clumps of hardy 
fir trees which had been planted by his father and by his uncle, Sir 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 1 1 3 

James Stanley, between the years 1745 and 1755. It is recorded 
that in 1799 he enclosed the Edge, with other waste lands on the 
estate, and at the same time repaired, or re-built, the old Beacon 
which had been in existence from the time of Elizabeth, if not from 
a still earlier date, and which was then in a state of decay, covering 
in the square chamber with a pyramidal roof that, until it became 
obscured by the wealth of foliage around, formed one of the chief 
landmarks in Cheshire. 

Sir John Thomas Stanley died at his residence in London, 
November 29th, 1807, and was buried at South Audley Chapel. By 
his wife, who survived him, and died February ist, 1816, he had five 
daughters and two sons ; of the latter, Edward, the youngest, born 
in London, January ist, 1779, received his early education at the 
Macclesfield Grammar School, from whence, in 1798, he proceeded 
to St. John's College, Cambridge. In 1805 he was presented by 
his father to the rectory of Alderley, for the Stanleys were then, as 
now, patrons of the church, as well as lords of the Manor of 
Alderley. After holding the rectory for thirty-two years, he was, in 
1837, appointed Bishop of Norwich, which See he continued to 
preside over until his death, September 6th, 1849. By his wife, 
Catherine, daughter of the Rev. Oswald Leycester, a younger son 
of the House of Toft, he had, with other children, Arthur Penrhyn 
Stanley, the profound scholar and earnest and fearless thinker, who 
was born at the pleasant old rectory house at Alderley, December 
1 3th, 1815, became Dean of Westminster, and died at the deanery 
house there July i8th, 1881. 

The eldest son of Sir John Thomas Stanley, who was born at 
Alderley, November 26th, 1766, and named after himself, succeeded 
as seventh baronet, and in May, 1839, was raised to the peerage by 
the title of Baron Stanley of Alderley. He was a Fellow of the 
Royal Society and of the Society of Antiquaries, and the author 
of several works of interest published in the latter part of the last 
century, his chief performance being a dissertation upon the Geysers 
of Iceland. He married at Fletching, county Sussex, October nth, 
1796, the Lady Maria Josepha Holroyd, eldest daughter of John, 

1 14 County Families of Lancashire, 

first Earl of Sheffield, the heirs male of the marriage being in 
remainder to the Earldom of Sheffield, and by her, who survived 
him, and died on the ist November, 1863, at the advanced age of 
ninety-two, he had three sons and eight daughters. His lordship 
died on the 23rd October, 1850, and was buried at Alderley, where, 
on the south side of the chancel, is an altar-tomb with a recumbent 
effigy to his memory. 

His eldest son, Sir Edward John Stanley, who had been raised to 
the peerage in his father's lifetime (May izth, 1848), as Baron 
Kddisbury of Winninglon, county Chester, succeeded as second 
Lord Stanley of Alderley. He represented North Cheshire in 
several Parliaments, was a Privy Councillor, and filled the office of 
President of the Board of Trade from 1855 to 1858, and that of 
Postmaster-General from 1860 to 1866, when he retired from active 
political life. He married at Florence, October 6th, 1826, the Hon. 
Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry Augustus, thirteenth Viscount 
Dillon, by whom he had a numerous issue. He died June i6th, 
1869, and was buried at Alderley, where a richly-decorated altar- 
tomb perpetuates his memory, being succeeded in the title and 
estates by his eldest son, Henry Edward John, who sits as third 
Lord Stanley and second Lord Eddisbury. His lordship, who has 
filled several diplomatic offices, was secretary to the special mission 
in the Danubian Provinces from 1856 to 1858, and is an Oriental 
scholar of considerable repute, was born July nth, 1827, and 
married in August, 1862, Fabia, daughter of the late Don Santiago 
Frederico San Roman, of Seville. There is no issue of the marriage, 
the heir presumptive to the baronies of Stanley and Eddisbury and 
the broad lands of Alderley being his lordship's brother, the Hon. 
Edward I.yulph Stanley, of the Inner Temple, formerly member 
for Oldham, who was born May i6th, 1839, and who married, 
February 6th, 1873, Mary Katharine, daughter of Isaac Lowthian 
Bell, of Rounton Grange, Northallerton, M.P. 



HOEVER has followed the course of the Dec above 
Farndon Bridge, where it forms the boundary 
between Cheshire and Denbighshire between 
England and Wales, and further up, where it 
flows with many a gleaming curve and sinuosity 
through that detached scrap of Flintshire that till 1284 belonged 
partly to Cheshire and partly to Shropshire, will have a pleasant 
recollection of the picturesque old bridge that bestrides the 
stream at Bangor the Bangor-is-y-coed (the high church under 
the trees), or Bangor Monachorum of ancient days. It is a spot 
full of cherished memories the British Oxford from whence Chris- 
tianity flowed forth far and near; and standing upon its antiquated 
bridge, the eager student of Church history may call up visions of 
the past, and carry his thoughts back to the time when " Bangor's 
holy anthem floated down the sylvan Dee," ere that terrible tragedy 
was enacted in which 1,200 British Christians, who had refused to 
submit and join the Roman missionaries, were made to feel the force 
of the Saxon sword, and had their homes reduced to a heap of 
shattered ruins. Though Wales here claims the river as her own, 
it was in Norman times the border line of the two countries, the 
eastern shore being then the Maelor-Saesneg or English Maelor, the 
place of traffic. Confronting Bangor from the high ground on the 
English side, at the very verge of the county, is the old Cheshire 
town of Malnas, a place scarcely less pregnant with historical 
associations. Its name Mala-passu as well as its more ancient 
designation, Depenbech, indicates the ancient difficulty of the 

1 1 8 County Families of 

pass; and its topographical features go far to show that in old 
times it must have been a "bad step" in many a campaign 
between the English and the Welsh, when the marches were the 
constant scene of struggle and strife, and 

Like volcanoes flared to heaven the stormy hills of Wales, 

beacon fire answering beacon fire, and warning the whole region o 
approaching danger. The Mala-passu was the pass out of Wales 
into England, and it is doubtless to this part of the country that 
Drayton refers when, repeating the popular Cheshire proverb, he 

says : 

The Muse from Cambria comes, with pinions summ'd and sound, 

And, having put herself upon the English ground, 

First seizeth in her course the noblest Cestrian shore, 

Of our great English bloods as careful here of yore 

As Cambria of her Brute's now is, or could be then, 

For which our proverb calls her " Cheshire, chief of men." 

Within the limits of the parish of Malpas, and comprehended in 
the original barony, is the township of Egerton, a place that claims 
our attention from the circumstance that it gave the surname to 
one of the most ancient, as it is one of the most honoured, of our 
" County Houses " a family that in the course of time has been 
ennobled alike by virtue, wit, and valour, and which, in addition 
to the baronetcy enjoyed by the older line, has had conferred upon 
it at different times the famous, though now extinct, ducal title of 
Briclgewater, the Earldom of Wilton and of Ellesmere, and the 
Barony of Egerton of Tatton. 

When the Saxon counties had been formed, this part of Cheshire, 
as we learn from the Domesday Book, belonged to Edwin, Earl of 
Mercia, a grandson of Earl Leofric and that fair Lady Godiva 
whose memory the good people of Coventry still delight to honour. 
After the battle of Hastings the Saxon rights were transferred by 
the victorious Norman to hjs__gister's son, Hugh d'Avranches, 
surnamed Lupus, the pious profligate whom he had created Pala- 
tine Earl of Chester. Malpas was selected by him as the site of 
one of the numerous fortresses with which, at regular intervals, he 

Lancashire and Cheshire. \ 1 9 

strengthened his Welsh border, and was given by him, with other 
estates from the forfeited lands of Earl Edwin, to his natural son, 
Robert Fitz-Hugh, whom he had created Baron of Malpas, and 
who was one of the eight barons of his Parliament. Robert Fitz- 
Hugh, whose name appears as a witness to the foundation charter 
of St. Werburgh's Abbey at Chester in 1093, had two daughters, 
Letitia and Mabilla, who in course of time became his heirs, and 
the latter of whom afterwards married William le Belward, of 
Malpas, son of John le Belward, who was living in the time of 
William Rufus, and is believed to have been one of the five knights 
mentioned in the Domesday as holding their lands of the Norman 
baron. To this William the Lady Mabilla conveyed her moiety of 
the Malpas barony, and from this marriage, as we shall see, sprang 
the House of Egerton. In due time a son, William Belward, was 
born, who at his father's death succeeded to the moiety of the 
Barony of Malpas, including the township of Egerton. He married 
Tanglust, a natural daughter of Hugh Kevelioc, Palatine Earl of 
Chester, or, according to some authorities, Beatrix, daughter of 
Randle, Earl of Chester, and had a son David, surnamed I.e Clerc, 
from his being secretary to the Earl of Chester, who was knighted 
and made Justice of Chester. David, who married Catharine, 
daughter of Owain Vaghan, had in turn four sons : William, his 
heir; Philip, of whom anon; David, who was ancestor of the 
Golbournes, of Golbourne, in Lancashire; and Peter, from whom 
descended the Le Roters, or Rutters, of Thornton-in-the-Moors. 
William, the eldest son, married Margaret, daughter of Codogan de 
Lynton, but, having no legitimate descendant, he made his younger 
brother, Philip, heir to his estates. He took up his abode at 
Egerton, and, in accordance with the custom of the time, assumed 
as his surname that of the place where he had fixed his residence, 
and thus commenced the line of the Egertons properly so called. 
He was not, however, permitted to enter upon his possessions with- 
out resistance, for a baseborn son his brother had had by his concu- 
bine Beatrix, daughter of Robert de Montalt, seneschal of the 
Earl of Chester, had intruded himself into the barony, and claimed 

I2O County Families of 

as heir of his father's moiety. A good deal of litigation and heart 
burning followed, but eventually, after several suits, Philip Egerton 
recovered possession. 

Disregarding the time-honoured Cheshire maxim that it is better 
to marry over the mixen than over the moor, Philip Egerton went 
into Lancashire for a wife, and found one in the person of Katharine, 
otherwise Ancharette, daughter of Jorveth or Yawrarit de Hulton, 
of Hulton, to whom King John, on succeeding to the Crown, had 
given the township of Pendleton, and who was himself the son and 
heir of Blethyn de Hulton, living in the time of Henry II., the 
patriarch of that ancient and honoured Lancashire family. She 
bore him, with other children, a son David, who added to the family 
possessions by his marriage with Cecilia, one of the daughters of 
Randle Thornton, lord of Thornton-in-thc-Moors, for, as appears 
by a deed in the Egerton collection, Amicia, the widow of Randle 
and the sister and co-heir of Ranulph de Kingsley, gave to him all 
her lands in Crowton a third share of the manor in frank 
marriage with Cecilia, her daughter. The deed is without date, 
from which circumstance it may be assumed that it was executed 
before the year 1290, when the statute of Q/ii'a etnptores terrariim 
(18 Edwd. I.) was passed, after which it was customary to add the 
regnal year. Amicia, the grantor, must have lived to a ripe old 
age ; she was a widow in 1243, she is known to have been living in 
1279, and there is reason to believe that she survived until 1308. 

Several sons were born of this marriage, the eldest of whom, 
Philip de Egerton, who succeeded, was honoured with the shrievalty 
of his county in 1295. Eollowing the example of his father, he 
further added to the patrimonial lands by a marriage with Margaret, 
daughter of Richard de Wrenbury, by Katharine, daughter of the 
Lady Matilda de Courtray, who brought him as her marriage 
portion all the lands of her mother in Wrenbury, which appear to 
have included the lands in Wardle, or Wardhull, called Wardel Park, 
and a place called the Breres, and to these should be added the 
lands in Burwardesley, which he obtained in the reign of Henry III. 
from William, son of Robert Patric, as appears by a charter 

Lancashire and Cheshire. \ 2 \ 

among the original evidences at Eaton Hall. He pre-deceased his 
wife, and died about the year 1317, having had, in addition to 
a son David, who succeeded as heir, Urian, who married Amelia, 
daughter and heiress of David Caldecote, and in her right became 
lord of Caldecote. From this union sprung the Egertons of Calde- 
cote and Haselwall, which afterwards divided into the families of 
Egerton of Bettley and Egerton of Wrinehill, the last-named place, 
formerly a seat of the Hawkstones at Checkley, on the borders of 
Staffordshire, being acquired with Newbold Astbury, Smalhvood, 
and other estates by the marriage of William de Egerton, the great 
grandson of Urian, with Ellen, daughter and heir of Sir John 
Hawkstone. These estates remained in the possession of the senior 
line of the Caldecote branch until the time of Elizabeth, when, 
through failure of surviving male issue, it terminated in Edward 
Egerton, who conveyed his estates at Wrinehill and Newbold 
Astbury, with other manors and lands, for, as is believed, a valuable 
consideration, to Sir John Egerton, of Egerton and Oulton, who, 
through his connection with the court of Elizabeth, seems to have 
created the means for the acquisition of very considerable estates in 
Cheshire and elsewhere. To this branch of the family we shall 
have occasion to refer hereafter. In the meantime we return to the 
parent stock. The third son of Philip Egerton, and the younger 
brother of Urian, was Sir Brian Egerton, a knight of Rhodes, who 
was living in 1334; Richard, who in 1307 had the misfortune to 
slay his kinsman, Robert Eitz-Madoc de Egerton ; and a daughter, 
who became the wife of David de Malpas, of Hampton. 

David, the eldest son and heir of Philip Egerton, served the 
office of Sheriff of Cheshire in 1333-4, and married Isabella, 
daughter of Richard de Fulleshurst, lord of Crewe, by whom he 
had Philip, his heir ; Urian, who, as we shall hereafter see, con- 
tinued the line of Egerton of Egerton ; three other sons, I )avid, 
Bryan, and Robert ; and four daughters. By one of those curious 
matrimonial contracts that were common to the age, we find him, 
in a deed dated at Egerton on the Monday after the Epiphany, 
9 Edward II. (1315-6), entering into an agreement with Johnde St. 


County Families of 

Pierre that his son and heir Philip shall marry Ellena, the daughter 
of the said John, the portion of eighty marks she was to receive to 
be returned, as the deed prudently provided, in the event of her 
dying before the marriage was consummated. Happily that 
contingency did not arise, for she was living at the time that Crescy 
was fought, in 1346, thirty years after the agreement was entered 
into, and had borne her husband a son, David, and two daughters, 
Ellen and Isabel. After her death Philip Egerton again entered 
the marriage state, his second wife being (?) Maud, daughter of 
Richard Vernon, of Shipbroke, and widow of William Venables, 
but by her he had no issue. Like his predecessors, he was an 
accumulator of lands. Sometime after his first marriage he pur- 
chased from Hugh de Wordhull certain lands in Wardle ; he also 
obtained certain tenements in Egerton belonging to William, son of 
Madoc de Egerton, a brother probably of the Robert who, as we 
have seen, had many years before met his death at the hands of his 
uncle Richard; and about the same time (12 Edward III.) he 
acquired other tenements in the same township from William, son 
of Richard del Wode. Eight years later (20 Edward III.) he had 
the satisfaction of seeing his only son united in marriage with a 
daughter of the great House of Venables Isabel, daughter of Sir 
Hugh Venables, Baron of Kinderton, and his wife Agatha, daughter 
of Sir Ralph de Vernon, Baron of Shipbroke two of the eight 
baronies created by Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester. For the benefit 
of the young people he settled his lands, as appears by a deed 
among the Egerton evidences dated 20 Edward III. (1346-7), in 
which he gives to Geoffrey de Denston and John de Wygynton, 
chaplains, the Manors of Egerton and Wychehalgh, with all his lands 
and tenements in Bickerton, Malpas, Chedlow, Wyggelond, Chester, 
Hole, and Over, which manors and estates the said chaplains in the 
same year released to David Egerton (the son) and his wife, Isabel, 
and in the following year he gives to David, his son, and Isabel, his 
wife, a rental of ^20. Nine years later, when, as appears, he had 
married his second wife, he made another settlement, vesting his 
lands in trust in Stephen, son of William Dod, of Edge, who made 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 


a similar settlement, but with remainder, in the event of a failure of 
direct issue, to Urian, the brother of the grantor, and his heirs. 
These several deeds are sealed with the 
heraldic coat of Egerton a lion rampant 
between six pheons or arrowheads the lion 
being an addition to the more ancient coat 
circumscribed with the words SIGILLV. PHI : 
DE. EGGERTON. Urian Egerton, who even- 
tually succeeded under these settlements, 
changed the tinctures of the armorial shield, 
and bore argent, a lion rampant, gulfs, between 
three pheons, sable that borne by the family 
at the present day, though in the early part of 
the fifteenth century some branches of the 
family are found sealing with a single pheon 
beneath a coronet. Philip Egerton, who on account 
of his stature was surnamed "The Long," died in 
1362, or thereabouts, having a few years previously 
made a further addition to his estates by a grant he 
obtained of lands at Rudhcath, on the payment of 
a rental of 263. 8d.; and his inquisition was taken 
36 Edward III. (1362-3). David Egerton, the 
son, who succeeded, did not long survive his 
father, and, dying issueless, the direct line of 
descent terminated in his two sisters Isabel, who 
married successively Robert de Bulkeley, John Venables, and Sir 
John Delves, Knt., but died childless; and Ellen, who became 
sole heiress of her brother, and, marrying Sir William Brereton, 
of Brereton, was by him ancestress of the Brerctons of Brereton, 
who in her right became representatives of the Egertons, so far 
as the moiety of the Barony of Malpas was concerned ; but the 
Manors of Egerton and Wychehalgh, in accordance with the 
provisions of a deed of settlement dated 37 Edward III. (1363-4), 
passed to Philip, son of Urian Egerton, in whose descendants the 
succession of Egerton of Egerton was preserved. 


County Families of 

When Philip Egerton succeeded to the lordship of Egerton 
under the settlement made in his uncle's lifetime, he found himself 
in possession of a considerable estate, notwithstanding that the 
Malpas part of the property had passed to his cousin Ellen, and 
through her to the Breretons ; and his inheritance was largely 
augmented by the manors and lands that descended to him after 

ARMS OF URIAN E<;ERTON. (See page 123.,) 

the death of Isabel Egerton and her third husband, Sir John 
Delves, without issue, when, as appears by an enrolment dated gth 
March, 19 Richard II. (1395-6), the escheator of the county had 
mandate to deliver the same to him. His father, Urian Egerton, 
was then dead, and he must himself have been very young, for, 
though it was an age of early marriages, he did not take to himself a 
wife until some years after. He does not appear, however, to have 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 125 

had experience of that bitter heritage of which the great dramatist 

Left by his sire, too young such loss to know, 

Lord of himself, that heritage of woe, 

being probably under the guardianship of his immediate relatives. 
The year which followed his father's death was an eventful one ; it 
was that in which Richard II. determined, by a kind of coup d'etat, 
to overthrow the regency of his uncle, the Duke of Gloucester, and 
recover the power that Gloucester and his cabal of nobles had 
deprived him of the same Parliament in which, on its adjourn- 
ment to Shrewsbury, occurred the famous quarrel between the 
Dukes of Herford and Norfolk, which forms the subject of the 
opening scene in Shakespeare's Richard II. Cheshire had received 
many marks of royal favour through the intimate relations existing 
between the Crown and the palatinate, and loyalty to the sovereign 
was a strong characteristic of the Cheshire men. Counting upon 
their support, Richard hastened into the county, called out his loyal 
Cheshire guard, and assembled 2,000 of his Cheshire archers, every 
man wearing as a badge the white hart lodged, the cognizance of his 
mother, the "Fair Maid of Kent," which Richard had adopted. 
Philip Egerton was specially retained by the King, and had an 
annuity of 100 shillings for life bestowed upon him ; three other of 
his kinsmen, David, Ralph, or Randle Egerton, and Randle the 
younger, being at the same time retained on a similar fee. In the 
following year the forces of Cheshire and North Wales were 
collected to recruit the army intended to accompany the King into 
Ireland. Philip Egerton, along with John de Mascy, of Tatton, 
Knt., William de Legh, Knt., Peter Dutton, and others, was 
appointed to go in his train, and was commissioned to choose on 
the 1 4th April, 1399, eighty of the best archers between the ages of 
sixteen and sixty, and to have them on the road outside the Water- 
gate of the City of Chester on the morrow of the Ascension, for 
inspection by the King's officers, and then to conduct them to 
Burton in Wirrall and Denwall, places on the estuary of the Dee, 
for embarkation for Ireland on Saturday, on the eve of the Pente- 

126 County Families of 

cost following. Among those who sailed with him in the expedi- 
tion, as appears from one of the Eaton charters quoted by Mr. 
Beamont, was Urian Brereton, a kinsman probably, who lost his life 
the same year in the incursion led by the Irish chieftain O'Brien. 
While the unsuspecting Richard was leading the Cheshire bowmen 
among the bogs and thickets of Ireland, an event occurred he had 
little anticipated. Hardly had he loosed his sails when the 
vanquished Bolingbroke, taking advantage of his absence, embarked 
a small force and landed near the mouth of the Humber, " upon 
the naked shore of Ravenspurg," and before the news could reach 
him was at the head of a large force on the wolds of Gloucester- 
shire. Returning with all possible speed, Richard arrived on the 
Welsh coast and landed near Barkloughly Castle on the gth of 
August, but his power was gone; his castles of Carnarvon, Beau- 
niaris, and Conway were without provisions, and on reaching Flint 
he was made prisoner, and compelled to resign his crown to the 
usurper, who conveyed him to Chester, and thence to the Tower. 
He did not long remain there, for before many moons had waxed 
and waned the battleaxe of Piers Exton had done its murderous 

The blood of fair King Richard lay on Pomfret stones, and 
Bolingbroke found himself the wearer of a crown lined with thorns 
instead of ermine, and the sword of Damocles suspended over him. 

The usurper had some claim to be reckoned a Cheshire man. 
His father, John of Gaunt, "time-honoured Lancaster," was baron 
of Halton, and at his death, in 1398, the stately stronghold that looks 
down from its rocky height upon the estuary of the Mersey 
descended to " his bold son," the victorious Bolingbroke, or 
should have descended, for it was one of the reasons assigned in 
justification of Bolingbroke's rising that he had been debarred from 
suing livery of his lands, of which the castle and honour of Halton 
formed so important a part. Possibly it was this local connection, 
together with the fact that Henry's son, " the nimble-footed mad-cap 
Harry," who had been created Earl of Chester, spent much of his 
time in the palatinate, that induced the Cheshire men to accept so 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 127 

readily the changed condition of things. Be that as it may, Philip 
Egerton must have quickly accommodated himself to the altered 
position, for on the 2ist November (i Henry IV.), 1399, he was 
with Ralph and Urian Egerton, Richard de Cholmondeley, David 
de Malpas, William and Thomas de Lawton, David de Shocklache, 
and " other hereditary gentlemen and yeomen," appointed a conser- 
vator of the peace for the Broxton Hundred, to take measures to 
remove all causes of the complaints that reached the King from the 
people of Shropshire and Flintshire of those who had committed 
robberies in those counties finding refuge in the hundred. At that 
time Glendower, who claimed to be the rightful Prince of Wales, 
had made inroads on the garrisons of Ruthin, Oswestry, and other 
places, causing considerable alarm ; whilst another disturber of the 
peace, Robert del Fere, was wandering with his followers over the 
country, plundering, mutilating, and committing even worse enor- 
mities upon the people. There were Cheshire men who were 
unable to forget the misfortunes of their former master ; in their 
desire for retribution, they joined the insurrection headed by the 
valiant Hotspur and Glendower, and many of them paid the penalty 
of their rashness in the bloody contest on Hateley Field, where Shakes- 
peare's Falstaff "fought a long hour by Shrewsbury dock," and his 
ragamuffins got well peppered. During these scenes of turbulence 
and disquiet, Henry, Prince of Wales, as Earl of Chester, commissioned 
Philip Egerton, Richard Cholmondeley, who only a short time 
before had been suspected of disloyalty, and others, to inquire by a 
jury of the Hundred of Broxton touching the spread of false 
rumours to the disturbance of the peace ; to array all the fencible 
men ; to overlook the watches on the west marches, so that no 
danger might arise from their neglect ; and also to see to the erec- 
tion of beacons in the accustomed places, in order to warn the 
country in the event of danger from an approaching enemy. 

Sometime before the year 1403 he married Matilda, one of the 
daughters of David de Malpas, lord of Hampton and Bickerton. 
The lady's grandfather had married an Egerton, and, being related 
in blood, it became necessary for the Church to intervene between 

128 County Families of 

these collaterals, who had agreed to unite their destinies, though 
they were only remotely connected, and a dispensation was granted 
under date September i, 1403. If the marriage brought happiness, 
it was also the cause of prolonged litigation, for Matilda Egerton 
eventually became heiress of her niece Ellen, widow of Urian 
Brereton, the same probably who had lost his life while following 
the fortunes of King Richard in Ireland during O'Brien's insurrec- 
tion, and this led to continued disputations and feuds with the 
Breretons respecting the disposition of the extensive territories of 
the Malpas barony, with doubtless good advantage to the lawyers 
employed, though the lord of Egerton would seem occasionally to 
have had recourse to simpler and less tardy methods of adjusting his 
differences than the dilatory and uncertain processes of the law, for in 
1416 we find him (August 6) with his sureties, Richard, son of 
Geoffrey de Warburton, and others, entering into a recognisance of 
100 marks to keep the peace towards Randle Brereton. From this 
time he disappears from view, and the probability is that he was 
abroad in the sevrice of the Crown, and bearing his share in those 
military enterprises which shed such a lustre upon the reign of 
Henry V. He died on the vigil of St. Thomas the Apostle, 24 
Henry VI. (1445-6), and was succeeded by his son, John de 
Egerton, who was then thirty-five years of age. His first wife pre- 
deceased him, and he appears to have married again, though the 
second wife bore him no issue. 

1 iisputes in old times were as long-lived as they were frequent, 
and John Egerton seems to have inherited with his estates the bitter- 
ness and ill-feeling that had been manifested towards the Breretons 
by his father, as the Recognisance Rolls of the county bear testimony. 
On the 2 2nd June, 30 Henry VI., he is found entering into a 
recognisance of 500 marks to keep the peace ; Sir John de Mayn- 
warying, Knt., Richard de Clyve, Richard Osbaldeston, and John 
de Full being also bound over as his sureties. Two years later he was 
obliged to enter into another recognisance of ^200 that he and his 
son Philip would keep the peace towards Randle Brereton. Within 
three months he was called on to enter into another for 200 marks, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 129 

and before the year was, out he had to enter into two other such 
recognisances. In the 34 Henry VI. the ghost of the whole 
dispute rose again, and recognisances in 200 marks had to he 
entered into that he would keep the peace towards Randle Brereton, 
senior and junior, and Randle, the son of Urian Brereton. Other 
recognisances occur in the same year, and the last of which we find 
any record was on the 131(1 January, 35 Henry VI., when both 
parties were bound over, an arrangement that seems to have had the 
effect of putting an end to the war that had been waged in the 
barony for a period extending over forty years. Shortly afterwards 
he received the honour of knighthood, in recognition doubtless of 
his prowess in other conflicts of greater import. The fierce 
struggle of the Red and White Roses was then being waged with 
varying success, and Lancashire and Cheshire were being gradually- 
drawn into the vortex. In 1459 the Earl of Salisbury assembled a 
orce at his castle at Middleham, in Yorkshire, and marching 
southwards to join Warwick, the king-maker, advanced through 
Craven to Manchester, and thence by way of Congleton and 
Newcastle-under-Lyme to Market Drayton, which place he reached 
on the evening of the 22nd September. In the meantime Lord 
Audley had mustered the flower of the Cheshire chivalry, and was 
waiting at Blore with the intention of resisting his further progress. 
John Egcrton, of Egerton, was among the number who had joined 
his standard. On the following day, Sunday, being the feast of St. 
Tecla, the battle of Bloreheath was fought. The Lancastrians 
were strongly posted, with a small stream hemmed in by steep 
banks between them and the Yorkists. By feigning a retreat, an act 
of strategy that, as Hume says, was unicjue in that age, the Earl of 
Salisbury drew his antagonists across the stream, and, falling upon 
them before they had time to re-form, completely routed them, 
leaving Lord Audley, with 2,400 followers of the Red Rose, most of 
whom were from Lancashire and Cheshire, dead upon the field. 
The slaughter among the Cheshire men was particularly great, and 
the strife was so deadly that, as Drayton in his " Polyolbion " tells 
us, the ties of blood and kindred were forgotten, and the nearest 
relations ranged themselves on opposite sides : 

130 County Families of 

There Dutton Dutton kills, a Done doth kill a Done ; 

A Booth a Booth, and Leigh by Leigh is overthrown ; 

A Venables against a Venables doth stand, 

And Troutbeck fighteth with a Troutbeck hand to hand ; 

There Molineux doth make a Molineux to die, 

And Egerton the strength of Egerton doth try. 

That day was a sorrowful one for many a Cheshire home. When 
the sun had gone down on that autumn night the pale moonbeams 
shone upon the mangled body of Sir John Egerton, of Egetron, as 
it lay stiffening upon the gory sward. 

Sir John Egerton, who fell at Bloreheath, is stated in the pedi- 
grees to have married Margaret, daughter of Sir John Fitton, a 
Cheshire knight, who bore him several sons, the eldest of whom, 
Philip, who was twenty-six years of age at the time of his father's 
death, succeeded as heir. 

Among the Egerton muniments at Oulton Park is a curious deed 
of covenants, that is interesting as showing the way in which our 
forefathers arranged their matrimonial affairs and made their 
marriage settlements, at a time when the existing state of the law 
necessitated the resort to early marriages, as a means of preventing 
children from falling into the hands of strangers and being disposed 
of without regard to any consideration but money, which was the 
constant practice in the case of infant wards, a practice that con- 
tinued for centuries, and which leads us in these days to wonder 
how the affections of young people, whose hands were sold without 
their hearts, ever became reconciled in such matches. The deed in 
question was exhibited by Mr. Beamont at a meeting of the Chester 
Archaeological Society in 1858, and a photograph of it appears in 
the transactions of that body. It bears date the feast of St. Cuth- 
bert, 10 Henry VI. (March 2oth, 1432), only a few years before 
the breaking out of the wars of York and Lancaster, and it purports 
to be a marriage settlement by which Philip Egerton and William, 
his son and heir, on the one part, agree that the said William shall 
take to wife Margerie, the daughter of Ralph Egerton, of the Wryne, 
on the other part. It stipulates that the marriage shall take place 
before the ensuing feast of Whitsuntide, then only a few weeks 

Lancashire and Cheshire, 131 

distant, and that the bridegroom and his father shall find the array 
(the wardrobe for his person), and the bride's father hers, or, as the 
fashionable world would now call it, her trousseau, and it further 
sets forth the lands with which two priests named are to be enfeoffed 
as a provision for the young people. The deed is in the form of 
an indenture, although no word has been bisected or cut through in 
making its teeth or indents instar dent turn at the top, which gave 
such a deed its distinctive name. It is, says Mr. Beamont, in that 
dialect of English which was written and spoken only a short time 
after the age of Chaucer, and its spelling would induce a belief that 
its scribe was either a Cheshire man or a Welsh borderer. Die is 
spelt "dee," as it would be pronounced in Cheshire patois ; and she 
is "hir," as a Welshman would call it now; their and them read 
respectively "hor" and "hem," while after is "aftur," and have is 
" hafe." From a difficulty in identifying the several persons 
named, Mr. Beamont was of opinion that the deed was not genuine, 
but a contemporary forgery, and had its origin in those troublesome 
times when the Crown was so often in hazard that treason lay in 
every man's path ; and that the object of the forgers was the hope 
by its means to secure some provision for Alice (Philip Egerton's 
wife) or Margerie, or the issue of the latter, in the event of any 
unfortunate reverse befalling the House of Egerton. Mr. Helsby, 
the learned editor of "Ormerod's Cheshire," who has had access to 
the Oulton evidences, draws attention to this particular deed, and 
the conclusion he has arrived at is that William Egerton, the bride- 
groom, was a son of Philip and brother of Sir John Egerton, who 
fell at Bloreheath, and not, as Mr. Beamont supposes, Sir John's 
grandson, and that he died issueless in his father's lifetime a 
difference of two generations which removes the difficulty Mr. 
Beamont was under in regard to dates. Mr. Helsby 's view is in a 
great measure confirmed by the inquisition p.m. of William 
Egerton's widow, and by other collateral evidence, and accounts 
for the succession to the estates of Sir John Egerton, who must 
have been a younger son of Philip. 

Philip Egerton the younger, who succeeded to the patrimonial 

132 County Families of 

lands by virtue of the mandate issued to the escheator, May 16, 
38 Henry VI., had been united in marriage in his father's lifetime 
with Margery, daughter of William Mainwaring, of Ightfield. When 
he entered upon his inheritance the times were full of trouble. In 
the year which followed the disaster at Bloreheath the Lancas- 
trians suffered another defeat at Northampton. In the month of 
November, 1460, as we learn from one of the Paston letters, the 
Duke of York landed at Chester, but before the year had closed the 
tide of success had turned, for when the opposing forces met at 
Wakefield Green, on the last day of December, the army of the 
White Rose was completely routed, and the Duke of York and his 
son, the Earl of Rutland, fell together butchered, it is said, in cold 
blood upon the field by the Black-faced Clifford. If that day was 
fatal to the House of York, it was scarcely less fatal to the victors, 
for hardly had the spring opened ere 

There was many a fair pennon waiting on the White Rose. 

The cruellies perpetrated by the Black Clifford at Wakefield were 
repaid with tenfold vengeance at Towton, where 33,000 English- 
men were left dead upon the field of battle, and Edward of York 
was borne to the throne on the shoulders of the people. It was 
long, however, before tranquillity was restored. On the ist of 
March, 1464, we find John Paston writing to his father (Paston 
Letters, letter ccxxx.^, " The commons in Lancashire and Cheshire 
were up to the number of 10,000 or more; but now they be down 
again ; and one or two of them was headed in Chester as on 
Saturday last past." In that same year the battle of Hexham was 
fought, when the Lancastrians again suffered a defeat, and in the one 
which followed a subsidy was granted to the King, when we find 
Philip Egerton commissioned, with John de Manley and others, to 
collect the quota from the Broxton Hundred. In 1468 he entered 
into a recognisance to the King in 20, and in the month of March 
following his name again occurs with that of Sir John Bromley, 
Knt., in another recognisance in 20 as surety to the King for his 
appearance. He appears to have inherited some of the quarrel- 

Lancashire and Cheshire, 


some propensities of his father, for a feud that broke out between 
him and Sir John Bromley, and the Cholmondeleys and Grosvenors, 
was one of no ordinary character, both parties being again and 
again bound over in heavy recognisances to keep the peace. The 
quarrel was not easily settled, for other Egertons and other Chol- 
mondeleys entered the field and maintained the strife for many 
long years, as the Recognisance Rolls testify, their names constantly 


occurring side by side. It is difficult at this date to determine the 
cause of these divisions, but they were doubtless occasioned for the 
most part by the lively sympathies of these houses for the rival Roses 
of York and Lancaster, on whose account, as we have seen, Cheshire 
suffered so severely during that " convulsive and bleeding agony of 
the feudal power." In the midst of these disputations Philip 
Egerton was called to his rest, his death occurring 13 Edward IV, 

134 County Families of 

(1473-4). His widow survived him many years, and re-married 
(i) Thomas Hurleton, and (2) Sir Hugh Calveley, of Lea. 
By her he had, in addition to a son, John Egerton, who 
succeeded as his heir, a second son, Ralph Egerton, who married 
Margaret, daughter and heiress of Ralph or Richard Basset, of 
Blore, who attained to considerable distinction in the reign of 
Henry VIII., and as the founder of the House of Ridley, and the 
ather of Sir Richard Egerton, from whom Lord Chancellor Egerton, 
the Dukes of Bridgewater, and the Earls of Ellesmere have 
descended, is deserving of some notice here. 

On the accession of Henry VIII., Ralph Egerton was made 
eschcator of Cheshire, with Roger Mainwaring, and the same year 
was appointed ranger of the Forest of Delamere ; subsequently he 
was attached to the King's person, and was named as one of the 
gentlemen ushers of his chamber, about which time, as appears by 
the Plea Rolls, he obtained a general pardon, a circumstance that 
calls for some explanation. Amid the political convulsions of those 
stirring times it was no uncommon thing for the gentry, while 
wholly unconscious of offence, to apply for and obtain from the 
Crown letters of general pardon, which might be used for the pro- 
tection of themselves and their estates in the event of any accusa- 
tion being made against them. Prerogative, too, pressed heavily, 
and a man might subject his property to forfeiture and incur the 
penalty of outlawry through the unconscious breach of some long- 
forgotten statute; and hence it became the custom to sue out a 
general pardon from time to time, as a convenient way of wiping off 
old scores and atoning lor all crimes and offences, real or imaginary, 
that might have been committed. When, in 1513, the youthful 
Henry accompanied the English army into France, Ralph Egerton 
was in his retinue, and took part in the siege of Tournay, where he 
was fortunate enough to capture the French standard ; and a few 
days later (August 27) he shared in the victory at Terouenne, where 
the French were completely routed a victory that, from the panic- 
stricken flight of the vanquished, has ever been known as "The 
.Battle of the Spurs." For his bravery in these engagements he 

Lancashire and CJieshire. 135 

received the honour of knighthood, and in the following year, for 
his services at Flodden, he had a grant of the office of standard- 
bearer of England for life, with the salary of ;ioo per annum; at 
the same time, the Manor of Ridley, which had been forfeited to 
the Crown by the attainder of Sir William Stanley, was conferred 
upon him, with lands in other places. 

While Henry was encamped before Terouenne, wasting his sub- 
sidies in useless triumphs and vain pageantries, a more serious war 
broke out on English ground. The Scots were by no means good 
neighbours to the English, and the war in France led them to 
believe the time favourable for a raid upon their traditional foes. 
Many a time had the Lancashire and Cheshire men set out to repel 
the Scots in their plundering expeditions across the border, but 
they had now to meet the Scottish King himself, who had entered 
England with a powerful army, and laid waste some of the 
Northern strongholds. The war-note he had sounded met with a 
ready response ; the ardour of the North was fired, and the Cheshire 
bowmen were roused to enthusiasm. Following their respective 
leaders, they inarched forward until they reached the banks of the 
Till, a tributary of the Tweed, where they found their enemies 
posted on the heights of Flodden. The Lancashire and Cheshire 
forces, which formed the most important part of the army, were 
under the command of Sir Edward Stanley, who led the charge, 
which Scott has made ever memorable. Among that gallant band 
was Sir Ralph Egerton, and so sudden and unexpected was the 
onslaught they made, that the Scots were put to flight, leaving 
their King, with 10,000 of his men, stiff and stark on "Flodden's 
fatal field." 

Doubtless it was a gay day at Ridley when Ralph Egerton and 
those of his brave companions-in-arms who had not fallen in the 
fight returned to tell the tale of victory. Henry, who was at the 
time before Tournay, received the intelligence of the slaughter of 
Flodden with unmixed exultation, the achievement being deemed 
a national triumph. In the reprint of " Flodden Field," by Weber, 
we read (p. 387) : 

136 County Families of 

Lancashire and Chesshire, said the messenger, 
They have done the deede with their hande 
Had not the Earl of Derby been to the true, 
In great adventure had been all England. 
Then bespake our prynce with a high worde ; 
Sir Rauphe Egerton, my marshall I make thee ! 

The poet is in error in bestowing his praises upon the Earl of 
Derby, for he was with the King at the time, and, as we have seen, 
it was his kinsman, Sir Edward Stanley, who had been a soldier 
from his youth up, to whom the credit of victory was mainly due, 
though it should be added that it was as the vassal of the earl that 
he led the chivalry of the two counties. In the i4th Henry VIII. 
Sir Ralph Egerton accompanied the King to Canterbury on his way 
to meet the Emperor Maximilian, and in 1524 he was appointed 
one of the commissioners who were sent to Ireland to settle the 
differences between the Earls of Ormond and Kildare. This would 
appear to have been his last official appointment, his death occurring 
March gth, 1528. His remains were interred in the splendid 
oratory at Bunbury, which he had founded and endowed just before 
his decease, and where formerly stood an altar-tomb, on which was 
a monumental brass representing the figure of the knight in plate 
armour, with an armorial surcoat, and that of his wife, with their 
hands clasped and uplifted as if in supplication. The corners of the 
tomb were adorned with the arms of Egerton and Basset, and bore 
the following inscription in black letter characters: 

Of your charitye pray for the soules of Raphe Egerton Kt and Dame 
Margaret hys wife, which Sir Raphe was late standard bearer to our 
Sovraine Lord King Henry the VHIth, and also treasurer of the Household 
of the Lady Princes his daughter, and the saide Sir Raphe died the gth day 
of March, M.CCCCC XX.VIII ; and the said Dame Margaret died the 

day of in the yeare of our Lord God M.CCCCC on whose soules 

Jesus have mercy. 

Thus passed away the founder of a family whose splendour, 
during the few generations it existed, was never exceeded by any 
other branch of the ancient stock of Egerton. 

John Egerton, the eldest son of Philip Egerton and his wife 

Lancashire and CJieshire. 137 

Margaret, was a youth of fifteen years when, in 1473, ne succeeded 
as heir to his father's estates. He does not appear to have been 
contracted in marriage, for in the iyth Edward IV. (1477-8), two 
years before he made proof of age and had livery of his lands, 
Richard Haut had a grant from the superior lord of the marriage 
of the youthful heir, and shortly after he was united in marriage 
with Elizabeth, the daughter and sole heiress of Hugh of Oulton, a 
younger son of Sir John Done, of Utkinton, and his wife Ann, 
daughter of James Touchet, Lord Audley, one of the distinguished 
band of warriors who, with John Egerton's grandfather and Hugh 
Done's elder brother, Sir John Done, fell on the royal side on the 
field of Blore, in the autumn of 1459. By this marriage the 
territorial possessions of the Egertons were largely augmented, for, 
though a younger son, Hugh Done had carved out a fortune for 
himself, having for a lengthened period been actively employed in 
the service of his country and entrusted with various offices of 
importance and responsibility, his energy and ability enabling him 
during the time to acquire considerable estates, which, after his 
death in 1498, passed to the Egertons, among them being the 
domain of Oulton, which has remained in the family ever since, 
and from the time of the re-building of the old mansion, about the 
year 1536, has been their principal residence. 

John Egerton died in 1485 ; his wife Elizabeth, who survived 
him, re-married in 1490 Randle, younger son of Richard Chol- 
mondeley, of Cholmondeley, who must have been related in blood, 
for it was found necessary to obtain a dispensation from the Papal 
court before the marriage, which took place at Wybunbury, could 
be performed. The children of the marriage of John Egerton were 
a daughter, Susan, who became the wife of Randle Egerton, of 
Dynham, in Norfolk, an offshoot of the Egertons of the Wryne, and 
a son, Philip Egerton, who succeeded to his father's inheritance, 
and eventually became heir to his grandfather Done the first 
Egerton of Oulton. This Philip was born in 1483, and could 
therefore only have been a few months old at the time of his father's 
decease. On the loth August, in the same year, a grant of the 

1 38 County Families of 

custody of the lands, wardship, and marriage of the infant heir, and 
of the reversion of the lands held in dower by his mother, and 
Elizabeth, his grandmother, who was then living, was given to 
Richard Cholmondeley the younger, a brother of Randle, who, as 
we have seen, his mother subsequently married. Some time before 
20 Henry VII. (1504-5) he married Joan, widow of Richard 
Wynnington, of Wynnington, a daughter and one of the co-heirs of 
Sir Gilbert Smyth, of Cuerdley, in Prescot parish, Lancashire, a 
son of Robert Smyth, of the Peel House, in Farnworth, in the same 
parish, and the younger brother of William Smyth, Bishop of Ely, 
the founder of Cuerdley Chapel, and the co-founder, with Sir 
Richard Sutton, of Sutton, in Macclesfield, of Brasenose College, 
Oxford, the arms borne by the bishop forming, as a consequence of 
this alliance, one of the thirty-five coats in the achievement borne 
at this day by the head of the House of Egerton, of Egerton and 
Oulton. Philip Egerton had but a short experience of married 
life, having had the misfortune, in 1509, to lose his wife, who would 
seem to have died in giving birth to a son and heir, having pre- 
viously borne her husband a daughter, Margaret, who afterwards 
became the wife of Hugh Starkey, of Oulton Low. The son born 
in 1509 received the name of Philip, and in the 22nd Henry VIII. 
(1530-1), when he had reached manhood, his father sought out a 
suitable match for him. In that year a deed of covenants was 
entered into between Philip Egerton the elder and Randle Brereton, 
son and heir of Sir Randle Brereton, of Malpas, Chamberlain of 
Chester, in consideration of a marriage to be had between Philip 
Egerton, the son, and Eleanor, one of the daughters of the said 
Randle, such marriage to be solemnised " before the Eeste of the 
Nativitie of Seynct John Baptist next ensuing ... if the 
seyd Eleanor will thereto agree." In the deed Philip the elder 
covenants to settle " the man' of fferneleghes, otherwise cal'd the 
man' of Olton," and lands thereto belonging ; " a mylne in Russhe- 
ton called the noow mylne," and lands in Olton, Kelsall, Clees, and 
Russheton ; it further stipulates that out of the estates to be settled 
seven marks yearly shall go " to fynd an honest preste to celebrate 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 139 

masse divine s'vic' and to prey for the saule of the seyd Philip, the 
father, his auncytors, and all Christiane saules at the p'oche churche 
of Budworth in the ffryth."* The lady who was thus contracted in 
marriage was aunt (? sister) of the unfortunate Sir William Brereton> 
Knt., chamberlain of Chester 1531-2, who held the office of groom 
of the chamber to Henry VIII., but, being accused of criminal 
intercourse with Anne Boleyn, was brought to the block May 1 7, 
1536, and also of Sir Urian Brereton, the builder of Handforth 
Hall, and founder of the line of Brereton of Handforth. 

Philip Egerton the elder survived his wife more than a quarter of 
a century, but never re-married. His death occurred 26th May, 
26 Henry VIII. (1534-5). Philip Egerton, the son, who succeeded as 
heir, was then twenty-six years of age, and there is good reason to 
believe that shortly after entering upon his patrimony he began the 
re-building on a more extensive scale of the house at Oulton, and 
that it is therefore to him, and not to his father, as Ormerod 
assumes, that we must give the credit of the erection of the mansion 
which thenceforward became the principal residence of the family 
a large and stately edifice that, according to tradition, was destroyed 
by fire about the beginning of the last century, when it was succeeded 
by the present hall, which was erected from the designs of Yanbrugh. 
Leland, the antiquary, in his Itinerary (vol. vii., p. 42), makes a 
passing allusion to the change of residence : "The antientis of the 
Egertons (he says) dwelleth now at Oldeton, and Egerton buildeth 
there now;" and he adds: "The first house of the Egertons is at 
Egerton, in Malpas paroche; he hath also the manor of Oldeton." 
This Philip well sustained the honours and the chivalric fame of his 
house. In 1544 he is found among the Cheshire men who joined 
the expedition to Scotland, headed by the Earl of Hertford, to 
demand the surrender of the infant Queen Mary, who had been 
promised in marriage to Henry's son, the young Prince Edward, 
Earl of Chester, the King's intention being by this means to secure 
the union of the two kingdoms. The force marched upon Edin- 

* Helsby's additions, Ormerod's Cheshire, v. ii., p. 217. 

140 County Families of 

burgh, which was speedily captured, pillaged, and burnt. After 
this rough kind of courtship, and when the towns and villages in the 
neighbourhood had been plundered and destroyed, the army moved 
on to Leith, which was also demolished. Before taking ship on his 
return, the Earl of Hertford distributed honours to those who had 
been conspicuous by their bravery; Philip Egerton was one of them, 
and in acknowledgment of his valorous deeds received the honour 
of knighthood. On the roth May, 1557, he was appointed, with 
Sir William Brereton, Thomas Venables, and William Mayre, a 
commissioner to inquire of the lands in Warford and Marthall, that 
were formerly of the inheritance of William Legh, and which on 
his being attainted of high treason had been seized into the hands 
of the late King (Henry VIII.) On the ist December in the 
same year he had a grant during pleasure of the office of sheriff of 
the county. By a deed undated, but which must have been issued 
in the second year of Elizabeth's reign, he was appointed, with 
(leorge Ireland, 1'ctcr Hockenhull, and Ralph Done, esquires, 
collector of a subsidy in the Hundred of Eddisbury, and this seems 
to have been his last official appointment. In 1558, feeling the 
increasing weight of years, he made a settlement of his estates, and 
in his will, which bears date i8th January, 5 Elizabeth (1562), he, 
among other things, bequeaths to " Thomas Egerton at Ine of 
Cowert, 10 towards his exebition," the legatee named being the 
illegitimate issue which his kinsman, Sir Richard Egerton, of 
Ridley, had by Alice Sparke, of Bickerton, a son who, if precluded 
by birth from deriving honours from an illustrious ancestry, yet 
reflected on them, his descendants, and his county the lustre of a 
name brighter than any other which its annals can boast Thomas, 
Lord Viscount Brackley, Lord Chancellor of England, ancestor of 
the Dukes of Bridgewater and the Earls of Ellesmere. 

Sir Philip Egerton died on the 1510 July following, and was 
buried at Little Budworth Church ; no memorial of him, however, 
exists, if we except some fragments of stained glass in a window 
lighting the Egerton pew with this mutilated inscription 

(Bgerloiv... fieri (I*), 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 141 

from which it would seem that the window had been placed there 
by him a year or two before his decease. His wife Eleanor, who 
survived him a few years, died on the 3rd November, 1567, and 
was buried by his side in the church at Little Budworth on the 6th. 
By her he had, in addition to a daughter, Eleanor, married to her 
cousin, Sir Randle Brereton, of Malpas and Shocklach, a son, John 
Egerton, then aged thirty years, who succeeded as heir, and who 
during his minority had been united in marriage with Jane, daughter 
of Piers Mostyn, of Talacre, in Flintshire. 

John Egerton, who married the daughter of Piers Mostyn, died 
on the 3rd of March, 1590, having then completed his fifty-seventh 
year, and three days later he was buried by the side of his father in 
Malpas Church. Of the three children his wife bore to him, John, 
he eldest, born in 1551, succeeded as heir. Philip, the second son, 
died unmarried in the lifetime of his father, and Elizabeth, the only 
daughter named in the pedigrees, was in, or sometime before, the 
year 1575 united in marriage with Sir William Stanley, the eldest 
son of Sir Roland Stanley, of Hooton and Stourton in \Virral, the 
head of the senior line of the House of Stanley, a line the members 
of which through successive generations had remained firm in their 
adherence to the Roman faith, differing in that respect from their 
kinsmen, the Lancashire Stanleys, who changed their religion with 
the changing fortunes of the day, affirming that that was the best 
religion which had the most good luck, and consistently acting up 
to their belief. The marriage of his daughter with the heir of the 
ancient and honourable House of Hooton was doubtless considered 
a very auspicious one by John Egerton, but ere many years had 
passed he had cause for sorrow, and must have felt deeply the stain 
which his son-in-law brought upon his good name by the treasonable 
betrayal of the trust committed to him by the English Government 
in the base surrender of Deventer to the enemies of the Queen. 
The reform of religion had at that time in many parts both of 
Lancashire and Cheshire been but imperfectly carried out, and 
throughout the reign of Elizabeth the country was disturbed by 
plots and conspiracies intended to deprive the sovereign of her 

142 County Families of 

crown and life. It is true that many of the English Catholics were 
loyal to her person, and could combine in their resistance to a 
foreign foe; but it is equally true that many of them were also 
resolved upon destroying her government. Their disloyalty was 
stimulated by the Jesuits and other emissaries, who were harboured 
in several of the more secluded halls and manor-houses of the two 

The Cheshire Stanleys, as we have said, had continued steadfast 
in their adherence to the ancient faith. Their principal residence 
was situated on the Wirral side of the Mersey, nearly opposite to 
Liverpool, and, as the river was then but seldom traversed by large 
craft, it formed a convenient rendezvous for Jesuitical intriguers and 
the scheming adherents of the Queen of Scots. Sir William Stanley 
had at one time been engaged in the service of the King of Spain, 
and in the year following his marriage had greatly distinguished 
himself in suppressing the rebellion which had broken out in the 
province of Munster under the Earl of Desmond. Resolved upon 
serving his Church in preference to his country, he contrived by 
dissimulation to obtain a commission from the Queen to enlist 
soldiers to serve under him with the English army, which in 1578 
was with the Earl of Leicester in the Netherlands. Armed with this 
authority, he joined the English forces, and shortly afterwards, on 
the earl's return to England, was entrusted with the command of the 
garrison at Deventer, his conscience at the time being unfortunately 
left in the keeping of Cardinal Allen. Scarcely had Leicester 
reached England, when, in violation of everything which military 
men hold honourable and sacred, Stanley, in conjunction with Row- 
land Yorke, who had before been engaged in treasonable practices, 
entered into a treacherous correspondence with Baptiste Tassi, 
governor of Zutphen, proposing measures for delivering to him the 
important fortress that had been entrusted to his care; and in the 
beginning of February both Ueventer and the fort opposite Zutphen 
were given to the Spaniards, an act of perfidy that was only equalled 
by Cardinal Allen's shameless defence of it. It has been said that 
Stanley was betrayed into the commission of the crime by a fear of 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 143 

discovery of the part he had previously taken in Babington's con- 
spiracy in favour of Mary, Queen of Scots. Be that as it may, the 
remainder of his days were spent in the service of the King of Spain 
concocting treason and concerting measures for the invasion of his 
own country, to the anxiety of Elizabeth's ministers, who were 
obliged to employ spies continuously to watch his movements. 
After being honoured by Spain and rewarded by Rome, he died at 
Mechlin, where his remains were interred with as much solemnity 
and as much ceremonial as the ecclesiastics of his Church could 

A double alliance existed between the Egerton and Stanley 
families, for John Egerton, who inherited the patrimonial estates, 
had in his father's lifetime, and before the surrender of Devcnter, 
been united in marriage with Margaret, one of the daughters of 
Sir Roland Stanley, by his second wife, Ursula, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Smith, of Hough, the half-sister of Sir William Stanley. 
The defection of Sir William was, however, no bar to his advance- 
ment, for he appears to have been in favour with Elizabeth, and 
received the honour of knighthood at her hands in 1599. Shortly 
before that time he became involved in litigation with John Done, 
of Flaxyards, having claimed the chief-forestership of Delamere and 
the rights of fishing in the meres, pools, and waters within the 
forest, on the death of Sir John Done, of Utkinton, the representa- 
tive of a family famous throughout a great extent of country for 
their hereditary office of bailiff or chief forester of Delamere, as 
well as for their military prowess, Sir John having settled his 
estates upon John, son of Ralph Done, of Flaxyards, on the condi- 
tion of his marrying his fourth cousin, Ellena Done, the heiress of 
Utkinton, before she attained the age of fourteen, and thus uniting 
the two Houses of Utkinton and Flaxyards a marriage that was 
distasteful to the lady, and one that would never have taken place 
had there been no such settlement. Sir John Egerton must have 
failed in his claim, for in the inquisition taken after John Done's 
death, in 1601, the jury found (inter alia) that he held the office of 
master forester of the Queen, as Countess of Chester. In 1598, 


Co^^nty Families of 


the year before he obtained his knighthood, Sir John Egerton lost 
his wife, who was buried at Budworth on the I2th February; but 
he again entered the married state, his second wife being Ann, 
daughter of Robert Barnard and the widow of Francis Trappes, 
who does not, however, appear to have borne him any issue. By 
his first wife he had a numerous family, five sons and six daughters, 
and in 1609 he had the satisfaction of seeing his second, but eldest 
surviving son, Rowland, united in marriage with Bridget, the 
daughter of Arthur, Lord Grey of Wilton, K.G., by his wife Jane 
Sibilla, daughter of Sir Richard Morison and relict of the Earl of 
Bedford, a lady descended from a long line of illustrious ancestors, 
famous for their military prowess, their devotion to the several 

monarchs under whom they served, and 
the ability with which they administered 
the offices of high honour and re- 
sponsibility they were at various times 
appointed to, and who became heir 
and the sole representative of the family 
on the death of her brother Thomas, 
Lord Grey of Wilton, who had been 
found guilty of complicity in the 
Raleigh plot, for which he was in 
1603 committed to the Tower, where 
he died in 1614. The marriage 
covenant, which is written" on three sheets of parchment, and bears 
date December, 1609 the marriage being celebrated on the toth 
of that month is still preserved among the muniments at Oulton. 
The parties to it are Sir John Egerton, the father of the bride- 
groom ; Lady Jane Sibilla Grey, widow of Arthur, Lord Grey, the 
mother of the bride ; Edward, Lord Zouche, St. Maur and 
Cantilupe, and Edward, Lord Denny of Waltham. 

During his lifetime Sir John Egerton, by purchase and in other 
ways, made some very considerable additions to the family estates, 
and, judging from his history, " it may be surmised," says Ormerod, 
" that he created the means himself for the acquisition of so large a 

Arms of Grey t>f W'ilton 
{quartered ivit/i Egcrton o/ Oiiltoti). 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 145 

property, probably throughhis connection with the court of Elizabeth." 
From Edward Egerton he obtained a grant of the estates of 
the branch of the family seated at Wrinehill, and also acquired by 
purchase from Sir Hugh Cholmondeley lands in Budworth, Kelsall, 
and Rushton, and others in Tarporley, Eaton, Ravenfield, and in 
VVirral the Manor of Wallasey, and that of Holywell, in Flintshire, 
with divers other properties from their several possessors. All 
these lands and manors he appears to have settled at the time of 
the marriage of his son and heir with the Lady Bridget Grey. He 
died on the 28th April, 1614, at the age of sixty-three, and was 
buried at Madeley, in Staffordshire, Rowland Egerton, his eldest 
surviving son, who was then thirty years of age, succeeding as heir. 
It was the good fortune of Rowland Egerton to succeed to an 
estate that had been largely augmented by the care and prudence 
of his father, Sir John ; his territorial possessions were extensive, 
and his position in the county naturally marked him oul as a fitting- 
person to receive the honour of a baronetcy, an order that had 
been instituted by James I. a couple of years before he succeeded 
to his patrimony. As a preliminary, he was knighted at Whitehall 
on the I4th of March, 1616-17, and on the 5th of April following 
four months before James made that triumphal progress through 
Lancashire and Cheshire in which he contrived to sow the seeds of 
discontent so wide and deep as to shake the stability of the throne 
a patent of baronetcy was conferred upon him, on which Mr. 
Chamberlain remarks (Progress of James /., viii., p. 267), "The 
dignity of baronets is not yet become so bare, but that are lately 
come in one Egerton of Cheshire and Townshcnd of Norfolk. '' 
Though the honour was at the time freely bestowed, and the dignity 
did become somewhat "bare," care was professedly taken that those 
on whom the distinction was conferred were men of standing and 
substance, the qualification being the descent from at least a grand- 
father on the paternal side entitled to bear arms, the possession of 
a clear yearly revenue from lands of inheritance of ^1,000, and 
the willingness "to maintain the number of thirty foot soldiers in 
Ireland, for three years, after the rate of 8d. sterling money of 

146 County Families of 

England by the day," in addition to the payment of ^1,000 down. 
There is little doubt that the order was instituted as a convenient 
means of replenishing the King's exchequer, and in this light it was 
viewed by many of the gentry, some of whom declined the honour 
when it was offered, as for instance Sir John Harrison, a Lancashire 
knight, who represented the county town in five Parliaments, and 
who, when Charles I. sent him a warrant for a baronetage, begged 
leave to decline the honour on the ground that he had too much 
regard for the knighthood which his Majesty had personally con- 
ferred upon him, in 1640, to suffer it to merge in any other dignity. 
( Ftimha/K? s Memoirs AfS.} 

The hall at Oulton, which had been built by an ancestor a 
century before, was but seldom occupied by Sir Roland Egerton, 
the greater part of his time being passed at Farthingoe, in North- 
amptonshire. In the great struggle between Charles I. and his 
Parliament, to determine whether the King should reign as absolute 
monarch, or whether the two Houses of Parliament should partici- 
pate in legislative authority with him, Sir Rowland Egerton took his 
stand on the side of the King. He was too advanced in age to 
undergo the hardships of camp life, but he rendered substantial aid 
in other ways, and was never wanting in the evidences of his affec- 
tion and fidelity for his sovereign. His Royalist principles made 
him obnoxious to the dominant party, who wreaked their vengeance 
by sending a force under his neighbour, Mr. Mainwaring, to attack 
and plunder his house at Wrinehill, on the Staffordshire border ; 
a circumstance that seems hardly reconcileable with a statement 
made by Whitelock in his Memorials, that when the Castle of 
Pontefract surrendered to the Parliamentarians under General 
Poyntz, July 21, 1645, Sir Rowland Egerton, who brought the news 
of the capitulation, was called into the House, and had the thanks of 
Parliament given to him. Among the archives at Oulton is a letter, 
believed to be in the handwriting of Charles, addressed to him 
about this time, applying for a loan of ,2,000 to aid in carrying 
on the war. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 147 

To our trusty and welbeloved Sir Rowland Edgerton, Bart. 

Trusty and welbeloved, wee greete you well. Though wee are unwilling 
in the least degree to presse upon our good subjects, yet wee must obey 
that necessity which compells us in this publique distraction, when our 
owne money and revenue is seized and deteyned from us, to lay hold on 
anything which with God's blessing may be a meanes to preserve this 
kingdom ; we must therefore desyre you forthwith to lend us the somme 
of 2ooolbs. for our necessary support, and the maintenance of our army, 
which wee are compelled to raize for the defence of our person, the Pro- 
testant religion, and the laws of the land. Wee have trusted this bearer 
to receive it of you ; and wee doe promise, on the word of a King, to repay 
the same with interest ; and of this service we cannot doubt, since, if you 
should refuse to give us this testimony of your affection, you will give us 
too great cause to suspect your duty and inclination both to our person 
and to the publique peace. 

Given at our Court at Oxford the 8th of ffebruary i642(-3). 

Sir Rowland Egerton's marriage with Lady Bridget Grey proved 
a long and happy one of forty years' duration. In that time he had 
born to him a family of six sons and two daughters. The eldest 
son, Thomas, married Barbara, daughter of Sir John St. John, 
Kt., and Bart., but died issueless in his father's lifetime; the second 
son, John Egerton, of whom anon, succeeded to the baronetcy at his 
father's death ; Philip, the third son, by a partition of the family 
estates, had bestowed upon him the Cheshire and Flintshire 
properties, including Egerton and Oulton. He married Katherine, 
daughter and sole heir of Piers Conway, of Hendre, in Flintshire, 
and was progenitor of the line of Oulton now represented by Sir 
Philip le Belward Grey-Egerton. The other sons, Arthur, Rowland, 
and Charles, all died childless. Of the daughters, Sybilla, the eldest, 
married (i) Edward Bel ott, of Great Moreton, in Astbury parish, 
and (2) Sir F,dmund Anderton, of Broughton, in Lincolnshire; and 
Elizabeth, the youngesl, became the wife of Sir William Radcliffe, 
of Eoxdenton, Knt., but had no issue. 

Sir Rowland died suddenly of apoplexy, says Wootton at 
Earthingoe, on the 3rd October, 1646. His widow, the Lady 
Bridget Egerton, survived him less than two years, her death 
occurring at Earthingoe, where she was buried, on the 28th July, 
1 648. She was a firm believer in the doctrines of the Reformed 

i/j.8 County Families of 

Church, as is evidenced by the confession of faith she prepared, the 
original of which, in her own handwriting, is still preserved at 
Oulton. It is entitled " A Forme of Confession, grounded upon 
the ancient Catholique and Apostolique Faith, made and composed 
by the Honorable Ladle the Lady Bridget Egerton, A.D., 1636." 
The volume has been printed in the Chetham series (v. Ixxxiii.), 
with an introduction from the pen of her descendant, the late Sir 
Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton, M.P. "The whole treatise," 
remarks Sir Philip, " is scriptural and orthodox, and breathes 
throughout a spirit of true Christian faith, hope, and humility, 
expressed in language testifying the strength of her convictions, yet 
free from the extremes of dogmatic pride and puritanical cant." 
Written at a time when the Star Chamber and the High Court of 
Commission were in full operation, and strenuous efforts were being 
made in high quarters to reintroduce some of the Roman doctrines 
and ceremonies which had been suppressed at the Reformation, it 
must have required considerable courage on the part of Lady- 
Bridget to express in terms as explicit as she does her abjuration of 
of transubstantiation, purgatory, invocation of saints, and other 
practices which were at that time insinuating themselves into the 
public worship of the Reformed Church. 

Sir John Egcrton, the eldest surviving son, who succeeded on the 
death of his father, married Ann, daughter of George Wintour, of 
Derham, in Gloucestershire, by whom he had, in addition to John 
Kgerton, his heir, born in 1656, and a younger son, Philip, born in 
1659, who died in infancy, four daughters Bridget, named after her 
grandmother, who married (i) Ralph Thicknesse, of Bartcrly, and 
(2) Timothy Hildyard, a Lincolnshire squire; Margaret, who 
became the wife of Windsor Finch, of Rushock, in Worcestershire ; 
Ann, wife of John Gardiner; and Jane, who died in the year of her 
birth, 1665. Sir John Egerton died at Wrinehill in 1674, and 
was buried at Madeley, his will bearing date September 8th in that 

John Egerton, his eldest and only surviving son, who succeeded to 
the baronetcy and the patrimonial lands, was then in his eighteenth 

Lancashire and Cheshire* 149 

year. He married Elizabeth, one of the daughters of William Holland, 
of Denton and Heaton, in Lancashire, who eventually became sole 
sister and heiress of her brother, Edward Holland, descended from a 
younger line of the great feudal House of Upholland, in Lancashire, 
a family the members of which played an active part in the most 
picturesque and chivalrous period of English history, and who were 
not more illustrious for their titles and honours (the acknowledg- 
ments paid for their services), as the founders of the Order of the 
Garter, and as allied in blood to the sovereigns of England (her 
present Majesty Queen Victoria being lineally descended from 
Thomas de Holland, Earl of Kent, grandson of Robert, the founder 
of Upholland Priory), than for their intellectual greatness and the 
brilliancy of their martial achievements in that heroic age.* 

By this marriage the senior line of the Egertons, represented in 
later times by the Earls of Wilton, added to the vast possessions of 
the family the extensive estates at Denton, near Manchester, and 
Heaton, in the parish of Prestwich, which had been held by the 
Hollands in direct succession for many centuries. 

A doubt has been expressed by some genealogists as to the 
identity of William Holland, whose daughter became the wife of Sir 
John Egerton, the third baronet, which has probably arisen from 
the circumstance that in the family pedigrees he is usually styled 
"Esquier." "It does not appear," says Orinerod (History of 
Cheshire, vii., p. 613, new edit.), "that he was connected with the 
Hollands of Heaton and Denton, who intermarried at this time with 

* Owing to the conflicting testimony of genealogists, certain errors have 
crept into the history of the Hollands that have obtained currency by 
frequent repetition. They are commonly represented as being identical 
with the Hollands of Lincolnshire, a mistake which Dugdale and almost 
every writer who has followed him has fallen into; whereas they were 
distinct families, taking their surnames from their respective manors. 
Moreover, there were in Lancashire two distinct races, one springing from 
Up-Holland, the other from Down-Holland, each bearing the name of 
Holland. A pedigree of the senior line of the House of Holland, based 
upon authentic evidence, and in which the errors of Dugdale and others 
are corrected, with a lengthy account of the family, will be found in 
the History of Samlesbury. 


County Families of 

the Dods of Edge, in this parish ; indeed, the extreme fulness and 
accuracy of an entry made by that family in Uugdale's Lancashire 
Visitation of 1664, which omits all notice of the rector of Malpas, 
renders the supposition nearly impossible." The learned historian 
has evidently .fallen into an error, for the descent in Dugdale's 
Visitation helps us to a solution of the difficulty. William 
Holland, whose sister Ann married Thomas Dod, of Edge, and 
whose daughter conveyed the Heaton and Denton estates in 
marriage to the Egertons, is there stated to have married Cicilie, 
daughter of Alexander Walthall, of Wisaston (Wistaston), in 
Cheshire. The marriage was solemnised at Malpas Church, in the 
register of which it is recorded, under date February 27, 1654, 
William Holland being described as "minister of God's Word in 
the lower mediety of Malpas." He appears to have held the rectory 
for a lengthened period. In 1648 he signed the Cheshire attesta- 
tion to the Covenant as " minister of Malpas," and he held the 
living until 1680, when he resigned. Though inclined to Puritanism, 
he was a Loyalist, and on the passing of the Act of Uniformity, in 
1662, he complied with its requirements and retained his incumbency. 
In the same year Matthew Henry, the learned commentator of the 
]>ible, was baptised by him the day after his birth, being Sunday, 
October igth, 1662. Tonge, in his life of Henry, says (p. 6) : " His 
father desired Mr. Holland to omit the sign of the cross, but he 
said lie durst not do it ; to which Mr. Henry replied, ' Then, sir, 
let it lie at your door.'' " Philip Henry, who was minister of 
Worthenbury, within the deanery of Malpas, in his diary, which has 
been recently printed under the editorship of the Rev. Matthew 
Henry Lee, M.A., vicar of Hanmer, thus rerers to the circum- 
stances : 

1662. Oct. 19. Mr. Holland preacht at the chappel. He baptiz'd my 
son there, and I named him Matthew. Wee had no godfather for what 
needed, but he signed him with the cross, which I could not help. I/>se 

About the year 1666, through the death successively of his 
two elder brothers without issue, William Holland unexpectedly 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 151 

succeeded as heir to the Heaton and Denton estates. His eldest 
brother, Richard a rigid Puritan, who held military rank in the 
Parliamentary army, and was governor of Manchester during the 
siege by Lord Strange and the Royalist parly in 1642 died in 
1661, having outlived his only son, Edward. The next brother, 
Henry, who was then about sixty years of age, " heired his lands,' 1 
and, determining to marry, found out "one Mrs. Britland," but 
died on the very day fixed for the marriage, when the estates 
descended to his younger brother William, the parson of Malpas. 
During the later years of his life he resided for the most part upon 
his Lancashire estates, where he was better known for his manage- 
ment and supervision and as an influential landed proprietor than 
as an ecclesiastic. In 1680, in consequence of failing health, he 
resigned the living of Malpas. His death occurred in April, 1682, 
on the agth of which month his remains were laid by the side of 
those of his ancestors in the Holland Chapel, on the north side of 
the chancel of Prestwich Church, his extensive estates descending 
to his only son, Edward, who survived him little more than a year, 
his death occurring February, 1683-4, in the twentieth year of his 
age. The circumstance under which he lost his life is thus referred 
to in Philip Henry's diary : 

1683-4. Feb. 23. I heard of 6 gentlemen in Lancashire, whereof Mr. 
Holland's only son one, who drank unto excess in a frolique upon the ice, 
three or four of ym dead. Mr. Newcom's son, Mr. leigh, Mr. Byrom. 

He was buried at Prestwich, when his estates passed to his sole 
surviving sister, Elizabeth, who was married at Prestwich, November 
27th, 1684, to Sir John Grey Egerton, as appears by the following 
entry in the church register : 

1684. Nov. 27. Nupt. Sir Jo. Edgerton et Mrs. Elizabeth Holland de 
Heaton, per Lycen undr the hand of Mr. Hyde, dated the 26 of Nov. 


THE estates which had been held for so many generations by the 
Hollands were thus added to the patrimonial lands of the senior 
line of the House of Egerton. By his wife, Elizabeth Holland, who 

152 County Families of 

died May 31, 1701, Sir John had a family of six sons and two 
daughters. The eldest son, named after his mother, Holland 
Egerton, was born at Heaton House, December 18, 1686, and 
baptised at Prestwich on the 6th of January following. John, 
Edward, and Ralph died unmarried. Thomas, the fifth son, 
matriculated at Oxford, and was presented to the living of Warring- 
ton in 1719; on the 3rd of April, 1722-3, he was instituted rector 
of Sefton, and being shortly after presented to the rectory of 
Cheadle, he resigned the living of Warrington. He died without 
issue at Preston, anno. 1762, his wife, Frances, daughter of Joseph 
Beresford, of Heresford and Bentley, county Derby, surviving him. 
William, the younger son, who was also in orders, became rector of 
Farthingoe, and married Elizabeth, daughter of William Bateman, 
one of his parishioners, who bore him an only daughter. Sir John 
Egerton again entered the married state, his second wife being Ann, 
sole daughter and heiress of Francis Wolferstan, of Stratfold and 
Harlaston, in Staffordshire, who died at Harlaston, April 12, 1726, 
having borne him one son and two daughters, all of whom, however, 
died young. 

Sir John died November 4, 1729, when the estates descended to 
his eldest son, Holland Egerton, who succeeded as fourth baronet, 
but he did not long enjoy his inheritance, his death occurring a few 
months after April 25, 1730. By his wife Eleanor, youngest 
daughter of Sir Roger Cave, of Stanford, Northamptonshire, Bart., 
whom he married in 1712, and who, surviving him, re-married 
(May 28, 1732) John, youngest son of Sir Thomas Brooke, of 
Norton, he had a numerous issue, but several of the sons died 
young. Edward, the fifth, but eldest surviving son, succeeded as 
heir, but dying unmarried, February 16, 1743-4, the estates devolved 
upon his younger brother, Thomas, who succeeded as sixth baronet, 
being then in his twenty-third year. He married in 1748 Katharine, 
daughter of the Rev. John Copley, Fellow of the Collegiate Ghurch, 
Manchester, and rector of Thornhill, in Yorkshire, by whom he 
had two sons, Thomas, his heir, born in June, 1749, and John, 
born March, 1754, who died in the lifetime of his father. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 153 

Sir Thomas Grey Egerton died at Heaton House, July 8th, 1756, 
in the thirty-fifth year of his age, and was buried at Prestwich, where, 
on the east wall of the Wilton Chapel, there is a tablet with an 
inscription, in which his virtues are set forth at considerable length. 
In 1747 he was chosen one of the Parliamentary representatives of 
the borough of Newton, his colleague being Peter Legh, of I.yme, 
and in 1754 he was again importuned to accept the same trust, but 
declined, " preferring," as his monumental inscription says, " the 
satisfaction of a private station." His wife survived him for the long 
period of thirty-five years, her death occurring May 241)1, 1791, at 
the age of seventy. 

Thomas, the only surviving issue of the marriage, who was in his 
seventh year at the time of his father's decease, married, September 
12, 1769, his cousin, Eleanor, youngest daughter and co-heiress of 
Sir Ralph Assheton, of Middleton, his father and Sir Ralph having 
married two sisters. In 1784 he was elevated to the peerage by 
the title of Baron Grey de Wilton, of Wilton Castle, Herefordshire, 
and on the 26th of June, 1801, he was raised to the higher dignity 
of Viscount Grey de Wilton and Earl of Wilton, with special 
remainder to the second and all younger sons of his daughter by 
her husband, Robert Grosvenor, then Viscount Belgrave, and to her 
male issue by any future husband. He died on the 23rd of 
September, 1814, and was buried at Prestwich, having had issue by 
his wife Eleanor, who died at Heaton House, February 3, 1816, 
Thomas Grey Egerton, born in 1777, who died in infancy ; a second 
son, bearing the same baptismal appellation, born 2istof December, 
1780, who died December 21, 1793 ; and four daughters Eleanor, 
Louisa, Frances, and Frances Mary the eldest of whom only 
survived, all the rest having died in childhood, and thus terminated 
the direct male line of Egerton of Heaton. 

Eleanor Egerton, the only surviving child, inherited the extensive 
estates of her father, which, as we have seen, had been largely 
augmented by the marriage of an ancestor with the heiress of 
Holland. During the lifetime of her father she had been united in 
marriage at Lambeth (April 28, 1794) to the Right Hon. Robert 

154 County Families of 

Grosvenor, the eldest son and heir of Richard Grosvenor, 
who had, ten years before, been elevated to the dignities of 
Viscount Belgrave and Earl Grosvenor in acknowlegment of 
services rendered to the Ministry of the day, and the twenty-first in 
descent from Gilbert le Grosvenor, a nephew of Hugh Lupus, 
Count d'Avranches, who came over in the train of William the 
Norman, and who is traditionally said to have derived his name 
Gros-vcnor from the office he held of grand-huntsman to the 
Norman Earl of Chester. The issue of the marriage, in addition to 
a daughter who died in infancy, was three sons Richard, who 
succeeded as second Marquis of Westminster, and married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of George, Duke of Sutherland, by his wife, a grand- 
daughter of Lady Louisa Egerton, daughter of Scroope, fourth Earl 
of Bridgewater ; Thomas Grosvenor, the second son, who in 1821 
assumed by sign-manual the surname and arms of Egerton, instead 
of the paternal family of Grosvenor, and, as remainderman, took, 
under his maternal grandfather's patent of 1801, the Earldom and 
Yiscounty of Wilton (the Barony of Grey de Wilton, created in 1784, 
then expiring), the baronetcy al the time reverting to John Egerton, 
of Egerton and Oulton, the lineal descendant of Sir Roland Egerton, 
the first baronet, and the representative of the younger line, in 
which it has since continued, Sir Philip le Belward Grey Egerton, 
grand-nephew of Sir John, being the present baronet; and a third 
son, Robert Grosvenor, born 24th of April, 1801, who married, 
iyth May, 1831, the Hon. Charlotte Wellesley, daughter of Lord 
Cow ley, and was in 1857 created Baron Ebury. Robert Grosvenor, 
who married the heiress of Egerton, was created Marquess of West- 
minster in 1831, and died in 1845, his wife Eleanor surviving him 
a few months only. 

Thomas, the second son of the marriage, who succeeded to the 
Earldom of Wilton, married (i), November 29th, 1821, the Lady 
Mary Margaret Stanley, daughter of Edward, twelfth Earl of Derby, 
by his second wife, the celebrated Miss Farren, and by her, who 
died December i6th, 1858, he had a family of two sons and three 
daughters. He subsequently married (September i2th, 1863) 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 155 

Susanna Isabella, only child and heir of Major Elton Smith, of 
Ilminster, in Somersetshire, but by this lady, who survived him, he 
had no issue. His lordship died on the yth of March, 1882, when 
the honours and estates descended to his eldest son, Arthur 
Edward Holland Grey Egerton, born November 25th, 1833, 
formerly member in succession for Weymouth and Bath, and subse- 
quently created (i4th June, 1875) Baron Grey de Radcliffe, who 
married, August n, 1858, Elizabeth Charlotte Louisa, eldest 
daughter of William, second Earl Craven. His lordship died 
January i8th, 1885, but, having no issue, the titles and estates 
devolved upon his younger brother, the Hon. Seymour John Grey 
Egerton, the present earl. 


Having traced the descent of the House of Egerton from the 
time of William Rufus, when Mabilla, one of the daughters and co- 
heirs of Robert Fitz-Hugh, who had been created Baron of Malpas 
by Hugh Lupus, the Norman Earl of Chester, conveyed the Manor 
of Egerton in dower to William le Belward, who thereupon assumed 
the name of Egerton, to the present day, we may go back a few 
generations to the time when the vast estates held by Sir Rowland 
Egerton, the first baronet, and which had been largely augmented 
by his marriage with the heiress of Lord Grey de Wilton, were 
partitioned, the Cheshire and Flintshire properties, including the 
Manors of Egerton and Oulton, falling to the share of Philip, the 
third but second surviving son of Sir Rowland F^gerton. To these 
estates he succeeded on the death of his father in 1646. It was a 
time of anxiety and unrest ; the seeds of strife which had been sown 
and nurtured by King and Parliament had ripened and borne fruit. 
Philip Egerton was approaching manhood when the first shot was 
fired which proclaimed to anxious England that the differences 
between the sovereign and the subject could only be settled by an 
appeal to the sword. In 1646, when he came into his inheritance, 
the first war had been brought to a close. The tide of fortune had 
turned ; everything which the King or his friends attempted bore 

156 County Families of 

upon it the fatal marks of a falling or utterly fallen cause. The 
unhappy monarch, defeated, betrayed, powerless, almost friendless, 
found himself as unsuccessful in the business of diplomacy as he 
had been in that of war. On a spring morning in that same year, 
before the day had dawned, Charles, with clipped beard and shorn 
locks, and habited as a serving man, had taken his final farewell 
of the solemn groves and antique halls of Oxford, and, as the 
hour of three chimed from the college towers and quivered in the 
keen morning air, had passed through the silent streets of the city, and 
over Magdalen Bridge, accompanied by two faithful attendants, to seek 
a refuge in the Scottish camp. Cromwell, through his successive vic- 
tories, had become the idol of the Parliament party, and Bradshaw, 
who was shortly to play so prominent a part in that great tragedy 
which must for ever darken ournational annals, was then rapidly rising 
into importance, having been appointed successively to the offices 
of Commissioner of the Great Seal, Chief Justice of Chester, and 
one of the judges of Wales. On the outbreak of the civil war 
Philip Egerton's father had declared himself on the side of the 
King, and had rendered substantial help to the Royalist cause, for 
which he had incurred the displeasure of the dominant party, who, 
as a punishment for his " delinquency," had ordered his house at 
Wrinehill to be stormed and plundered. The son was not less 
loyal than the father. Though it is not known with certainty what 
part he actually bore in that great fratricidal struggle, his zeal in 
the cause of the sovereign was sufficient to bring him in collision 
with the Sequestration Commissioners and to imperil his estates. 
Notwithstanding his Royalist proclivities, he was, during the Protec- 
torate, entrusted with the shrievalty of his county, and if we may 
judge from the statements embodied in a petition of complaint to 
the Parliament of the Commonwealth, he must have exercised his 
office in a somewhat high-handed manner. In the month of July, 
in the year in which he was sheriff (1656), Cromwell issued writs 
or a new Parliament the one which assembled at Westminster on 
the 7th September, and notable as that in which the ancient 
privileges of the Constitution were violated on the broadest scale, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 157 

no member being admitted to the House who could not produce 
a certificate that he was " approved by his Highness's Council." 
The elections were fiercely contested among many popular tumults, 
and though the governing party secured a majority, many of its 
declared opponents were elected. Sir George Booth, of Dunham 
Massey, Thomas Marbury, of Marbury, Richard I.egh, of Lyme, 
and Peter Brooke, of Mere, were returned as the members for 
Cheshire. A great effort was made by the Cromwcllian faction to 
secure the return of Sir William Brereton, of Handforth, who had 
the command of the Parliamentarian forces in the palatinate, but 
they were unsuccessful. In a MS. volume of collections made by 
Sir William Brereton there is preserved the copy of a declaration 
made by one " John Bruckshawe ye yonger," of Bradbury (Bred- 
bury ?), in Cheshire, who appears to have constituted himself the 
champion of the discomfited party, as well as the draft of a petition 
to the Parliament, of which the following is a transcript : 

To the Parliament of the Commonwealth of England, 

The humble Peticon of Divers ffreeholders in ye county of Chester, in ye 
name of Themselves and many Hundreds of ffreeholders of ye same county, 


That whereas at the late General Assembly of ffreehol lers for that 
county, held the 2Oth of August laste at the Castle of Chester, for the 
electing of ffoure knights to serve in this present Parliament for the said 
county by the Greater Number of ffreeholders, and such as had voyces at 
that Election as wee conceive, wherein yet finding opposition from Phillip 
Egerton, Esq., High Sherift'e of that county and others, his complices 
engaged in his Designe urging to have others chosen and exclude the said 
Sir William Brereton from being elected. Your peticoners for cleering the 
truth and asserting theyr election of him did several tymes by themselves 
and other ffreeholders of the same county demand and earnestly presse the 
said Sheriffe for ye Pole, nevertheles the said Sheriffe in pursuance of his 
said Designe wilfully refused and would not Graunt the Pole, but hath 
made Returne of knights to serve for the same county, omytting ye said 
Sir William Brereton, though he was duely elected as aforesaid. 

The premises considered your Peticoners pray reliefe in the premises, 
and that the sayd misdemeanour maybe punished according to Justice, 
and the Priviledges of Parliament preserved. 

And your Peticoners shall humbly pray, &c.* 

* Local Cleanings, vol. i., pp. 60-1. 

158 County Families of 

As no attempt was made by Cromwell to substitute Sir William 
Brereton's name for that of any of the four members returned, it 
may be assumed that the charge against Philip Egerton by Mr 
" John Bruckshawe ye yonger " and the other aggrieved " ffree- 
holders " could not be substantiated. 

Among the papers preserved at Oulton is one quoted by Mr. 
Helsby (Cheshire Additions , v. 2, p. 221), relating to an order of 
the Sequestration Commissioners, dated Thursday, November 3, 
1659, and directed to the local commissioners, of which the 
following is a copy : 

By the Commissioners for Sequestracons appointed by Act of Parliament, 
August 271)1, 1659. 

Upon motion of Mr. Carey on the behalfe of Mr. Phillip Egerton, of the 
County of Chester, Esq., alledging that the Commissioners for Sequestra- 
tions in the County of Chester, intend to sell and dispose of the Estate of 
the said Mr. Egerton before any judgment be given by us upon the Charge 
of Delinquency against him. It is ordered that the said Commissioners of 
Cheshire doe forbeare to sell or dispose of the Estate of the said Mr. 
Kgerton for the spacj of twenty-one dayes. And that they give him notice 
within tenn dayes to produce such witnesses as he will examine in his 
defence, and to cross-examine the witnesses examined against him in case 
he intends to stand upon his justifications, otherwise upon his default we 
shall proceed to publication and hearing ex farte. And the said Commis- 
sioners are to make Certificat to us of their proceedings therein. 

Signed : Sam. Moyer, Ric. Moore, William Molins, John Browne, Jo. 

A few weeks before the issuing of that despatch the anniversary 
of Dunbar and Worcester had come round, and amidst a terrific 
storm Cromwell had passed away, the sceptre of power falling 
from his hand into the feeble grasp of his son Richard. At 
that time his body was lying in state at Somerset House, 
awaiting the completion of the arrangements when, with more than 
regal pomp and pageantry, it was to be deposited in the mausoleum 
of kings at Westminster. It was a fortunate circumstance for Philip 
Egerton, for the state of confusion in which the country was placed 
and the growing disaffection in Cheshire to the newly-mounted 
authorities enabled him, if not to pass the ordeal with entire success, 

Lancashire and Clieshire. 159 

at least to escape the more grasping demands of the commissioners 
and to preserve the home of his fathers from the alienation which 
was at one time threatened. 

When Monk was concerting his plans for the restoration of 
monarchy in the person of Charles II., Philip Egerton was entrusted 
with the captaincy of a militia company of horse in the regiment 
commanded by Colonel John Booth, his commission bearing date 
April ii, 1660. On the return of the King he received the honour 
of knighthood, and he appears to have been advanced from his 
position of captain to the command of a regiment, for there is a 
letter extant, dated and March, 1660-1, addressed "To Sr Philip 
Egerton kt. Lieutenant Coll. of my Regimt of Horse." He took 
an active part in public and local affairs, as is evident from the 
various offices committed to his trust. On the ist May, 1662, 
he was appointed one of the Commissioners of Subsidies fur 
Cheshire; on the ist August, 1664, he received the commission of 
lieutenant-colonel of militia from Lord Derby; and on the 25111 
March in the following year he was included in the commission 
appointing deputy-lieutenants for the county, and his name was 
retained in the succeeding instruments constituting the Board of 
Lieutenancy. In July, 1667, he was made a burgess of the town of 
Liverpool, and in 1670, when a vacancy occurred in the Parlia- 
mentary representation of the county through the death of Peter 
Venables, of Kinderton, he strove to obtain the seat, but was 
unsuccessful. Philip Henry in his diary thus refers to the event: 

1670. January 17. Great contest in Cheshire betw. Sir Philip Egerton & 
Mr. Tho. Cholmley of vale-royal for Knight of the shire, in ye stead of ye 
Baron of Kinderton deceas'd. They were polling 3 days. Mr. Cholmley 
carry 'd it by many voices. 

In 1675 he again served the office of sheriff; four years later, 
when the third Parliament of Charles II. had been dissolved and 
the writs issued for another, he again contested the county, and 
with more success, being returned with Henry Booth, of Dunham 
Massey. His Parliamentary honours, however, were but short- 
lived, for the House having resolved upon stopping supplies until 

160 County Families of 

the Duke of York was excluded from the succession, the King 
dissolved it (January i8th, 1680-1), and summoned another, which 
was to meet at Oxford. Sir Philip Egerton again appeared as a 
candidate, but was defeated. The Parliament which had been so 
abruptly dissolved was that in which the nicknames "Whig" and 
"Tory" were first used, and, though given in insult, were soon 
assumed with pride by those to whom they were applied. The 
distracted condition of public affairs at this juncture excited con- 
siderable alarm ; party feeling ran very high, and the danger of 
another civil war was not altogether associated with popular 
credulity. In the diary of Philip Henry, the Puritan divine, to 
which reference has already been made, the event is thus referred 
to : - 

Mar. 168". election in Chester, with great Contest between Mr. Booth & 
Sr. Rob. Cotton and Sr. Phil. Egerton & Sr. Rob. Lester the two former 
chosen for Chester Mr. Williams and Col. Whitley. for Sr. John 
Trevor, not Mr. Middleton, for Flint Sh. Sr. John Hanmer & Mr. Whitley, 
jun. for Shropsh. Mr. leveson Gower & Mr. Newport. Mar. 21. they met 
at Oxford. Mar. 28. they were sent home again disolv'd. The reason 
suppos'd to bee bee. they would not wave the busines of disabling ye 
D(uke) of Y(ork). Mr. Williams, ye Speaker, first brought ye newes to 
Whiten. (urch) yis day. 

In the autumn of that year another Parliament was summoned, 
when Sir Philip was elected as representative of Brackley, in North- 
amptonshire. On the accession of James II. a new Parliament was 
summoned to meet on the igth May. Burnet, the Whig, com- 
plained of " the injustice and violence used in the elections, beyond 
what had been ever practised in former times ; " and John Evelyn, 
the Tory, wrote : " Elections for the coming Parliament in England 
were thought to be very indirectly carried on in most places." In 
Cheshire there was no lack of spirit ; the contest lasted six days, 
with the result that Sir Philip Egerton was again returned for his 
native shire, Thomas Cholmondeley, of Vale Royal, being returned 
at the same time as his colleague. 

He must then have begun to feel the weight of accumulated years 
upon him, for a few months later he made his will, and settled his 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 161 

affairs; he still continued, however, to take an active interest in 
magisterial and other public business. He had witnessed the 
successive triumphs of Roundhead and Cavalier; had seen the 
Commonwealth overthrown and Monarchy re-established; had 
watched the stormy proceedings that followed the Restoration, the 
abdication of James II., and the bloodless revolution which placed 
William of Orange and the Princess Mary upon the throne. His 
long and eventful life was brought to a close at Oulton in August, 
1698, and on the 151)1 of that month his remains were deposited in 
the Church of Little Budworth. 

Sir Philip Egerton's widow, Catherine, daughter and sole heir 
of Piers Conway, of Hendre, in Flintshire, survived him nearly ten 
years, her death occurring in January, 1706-7. ]?y her he had a 
family of four sons and four daughters. The two eldest sons, John 
and Philip, died in infancy ; a third son, named John, succeeded 
as heir at his father's decease, and the fourth son, Philip, in whom 
the line was subsequently continued, was educated for the Church, 
and became rector of Astbury. 

John Egerton, the third but eldest surviving son, to whom the 
Parliament lands descended, was three times married: first, in 1681, 
to Mary, fourth daughter of Thomas Cholmondeley, of Vale Royal, 
his father's successful opponent in the contest for the representation 
of Cheshire at the election in 1670, by his first wife, Jane, daughter 
of Sir Lionel Tollemache, of Helmingham, in Suffolk, a lady in 
whose veins coursed the blood of a family that could boast its 
descent from Tollemache, a Saxon lord of Bentley and Stoke Tolle- 
mache, in the sixth century, as the old distich carved on the mansion 
at Bentley had it : 

When William the Conqueror reigned with great fame, 
Bentley was my seat, and Tollemache was my name. 

She lived but a few years after the marriage, and at her death he 
married (1686) her cousin Elizabeth, daughter of Robert, Lord 
Viscount Cholmondeley. This lady died in October, 1727, and 
was buried at Little Budworth, when he again entered the married 

1 62 County Families of 

state, his third wife being Catherine, daughter of William Upton, of 
Upton, near Chester, to whom he was united in June, 1731. He 
had no issue by any of his wives, and at his death, which occurred 
December 28, 1732, in his seventy-seventh year, the estates passed 
to the heirs of his younger brother, Philip, who had pre-deceased 

Philip, the youngest son of Sir Philip Egerton, was born June 
9th, and baptised at Little Budworth on the 26th June, 1662. In 
1693 he married Frances, daughter of John Offley, a grand-niece 
maternally of Miss Jane Lane, daughter of Colonel Lane, of 
Bentley, afterwards Lady Fisher, the lady who so heroically risked 
her life in aiding the escape of Charles II. after the disastrous 
fight at Worcester, in 1651. At the time of his marriage Sir Philip 
Egerton, the father, settled upon him the family estates in Crewe, 
Farndon, and Astbury, the latter including the advowson of 
Astbury, which had then come into the possession of the Egertons. 
On the death, in 1703-4, of John Hutchinson, the then rector, 
Philip Egerton, who was in orders, and had taken the degree of 
D.D., was presented nominally by his brother, but virtually by 
himself, to the living which he continued to hold until his death, 
February 21, 1726-7. He appears to have laboriously discharged 
the duties of his office, and among the papers preserved at Oulton 
there are many in his own handwriting relating to the glebe land, 
tithes, and other matters connected with that extensive parish. 

Dr. Egerton had by his wife in addition to five daughters, the 
three eldest of whom died unmarried, a fourth, Mary, who became 
the wife of Richard Puleston, of Hafod-y-Wern, in Denbighshire, 
and Sibilla, who married F'rancis, eldest son of Sir John Eyles, 
Bart., M.P., and who afterwards took the additional names of 
Haskin-Styles three sons: Philip, born in 1694, who married 
Frances, daughter and co-heir of Sir Griffith Jeffreys, of Acton, Knt., 
but dying childless in 1776, the property descended to his nephew, 
the second but eldest surviving son of the rector of Astbury, who 
married, in 1720, Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of William Brock, 
of Upton ; the third son, Rowland, married the widow of Thomas, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 163 

second son of William Bourne, of Chell, in Staffordshire, but does 
not appear to have had issue by her. 

Philip Egerton, who, in 1776, succeeded as heir to his uncle, 
had married his cousin Mary, daughter of Sir F. H. Eyles-Styles, 
who became sole heir to her brother, Sir John Haskyn-Styles, Bart., 
thus adding to the Egerton possessions. By her he had a family of 
nine sons and five daughters, of whom John and Philip, the two 
eldest sons, succeeded in turn to the baronetcy and estates. He 
died in 1786, at the age of fifty-four, and was buried by the side of 
his progenitors in the Egerton vault at Bunbury. 

Sir John Grey Egerton, the eldest son, who succeeded as eighth 
baronet in 1814, was twenty years of age at the time of his father's 
death, having been born at Broxton, where his grandfather resided, 
on the nth of July, 1766. On the gth August, 1795, he married, 
at Backford, Maria, daughter of Thomas Scott Jackson, of Lindon. 
The lady being under age, a question arose as to the legality of 
the marriage, which was set at rest by the young people being 
re-married by special licence at Serjeant Adair's, in Lincoln's Inn, 
in the month of June following. Sir John took an active part in 
public affairs, and represented Chester in two successive Parlia- 
ments after severe and costly contests, which were repeated, though 
with less success, in 1818 and 1820. He was one of the first 
governors of the British Institution, and so greatly was he esteemed 
by the men of his own county that, at his death, a public memorial 
was erected in the Cathedral of Chester to commemorate his public 
worth and private virtues. He died childless on the 24th May, 
1825, and was buried on the 8th of the following month at Little 
Budworth, his wife surviving him five years. 

Having no issue, the baronetcy, with the estates, descended to his 
brother Philip, second son of Philip Egerton and his wife Mary 
Eyles-Styles, who was then rector of Tarporley, having teen 
presented to the living by his elder brother on the death, November 
23, 1815, of the Rev. Hugh Cholmondeley, B.D., who had held 
with the rectory the deanery of Chester. 

Of the other issue of Philip Egerton, William, the third son, 

164 County Families of 

settled at Gresford Lodge, in Denbighshire. He married, in 1807, 
Sibilla, daughter of Robert Boswell ; subsequently he held the post 
of Accountant-general at Calcutta, and was unfortunately killed by 
the upsetting of a mail coach at Chester in 1827, leaving a 
numerous issue, of whom several are still living. Charles Bulkeley 
Egerton, the fourth son, of Severn Hill, in Shropshire, served with 
distinction in the army ; he became major-general, and subsequently 
general. In acknowledgment of his services he received the 
honour of knighthood, and was made G.C.M.G. and K.C.H. He 
married, in 1809, Charlotte, only daughter of Admiral Sir Thomas 
Troubridge, by whom he had, with other issue, Thomas Graham 
Egerton, who was killed at Sebastopol in 1855. Sir Charles died 
July 8th, 1857. Francis, the fifth son, served in the navy, and 
died unmarried in the West Indies, July i8th, 1799. Thomas 
Egerton, the sixth son, entered the army, and served as major in 
the 29th Regiment of Foot; he died unmarried at Bognor, January 
29th, 1812. Rowland, the seventh son, received his educational 
Brasenose College, Oxford, where he took his B.A., and was after- 
wards admitted to holy orders. He married, in 1803, Emma, 
daughter and sole heir of James Croxton, of Norley Bank, Cheshire, 
and niece of Sir 1'eter Warburton, of Arley, in the same county, 
liart. On the death of Sir Peter without issue, in 1813, he assumed 
by sign-manual the name of Warburton, in addition to his own 
patronymic, the Warburton estates at the same time passing, under 
the baronet's will, to his eldest son, Sir Peter's grand-nephew 
Rowland Eyles Egerton-Warburton, the present possessor of War- 
burton and Arley. David de Malpas Robert Egerton, the eighth 
son, born in 1782, died unmarried in 1809 ; and Richard, the ninth 
and youngest son, entered the army and served with distinction 
during the Napoleonic wars; he was major and afterwards lieutenant- 
general, and in the final struggle at Waterloo acted as aide-de-camp 
to Lord Hill. In the national picture of Wellington entertaining 
his companions-in-arms at Apsley House, in commemoration of 
that crowning victory, the portrait of Richard Egerton, C.B., 
appears amongst those of the gallant soldiers who shared in the 
glories of that memorable day. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 165 

Philip Egerton, the rector of Tarporley, as previously stated, 
succeeded to the baronetcy and estates on the death of his elder 
brother without issue, in 1825. He married, September 4, 1804, 
Rebecca, daughter of Josias Dupre, of Wilton Park, Buckingham- 
shire, who bore him a family of seven sons and five daughters. On 
succeeding to the honours and estates, he assumed by sign-manual 
the surname of Grey. With the baronetcy he retained the rectory of 
Tarporley up to the time of his death, which occurred December 13, 
1829, when he was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir Philip de M.ilpas 
Grey-Egerton. Sir Philip, who married, March 8, 1832, Anna 
Elizabeth, second daughter of George John Legh, of High Legh, well 
sustained the dignity of his ancient lineage. He was a trustee of the 
British Museum, a member of the Senate of London University, 
and a Fellow of the Royal Society and of the Society of Antiquaries. 
He was a member of Parliament for a period of well-nigh half a cen- 
tury f first for Chester, which he represented many years, and then for 
the county, which he continued to represent up to the time of his 
death. He died April 5th, 1881, when he was succeeded by his 
eldest son, Philip le Bel ward Grey-Egerton, born 28th March, 
1833, and late captain in the Coldstream Guards. He married, 
July i8th, 1861, Henrietta Elizabeth Sophia, eldest daughter of 
Albert, first Lord Londesborough, by whom he has issue three 
sons and three daughters, but of whom only one son, Philip Henry 
Brian, and one daughter, Violet Edith Grey, survive. Sir Philip 
le Belward Grey Egerton is the eleventh baronet, and the present 
representative of the distinguished line of Egerton of Oulton. 



T has been said that at the present time there is 
scarcely a single rood of land in England remaining 
in the possession of the direct descendants of a 
feudatory of the Conqueror ; that, in other words, 
the lands wrested from the Saxon owners by the 
Philip de Malvoisins and the Front de Bceufs have, by a poetical 
kind of justice, reverted back to the descendants of Gurth, the 
swineherd, or those of Higg, the son of Snell. No doubt this is 
true in a general sense, but the rule has its exceptions, and we 
have a notable illustration in the case of the Traffords, where the 
same lands have been held generation after generation for a period 
of eight hundred years, if not indeed from the far-off days of 
Gurth and Wamba, by the same family a very rare example of so 
continuous a succession of heirs male. 

The pedigree of this ancient house begins with a certain Ralph, 
or Radulphus, who flourished in the time of Canute, the Dane, 
and who, according to popular tradition, was lord of Trafford at 
that time ; so that we may picture in imagination the scenes of 
sylvan solitude when the serfs and bondsmen of this Saxon 
patriarch tended their herds beneath the wide-branching oaks, and 
gathered their scattered porkers to feed on the luxurious banquet 
of acorns and beech mast which the then existing forest furnished. 
This Radulphus is said to have died about the year 1050, in the 
reign of Edward the Confessor, leaving a son, who bore the same 

County Families of Lancashire, &c. 167 

But the reign of the Saxon in this country was rapidly coming to 
an end. When Duke William came out of the field of Senlac 
crowned with victory, and had obtained possession of the vanquished 
Harold's throne, he plundered the Saxon thegns of their lands, took 
what he could by la main forte the unanswerable right of the 
strong Norman hand, and those who had helped him took what 
they could of what was left, their title thereto being figuratively 
expressed by Earl Warren, who, when summoned by the King's 
commissioners to produce the title-deeds under which he held his 
estates, pointed grimly to his two-handled sword. 

How it came to pass that the Traffords retained possession of 
the lands held by their ancestor in the time of Canute, instead of 
being displaced by some predatory follower of 
the Norman invader, is not clear ; but ex- 
pediency and secret betrothals were not 
unknown in the adjustment of differences in 
the eleventh century any more than they are 
now. Be that as it may, however, if "The 
Blacke Booke of Trafford" is to be credited, 
Radulphus, the second of that name, and 
Robert, his son, had a pardon and protection 
granted them about the year 1080, by Hamo, 
the Norman baron of Dunham Massey, with 
the lands and body of one Wulfernote, a 
Saxon rebel (Harl. MSS. 2,077, P- 2 9 2 )- 

Cral of TraJTanl. 

It is to this early and 

somewhat obscure period of the Trafford history that we must refer 
the peculiar crest of the family a labouring man with a flail in his 
hand, in the act of threshing a sheaf of wheat, as well as the 
ambiguous motto, " Now Thus," concerning which the following 
account is given in Hearne's Curious Discourses (\. i, p. 262, 
edit. 1771) : 

The auncyenttest (armorial device) I know or have read is that of 
Trafords of Trafard, in Lancashire, whose arms (crest) are a labouring 
man with a flayle in his hande threshinge, and this written motto " Now 
thus," which they say came by this occasion : that he and other gentlemen 


County Families of 

opposing themselves against some Normans, who came to invade them, this 
Trayford dyd them much hurte, and kept the passages against them ; but 
that at length the Normans having passed the ryver, came sodenlye upon 
him, and then he disguising himselfe, went into his barne, and was 
thresshynge when they entered, yet being knowen by some of them, and 
demanded why he so abased himselfe, answered " Now, Thus." 

The commonly-accepted interpretation of the motto is, that the 
thresher, alluding to the head of the flail falling sometimes on one 
side and sometimes on the other, thus indicated his belief that 
that was the safest course to pursue in the then disturbed condition 
of the kingdom a prudential maxim that was not forgotten by his 
descendants in later generations. Coupling the story related by 
Hearne with the grant of the pardon recorded in the "Blacke 

]5ooke," it is not improbable that the 
crest may be founded on some faint 
tradition of a struggle with that part 
of the Norman army which entered these 
parts under the Earl of Chester, who 
may be symbolised in the garb or wheat 
sheaf, the badge of his descendants ; 
but whatever the origin may be, the crest 
was only regularly granted to the family 
by Laurence Dalton, Norroy King of 
c,,t cf Tniffoni (and, ,,t). Arms, about the middle of the sixteenth 
century, at which time many of the Lancashire and Cheshire 
families made similar additions of crests to the plain prescriptive 
coat armour which they had previously used from time immemorial. 
Robert, who was joined with his father, Radulphus, in the pardon 
previously referred to, died about the year 1 1 20, leaving a son 
Henry, who made considerable additions to the family estates, 
having obtained from Elias de Pendlebury lands, with a tenement 
thereon called Gildehusestide now the Heald House in Rusholme 
so named from its supposed connection with some ancient guild 
in Manchester, long since forgotten; from Gospatric de Chorlton, 
or Cherletona, as it was then written, he obtained a grant of a 
fourth part of the hamlet of Chorlton (Chorlton-cum-Hardy) ; he 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 169 

also obtained lands near the river Medlock from Adam de 
Chetham, and others in Aldehulme from Matthew Fitz-Gulielim. 
He died about the year 1130, and was succeeded by his son Henry, 
who made further additions to the patrimonial estates by the acquisi- 
tion of lands in Sale from Thomas de Hyde, in Withington from 
Nigel de Longford, and in Chorlton and Beswick from the Abbot of 
Cockersand. He was living in the reigns of Henry II. and Richard 
I., and appears to have died at an advanced age about the year 
1200, leaving a son, Richard, who succeeded, and who, in the 
reign of King John, obtained lands from Hamon de Mascie, and 
subsequently from Margery, the daughter of the same Hamon, and 
then widow of Roger Paine, of Ashbourne, the whole lordship of 
Stretford, to be held as of William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby, who 
by his marriage with Agnes, one of the daughters and co-heirs of 
Randle Blundeville, Earl of Chester, had acquired the whole of 
the lands in Lancashire lying between the Ribble and Mersey, the 
forfeited possessions of Roger de Poictou, the Norman grantee. 
He also obtained a grant of lands in Stretford from Richard Fitz- 
Ade de Urmston, as well as lands in other places. With a due 
regard for the lesson which the motto of his house conveyed, he, 
in the troublesome times of King John, divided his estates between 
his two sons ; Trafford, Stretford, and the whole of the lands near 
Manchester, which had then become of considerable extent, falling 
to the share of Henry, the eldest, while the Manors of Chadderton 
and Foxdenton, which the family had long possessed, were assigned 
to Geoffrey, the younger son, who thereupon, in accordance with 
the custom of the age, assumed the name of his estates, and was 
founder of the House of Chadderton. 

The grandson of Henry de Trafford, who bore the same baptismal 
appellation, was brother of Richard and John de Trafford, two 
ecclesiastics of the Roman Church, Richard, who died in 1321, 
being the first rector of Cheadle of whom we have any record. 
Henry de Trafford was knighted some time before the year 1309, 
and died about 1334, previous to which he had, with the consent 
of his wife, Dame Margaret, entailed his lands upon Henry, his 

170 County Families of 

grandchild, his eldest son, John, having pre-deceased him, and his 
younger son, Robert, being then settled at Garret, in Manchester, 
where he founded the line of Trafford of Garret. 

Henry, the grandson, who succeeded, came of age in 1336 
received the honour of knighthood, and died about 1370, leaving a 
son, Sir Henry de Trafford, who by his wife Margery, daughter 
of Robert Ince, was father of Henry, who succeeded to the estates 
in 1386. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Ralph Radcliffe, 
of Smithells, and at her death, in 1394, left issue, in addition to 
Henry, a younger son, Edmund, who succeeded to the family 
estates on the death of his brother without surviving issue. He 
married Alice, the eldest daughter and co-heir with her sister 
Dulcia, wife of Sir Robert Booth, of their brother, Richard Venables, 
descended from the barons of Kinderton, and thus acquired half 
of the Bollin fee in Cheshire, an estate that has remained to 
the Traffords ever since. When, in 1422, Thomas de la Warre, 
then rector of Manchester, endeavoured to put into execution his 
pious intention of collegiating the old rectorial Church of Man- 
chester, which many people erroneously suppose to have been 
then first founded, the name of Edmund de Trafford appears first 
on the list of esquires who were gathered " at the sound of the bell " 
to listen to the proposal the priest-lord had to make, and to confirm 
the same by their free consent. Henry Trafford was knighted by 
King Henry VI. at Whitsuntide, 1426. Like many others of that 
day, he was a great believer in alchemy, and seems to have been 
actively engaged with another Lancashire knight, Sir Thomas 
Ashton, in the delusive pursuit of the transmutation of the baser 
metals into gold, and, self-deceived, to have deluded the weak King 
with promises of wealth which never could be realised. Their 
supposed power had great attractions for Henry, who was in 
serious straits for money, and was credulous enough to believe he 
might, by their aid, relieve himself of the debts by which he was 
encumbered. These two knightly alchemists were no mean 
adventurers ; they were both representatives of ancient families, 
and held high social position. Fuller, the historian, in his investi- 

Lancashire and Cheshire. \ 71 

gations, found in the Tower the original patent granted to them 
by the King to practise their pretended art, and as the document 
throws considerable light on the weakness and credulity of the 
age, and the belief in a quasi science that is now from the nature 
of things only an obsolete and forgotten lore, we give the trans- 
lation : 

The King to all unto whom, &c , greeting know ye, that whereas our 
beloved and loyal Edmund de Trafford, Knight, and Thomas Ashton, 
Knight, have, by a certain petition shown unto us, set forth that although 
they were willing by the art or science of philosophy to work upon certain 
metals, to translate (transmute) imperfect metals from their own kind, and 
then to transubstantiate them by their said art or science, as they say, into 
perfect gold or silver, unto all manner of proofs and trials, to be expected 
and endured as any gold or silver growing in any mine ; notwithstanding 
certain persons ill-willing and maligning them, conceiving them to work by 
unlawful art, and so may hinder and disturb them in the trial of the said 
art and science. We, considering the premises, and willing to know, the 
conclusion of the said work or science, of our special grace have granted 
and given leave to the same Edmund and Thomas, and to their servants, 
that they may work and try the aforesaid art and science lawfully and 
freely, without any hindrance of ours, or of our officers, whatsoever ; any 
statute, act, ordinance, or provision made, ordained, or provided to the 
contrary notwithstanding. In witness whereof, &c., the King at Westminster 
the 7th day of April. 

This curious document was granted in 1446. So great was the 
faith of the King that his expectations were wound up to the highest 
pitch, and in the following year he actually informed the people 
that the happy hour was approaching when, by means of " the 
stone," he "should be able to pay off his debts." It is needless 
to add that the " stone " failed, and that the King's debts would 
have remained unpaid had not his Majesty pawned the revenues 
of his Duchy of Lancaster to satisfy the demands of his clamorous 

When Edmund Trafford, the alchemist who in later life persuaded 
himself and his sovereign that he could change the baser metals 
into gold, chose for himself a wife or, perhaps, to speak more 
accurately, had a wife chosen for him in the person of Alice 
Venables he was but a youth of tender years. The marriage took 

172 County Families of 

place in May, 1409, and the little lady who became his bride was 
then eleven years of age, she having, according to the evidence 
given in 1414, when she made proof of age, been born at Worsley 
on the Friday in Whitsun-week, 1398, and baptised at the Parish 
Church of Eccles. It is not known with certainty how the match 
was brought about, but in those days the lord of the fee was 
entitled to the wardship of the heir, with the right to put up his or 
her hand to sale in marriage, a practice that oftentimes prompted 
parents to seek an eligible match for their heirs while under age, 
to free them from the exactions and other consequences of ward- 
ship under the feudal system. In this instance the marriage was, 
in a worldly sense, a very eligible one, for Alice Venables was joint 
heiress with her sister Douce of the extensive estates of her father, 
Sir William Venables, of Bolyn the Wilmslow of the present day 
their only brother, Richard Venables, having been accidentally 
drowned in the river Bollin, near Ringway, about four miles from 
Wilmslow, in September, 1402, a few weeks after his father's death, 
and when he was only eight years of age. The wardship of the 
estates, together with the marriage of the two co-heiresses, was 
granted by Henry, Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester, the lord para- 
mount, to Oliver de Staveley, who shortly after married the widow 
of Sir William Venables, and he doubtless chose the husband for 
his young ward. On the i8th July, 1414, she mads proof of age, 
and in the inquisition which was taken before Henry de Ravens- 
worth, the escheater, at Chester, some curious circumstances are 
recorded that illustrate the way in which evidence was taken 
in those days. David le Seintpier, one of the witnesses, swore that 
she was born at Worsley and baptised at Eccles on the Friday, and 
that the act was impressed upon his recollection because he was 
then setting out on a pilgrimage to Our Lady at Walsingham, when 
he was thrown from his horse and broke his leg (tibia); and Roger 
de Mulyngton swore that he wrote the day of her birth in a certain 
" portifery " belonging to the Church of Eccles. Though Edmund 
Trafford's wife made proof of age in 1414, the division of the estates 
did not take place until 1421, when her younger sister, Douce, who 

Lancashire and Clteshire. 173 

had been united in marriage with Robert, younger son of John 
Booth, of Barton, at the same time that she was married to Trafford, 
had attained the age of twenty-one years, when that portion of the 
ancient lordship of Bolyn, comprising the townships of Chorley, 
Hough in Bollin fee, and Morley in Pownall fee, together with the 
advowson of the Church of Wilmslow, passed to Alice, the eldest 
co-heir ; and this property has ever since remained in the Trafford 

When, in 1446, Henry VI. issued his royal licence to Sir 
Edmund Trafford and his friend Sir Thomas Ashton, authorising 
them to make gold, he was overriding the provisions of the Act 
passed in the reign of Henry IV. (5 Hen. IV., c. 4), which pro- 
hibited the King's subjects from transmuting the baser metals into 
gold the only Act, it is said, which has never been violated. It 
was of little consequence, for before the aurum potabile was found 
Sir Edmund was sleeping the sleep of death, and the golden 
dreams and the temporal cares of the credulous King were alike at 
an end. 

Sir Edmund Trafford died on the 24th of January, 1458, leaving, 
in addition to a son John, his heir, and then of the age of twenty- 
five years and more, three daughters Joan, who in 1439 had been 
married to James Byron, grandson of Sir John Byron, a Lancashire 
knight, and an ancestor of the poet lord, but, being left a widow, 
had again married, in 1443, William, son and heir of Sir Alexander 
Radcliffe, of the great House of Ordsal ; 1 >ulcia, the second 
daughter, married, in 1438, Sir John Ashton, of Ashton, the eldest 
son and heir of Sir Thomas Ashton, the alchemist ; and Elizabeth, 
the youngest, married, in 1435, Sir John Pilkington, of Pilkington. 
Concerning this last marriage there are deeds extant showing the 
way in which Pilkington endowed his bride at the porch of the 
Collegiate (now Cathedral) Church of Manchester, when he entered 
into a bond to pay 200 marks in silver (^133 6s. 8d.), and also 
" swere upon a boke " that he stood " sole seiset in his demene as 
of fee simple or fee tail the day of weddynge " of the lands of his 
father, including the dower lands of his mother, Dame Margery 

174 County Families of 

Pilkington. Having survived her husband, she in, 1451, married 
Sir Peter Legh, of Lyme, in Cheshire, with whom she lived in 
wedlock until her death, in 1474. 

John Trafford, who on the death of his father, in 1458, succeeded 
as sixteenth lord of Trafford, had received the honour of knight- 
hood in 1444, and about the same time, or shortly after, had also 
married into the Ashton family, his wife being Elizabeth, one of the 
daughters of Sir Thomas, the alchemist. Sir John Trafford lived 
in troublesome times. The great struggle between the rival houses 
of York and Lancaster, " that purple testament of bleeding war " 
which bequeathed to England the Wars of the Roses, was being 


When like a matron butchered of her sons, 
And cast beside some common way, a spectacle 
Of horror and affright to passers by, 
Our bleeding country bled at every vein ! 

The men of Lancashire were by no means unanimous in their 
support of the House of Lancaster. Whether the lord of Trafford 
ranged himself on the side of the Red Rose, or whether, living in 
an age when the spirit of chivalry had given place to a policy of 
subtlety, like some of his neighbours, he looked to his own interest, 
changing sides at his discretion, and changing to whichever party 
happened at the time to be dominant, is not clear. Be that as it 
may, when the sun had gone down on the six and thirty thousand 
Englishmen whose corpses lay stiffening on the bloody field of 
Towton, and Edward of York had been borne to the throne upon 
the shoulders of the people, we find Sir John Trafford binding 
himself and his retainers to serve under the banner of the great 
" king-maker," the stout Earl of Warwick, nominally in considera- 
tion of the yearly payment of twenty marks, in addition to the wages 
usually paid for one of his degree, but in reality, as it would seem, 
to give greater protection to the family estates in those unsettled 
times. The agreement, a copy of which is preserved among the 
MS. collections of the late Canon Raines, is interesting as illus- 
trating the manner in which the great feudal nobles retained their 
followers. It reads : 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 175 

This endentur made the xxvi of May, the fyrst yere of ye regne of the 
Kynge, our souraigne lord edward ye iiiith Betwen Richard Neuille, erle of 
Warewyk and captaine of Caleys of ye one ptie and Sr John Trafford 
Knyghte of the oyer ptie bereth wittenesse yt ye said Sr John Trafford of 
his fre and mere motion ys beloft and reteyned to Ward and wt ye seid 
erle durying ye term of hys lyffe to be wt hym and do hym s'uice and 
attendance agenst all manr p'sones except hys allegence. And yt ye seyd 
Sr John Trafford shal be redy at ye desir and comandement of ye seid erle 
to come vnto hym at all such tymes and in such places as ye said Earl shall 
call upon hym or geue hym warnyng sufficiant horsed harnessed arrayed 
and accompanyed as ye cas shall Requir and accordyng to yt that ye sayd 
erle shall call hym to at ye cost of ye said Erie Resonable And ye said 
Erie for ye same have graunted unto ye saide Sr John Trafford to have by 
patent under ye seale of hys Armes an Anuyte durying hys lyf of ye some 
of xx mrcs stl 1 to be leuyed taken and receyued of thissues and reuenues 
of hys lordshyp of Midelh'm by ye hands of hys Reccyuor payd at ye 
tymes of Mykelmas & pasche and on thys ye said Erie hath granted unto ye 
sayd Sr John Trafford yt in tyme of Ware he shal have soche Wages 
Rewards & Profits as oyr p'sonnes of hys degre shal haue yeldyng vnto ye 
seid Erie his iii des and ye iii de of iii des in lyke wise and same as it is 
accustomed in ye Werre. In witnesse whereof ye yere & daie abouesayde 
ye said p'ties ent'changeably to ye p'sentes haue put to their seall. 


(The Earl of Warwick's Seal with the Bear & Ragged staff is appended.) 


Sr John Trafford i E. iv. Erie of Warwick's man. 

For some reason or other, as yet unexplained, Sir John resigned 
his estates in 1484 to his eldest son, Edmund, and died four years 
later, January nth, 1488. His wife (Elizabeth) bore him three 
sons Edmund (his heir), William, and Thomas ; and three 
daughters Margaret; Dulcia, who married Hugh Uulkclcy, of 
Whatcroft, ancestor of the Lords Bulkeley ; and Anne, who became 
the wife of Thomas Radcliffe, of Manchester. 

Edmund Trafford, the eldest son, was thirty-four years of age at 
the time of his father's decease, and had in 1479 or before married 
Margaret, daughter of Sir John Savage, of Rock Savage, in Cheshire, 
and the widow of John Honford, of Honford, or Handforth, in 
Wilmslow parish. He was made a Knight of the Bath in 1495, 
and died on the isth of August, 1513. Sometime before his 
decease Sir Edmund founded and endowed a chantry within the 

176 County Families of 

Chapel of Stretford, then a kind of oratory or chapel of ease that had 
been built by one of his progenitors for the spiritual requirements 
of the dependents of the Trafford estate, a century or so before,* 
and by a deed dated in 1513, now preserved among the Trafford 
evidences, he and his son and heir apparent, also named Edmund, 
made a grant of land to trustees for the use and behoof of " the 
parysh preste " of Wilmslow, and the augmentation of the stipend 
of the " Saint Marie preste " the priest serving at the altar of the 
Blessed Virgin in the chantry or Jesus Chapel on the north side of 
the Church at Wilmslow, and now known as the Trafford Chapel, in 
order that prayers might be said and masses sung for the souls of 
Sir Edmund, the founder, Dame Margaret his wife, their heirs, 
their children, and their ancestors, f 

These chantry chapels, which it became the fashion in pre- 
Reformation times to build, and in which certain prescribed 
services were chanted by priests (hence their name), were 
subordinate to the mother church, and the ecclesiastics who 
ministered at the altars were never permitted to infringe the 
rights of the incumbent or to receive any portion of the rectoral 
endowments. Their presence, however, was oftentimes availed 
of by those resident in the immediate neighbourhood, and in 
this way they alleviated the spiritual destitution that pre- 

A scion of the House of Trafford of whom we know just enough 
to make us wish to know more was William Trafford, a younger 
brother of Sir Edmund, who died in 1513, and the last abbot of 

* Among the Trafford muniments is a deed bearing date 141)1 Henry IV. 
(1412-13), in which mention is made of a parcel of land, part of the Trafford 
estate, lying near to the Chapel of Stretford. 

t There was in the Chapel of St. Nicholas, now known as the Trafford 
Chapel, on the south side of the Collegiate (now Cathedral) Church of 
Manchester, an ancient chantry dedicated to the Virgin Mary, which is 
believed to have been founded by the Traffords at a much earlier date, and 
concerning which there is among the Trafford muniments a long succession 
of records extending from the 23 Edward III. (1349-50) to the reign of 
Henry VII. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 177 

the Cistercian House of Salley, or Mount St. Andrew, in Craven. 
His name does not occur in the Visitation of Flower, or in that 
of Sir Richard St. George, but it is mentioned in the later one of 
Dugdale (1664-5), and in the family genealogy it is added that he 
had lands given him by his mother, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Ashton, and his nephew. Baines says that he died on 
the 35th (sic) July, 9 Henry VIII. (1518), but this is clearly an 
error, for nearly twenty years later he was among those who took 
part in the disastrous conflict between monachism and monarchy, 
which ended in the discomfiture of the promoters the Pilgrimage 
of Grace, as it was called. William Trafford, like his neighbour, 
John Paslew, the last abbot of Whalley, took a prominent part in 
the insurrection ; for his disloyalty he was tried at the Lancaster 
Spring Assizes in March, 1537, and hanged in the county town 
on the toth of the same month, two days before his brother abbot 
and co-conspirator was hanged within sight of the scenes of his 
former power and greatness at Whalley. Stevens, in his Con- 
tinuation of the Monasticon (v. ii., p. 49), says : 

The names of the abbots of this (Salley) monastery I have not anywhere 
met with, except only the last of them, William Trafford, who alone may 
stand for many, being one of that small number who, in those days, had 
the courage to give up his life a sacrifice to his conscience ; for he was 
hanged at Lancaster, in the year 1538, for opposing the sacrilegious havoc 
of churches and monasteries, and standing up for his own ; on which 
account his name will for ever remain honourable to posterity. 

Burton, in his Monasticon Eboracense (p. 66), says that both 
the abbot of Salley and the prior of that house were attainted of 
high treason and executed. It is somewhat singular that no 
notice of this ill-fated member of the house is to be found among the 
Trafford muniments, and Dr. Whitaker remarks that the name does 
not appear in the Archiepiscopal Registers at York, from which 
circumstance he concludes that Trafford had only been lately 
elected to and not actually confirmed in the abbacey of Salley 
when the dark course of events unfolded with such frightful 
rapidity upon that devoted house. 
2 3 

178 County Families of 

When Edmund Trafford married the young widow of John 
Honford, that lady's father, Sir John Savage, of Clifton, who had 
the guardianship of her first husband's son and heir, William 
Honford, in a deed dated the 4th of August, 1487, granted the 
" Warde and mariage of the Body and londez of ye seid Willm 
duryng alle his seid nonage to my son in lagh Edmund Trafford 
esquier and my doghter Margaret his wife they to have alle the 
seid Wardez and to marye hym at their pleasurez, worshipfullye, 
they takinge the profetez of all the seide Wardez and mariage 
during his seid nonage to their own usez." The youthful heir of 
the House of Honford, whose guardianship was thus transferred, 
became a soldier; he was a commissioner of array in 1510, and 
three years later, with many of his neighbours and their depen- 
dents, marched under the banner of the valiant Stanley to meet 
the Scottish King. He was one of the heroes of Flodden, and 
when night closed upon the scene of that deadly struggle the 
moon looked down upon the corpse of William Honford as it lay 
stiffening on Branksome Moor. With his death the direct line of 
Honford terminated; the patrimonial lands being conveyed by his 
daughter and sole heiress, Margaret Honford, to her second 
husband, Sir Urian Brereton, the builder of the present hall of 

In the fight at Hodden the Lancashire and Cheshire houses lost 
many a gallant representative. Among the slain, in addition to Sir 
William Honford, were Thomas Venables, the Baron of Kinderton ; 
Sir John Boothe ; Sir Bryan Tunstall, of Thurland; Christopher 
Savage (not Sir Edmund Savage, as is often erroneously stated), 
the Mayor of Macclesfield ; with many substantial burgesses of that 
town Robert Foulsehurst, of Crewe ; John Bostock, of the retinue 
of the abbot of Vale Royal ; Thomas Maisterson, of Nantwich ; 
James Holt, of Stubley; Robert Bebington, of Bebington, with 
William, Randle, James, John, and Charles, his nephews ; and one 
of the Sankeys who was with Sir Thomas Boteler's archers." As 
the ancient poem of " Scottish Feilde," believed to have been 
written by a Cheshire man, a Legh of Baguley, expresses it 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 179 

The Barne (Baron) of Kinderton full keenly, was killed them beside ; 
So was Honforde, I you hete, that was a hynde swyer* ! 
Fulleswisef full fell, was fallen to the grounde ! 
Christopher Savadge was downecaste that kerej might be never ! 

Sir Edmund Trafford, as before stated, died on the i5th of 
August, 1513, little more than three weeks before Flodden was 
fought. When Randle Holme, the antiquary, made his notes on 
the Churches of Cheshire in 1572, there was in a window in 
"Jesus He" the chantry in which, as we have seen, he had 
founded an altar in Wilmslow Church, a shield bearing the arms 
of Trafford quartered with those of P'itton, Helsby, and Thornton, 
and impaling Savage, with the figures of Sir Edmund and his wife, 
and the following inscription in black letter characters : 

rate pro atabus biti (Ebmunbi Srafforb mil' ft biie Pargarcfc 
uvoris sue, lutncm pro atabus filiorum et filiaruiu qui ishtm fciicstram 
fieri ftcit aiio bfu macr 

By the widow of John Honford, who survived him, Sir Edmund 
had issue Edmund, his heir, of whom anon ; William, who married 
Margery, one of the daughters of Sir Ralph Longford, of Longford, 
Derbyshire, and of the Hough, in Withington, near Manchester, 
and afterwards wife of Sir John Markham, of Coatham, in Notting- 
hamshire. He filled several offices of trust in the county, and 
acted as under-sheriff of Cheshire during the shrievalty of his elder 
brother in 1540, and two years later by royal grant, in which he is 
described as our " dearly beloved William Trafford, of Wylmslowe, 
Esquire," he had bestowed upon him by Henry VIII. the park and 
grange of Swythamley, near Leek, in Staffordshire, now owned by 
Philip Lancaster Brocklehurst, Esquire. This William had a 
provision made for him in the lifetime of his father, probably on 
the occasion of his marriage, as appears by the writ of livery 
granted to his elder brother, September 3, 1513, wherein it is 
stated that Edmund Trafford, the father, had given to Alexander 

* Hynde Swyer a courteous esquire. 
f Robert Foulsehurst, of Crewe. 
J Kere return. 

1 80 County Families of 

Radcliffe, William Hondford, and Ralph Prestwiche, esquires, 
Roger Barlowe, gentleman, and Henry Ryle, chaplain (afterwards 
rector of Wilmslow), 16 messuages, 100 acres of land, 20 acres of 
meadow, 100 acres of pasture, 10 acres of wood, and 20 acres of 
moss in Hellesbye, in the tenure of several persons therein named, 
in trust, to the use of William Trafford, son of the same Edmund. 

Henry, the youngest of the three sons of Sir Edmund Trafford, 
was presented by his elder brother, Edmund (March 15, 1516-17), 
to the rectory of Wilmslow. In 1522 he built (or probably rebuilt 
upon an older foundation) the chancel of Wilmslow Church, on the 
roof of which his initials may still be seen, and adorned the east 
window with the armorial ensigns of his family. Randle Holme 
in his Church Notes remarks : " This Henry Trafford builded the 
chancell and glassed a number of windowes in the church, as 
appeareth by them." 

During his lifetime he caused an altar-tomb to be erected on the 
north side of the chancel, in which at his death, in 1537, he was 
interred, and this, with his recumbent effigy upon it, still exists, with 
the remains of an inscription upon the edge, which, in its perfect 
state, set forth that he was formerly chancellor of the Metropolitan 
Church of York and rector of Bolton Percy, and rector also of 
Siglisthornc and Wilmslow. Of the daughters of Sir Edmund 
Trafford, Margery, the eldest, who was a widow in 1513, was 
married in her father's lifetime (1492) to Nicholas, eldest son and 
heir of Sir Ralph Longford, before named, by whom she had an 
only son, Sir Ralph Longford, the father, with other issue, of Maud 
Longford, wife of Sir George Vernon, of Haddon, the renowned 
" King of the Peak," and the grandfather of Dorothy Vernon, 
whose love-story has cast such a halo of romance round the old 
Derbyshire mansion. This Margery again entered the marriage 
state, her second husband being Sir John Port, of Etwall, Knight, 
who pre-deceased her, when she married Sir Thomas Gerard, of 
Bryn, Knight, one of the heroes of Flodden. Alice, a younger 
daughter of Sir Edmund Trafford, as appears by an indenture 
dated 14 Henry VIII. (1522), and made between Thomas Boteler, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 181 

of Bewsey, and Edmund Trafford (her brother), was contracted in 
marriage to Thomas, the son and heir apparent of Thomas Boteler, 
when the bridegroom's father covenanted that he would make to 
Anthony Fitzherbert, Ralph Longford, Henry Trafford, clerk (the 
rector of Wilmslow), and William Trafford, another brother, a sure 
estate of lands of the value of forty marks for the term of the life of 
the said Alice, and in pursuance of such covenant he enfeoffed 
certain persons therein named with lands in Warrington of that 
value for the purposes named. Thomas Boteler was then six years 
old, and Alice Trafford was about the same age. But as 

The best-laid schemes o' mice and men 
Gang aft a'gley, 

so, for some cause or other, the marriage thus contemplated, like 
many others in that age, was never consummated, or, if it was, it 
must have been annulled by a decree of divorce in the Eccle- 
siastical Court, for in 1543 Thomas Boteler married Eleanora, the 
daughter of John Huddlestone, of Sawston, in Cambridgeshire, 
whose widow his father had married the year before, and Alice 
Trafford, as appears by the Visitation of 1664-5, became the wife 
of Thomas Gerard, a cadet, probably of the House of Bryn. 

Another daughter of the House of Trafford not mentioned in 
any of the Trafford pedigrees, and whose Christian name even is 
unknown, but who must have been a daughter (or possibly 
sister) of Sir Edmund, became the wife of William Harrington, 
only son and heir of Sir James Harrington, Knight, of 
Wolfage, in Brixworth, county Northampton. Their wedded 
happiness was but of brief duration, both having been drowned 
(according to some accounts on the day of their marriage) when 
returning from Trafford and while attempting to cross the Mersey 
at Northenden ferry, submersus cum iixore a tragic ending that 
has furnished the theme for more than one of the legendary lyrics 
of the county. Among the monuments existing in the church at 
Mobberley, in Cheshire, in 1595, Randle Holme mentions one 
supporting a recumbent figure in plate armour, which bore the 
following inscription : 


County Families of 

1490 cuj. A'I'E PROPITIET. D's. 

And he adds, " This is on a marble stone, and layd with brasse : 
report goes that this man was nephew to Sir James Harrington, 
whose daughter married Jo. (hn) Leicester, of Toft, and he riding 
ov. Mersey water to have gone into Lancashire was drowned about 
Northen, and by means of his said aunt, was hither conveyed and 
buried." The old Cheshire antiquary is in error in describing him 
as nephew to Sir James Harrington ; he was, as we have said, son 
and heir to Sir James, and consequently brother not nephew 
to Aiianora, wife of John Leycester, of Toft, who was instrumental 
in recovering the body. In an illuminated " Genealogye of the 
Worshippfull and Auncient Familie of the Heskaythes of Ruffourd 
in Lancashire," apparently of the time of Elizabeth, which, by the 
courtesy of the late Sir T. (1. Fermor-Hesketh, the writer had the 
opportunity of examining some years ago, is a note which states 
that this William was the son of Sir James Harrington, by his wife 
Anne, daughter of Sir Alexander Radcliffe, of Ordsall, and that he 
married "a doughter of Trafford, and at Trafford entering the 
water a horscbake weare both drowned sans yssue, and so thin- 
heritancc fell to his X susters and heires." These ten sisters, 
who became his co-heirs Agnes, Elizabeth, Alice, Margaret, 
Isabella, Aiianora, Joan, Anne, Clemence, and Katherine married 
respectively Sir Thomas Assheton, of Ashton ; John Lumley, of 
Ryssheton ; Ralph Standish, of Standish ; Christopher Hulton, of 
Farnworth ; John Tresham, John Leycester, of Toft ; Edmund 
Assheton, of Chadderton ; Sir William Stanley, Knt. ; Henry Norres, 
of Speke ; and William Merfyld, of Hawley, county York. In 
the pedigree of Pilkington, in the College of Arms, there is a note 
on the marriage of Margaret, widow of Christopher Hulton, who 
had a Pilkington for her second husband, which sets forth that her 
brother " married . . . Trafford, but was drowned with his 
wife, vita patris, in attempting to cross the Mersey near Northen- 
den. Buried at Mobberley, with date March 4th, 1490." It is 
somewhat singular that of this sad and touching incident, which 

Lancashire and Cfteshire. 183 

calls to mind Logan's sweet verses on " The Braes of Yarrow," no 
particulars have been discovered among the Trafford evidences, 
nor is it even known whether the body of the unfortunate lady 
who perished with her husband was ever recovered ; from the 
omission of the name in the inscription on the tomb at Mobberley, 
the inference is that it was not. 

When, in the autumn of 1513, the grave had closed over the 
remains of Sir Edmund Trafford, the usual inquisition was taken 
before the escheator of the county, when the jury found that 
Edmund Trafford, then of the age of twenty-eight years and more, 
was his son and next heir, and to him livery of the Trafford lands 
was granted. This Edmund Sir Edmund, as he afterwards 
became like his brother William and his sister Margery, married 
into the Longford family, his wife being Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Ralph Longford, Knt. He does not appear to have taken any 
very prominent part in the affairs of the county, devoting himself 
more it would seem to the gentler occupations of life. In 1525, 
viewing the rapid strides of the Reformation, which had then so far 
advanced as to threaten a general change in the religion of the 
land, and the eventualities which might involve the interests, if 
not the actual existence, of the Eree Grammar School which Bishop 
Oldham had founded ten years previously, the surviving trustees of 
that foundation wisely determined on having a new indenture 
executed, re-conveying the estates and re-appointing trustees, and 
in this deed of conveyance, which bears date ist April, 16 Henry 
VIII. (1525), the name of Edmund Trafford, of Trafford, appears 
among those enfeoffed. The Traffords would seem to have been 
co-operators with the bishop in his benevolent work, if they were 
not indeed co-founders and parties to the first erection of the 
Manchester school, for in the schedule attached to the deed of 
foundation it is directed that the " maister or ussher " of the 
school shall on dominical days and every night " syng an antyme 
(anthem) of our Blessed Lady, and say U p'funds for the saule of 
(inter alia) Henry Trafford, Thomassyn, his wif, decessed, and for 
the sawles of George Trafford, of the Garrett, and Margarett, his 

184 County Families of 

wif, then next and immydiatly ensuying, when, and at what time, 
it shall please Almighty God, of his mcy and gee to call for the said 
George and Margarett, or author of them." Garratt Hall, of which 
now scarcely a vestige remains, stood on the left bank of Shooter's 
Brook, close to the point at which Brook Street, formerly known 
as Garratt Road, crosses it. As early as the fourteenth century 
the house was the seat of a branch of the Trafford family, the last 
heir male of which, Ralph Trafford, died about the year 1555. At 
the time Oldham's School was built, George Trafford, of Garratt, 
was the owner of the adjoining building, for in the foundation deed 
the school is described as standing " between a stone chimney of 
George Trafford of Garratt, Esquire, lying on the easterly side and 
the east part of the College of Manchester, lying on the westerly 
side, and a way leading from the college aforesaid to the street 
called Mylne Gate." The lands and tenements held by the 
Traffords in the " Mylne Gate," as appears by an entry on the 
Court Rolls of the Manor of Manchester (temp. Elizabeth) were 
" parcel of the demeyn of the Garett." Sometime after the death 
of George, son and heir of Henry Trafford, the fifth (or sixth) in 
descent from Robert, third son of Sir Henry Trafford, who settled 
at Garratt in the fourteenth century, a dispute arose with respect 
to the right of possession of the property, for in the 33 Henry VIII. 
(1541), as appears by a record in the Duchy Court of Lancaster, 
Margaret, widow of Sir Edmund Trafford, entered an action in the 
Duchy Court against Ralph Trafford (who claimed as heir of his 
eldest brother, William) and others, for assault and forcible entry 
on a house called " The Garrett," at Manchester, and a mill at 
Chorleton. In the 2 and 3 Philip and Mary (1554-5) the same 
premises formed the subject of litigation in a suit between Gilbert 
Gerard, Thomas Leighe, and Isabel his wife, daughter of George 
Trafford, plaintiffs, and Sir Thomas Trafford, Knt., Henry Trafford, 
clerk, and others, defendants. In the midst_of these heartburnings 
and contentions, Ralph Trafford, the last heir male of the Garrett 
line, was called to his rest. His death must have occurred towards 
the end of 1555 or early in 1556, for at the half-yearly court leet, 
held on the gth April in the last-named year, the jury find 

Lancashire and Citeshire. 185 

That Raphe Trafford, Esq., is deceased since the last court ; and further 
they do order that proclamation shall be made afore the next court that 
the calengers (i.e., persons claiming to be heirs) and right heir or heirs 
thereof shall present themselves and come into court, and bring with them 
their best evidence, and to do their suit and fealty, according to their duty 
and the old covenant custom heretofore used. 

The question of heirship must have remained undetermined for 
a considerable period, for it is not until the court leet held March 
29th, ist Elizabeth (1559), that we meet with the following finding 
of the jury : 

The jury present these persons following to be heirs unto Mr. Raffe 
Trafforde, of the Garrett, Esq., and to be brought in burgess at the next 
court, viz. : Gilbarte Gerrard, Tho. Lee and Isabel his wife, Randill Clayton 
and Thomasson his wife, Hugh Traves and Anne his wife, and Alyce 
Trafforde. -(diet. Soc., v. Ixiii.) 

To return to the parent stock. In 1523 Edmund Trafford, the 
feoffee of Oldhanrs Grammar School, added new beauty to the 
church at Wilmslow the chancel of which, as we have seen, his 
younger brother erected the year previously by the erection of a 
stained glass window on the south side of the aisle, on which was 
depicted a kneeling figure of himself wearing a tabard of arms 
Trafford quartering Fitton, Thornton, and Helsby with the figures 
of his five sons kneeling behind him, and also that of his wife, 
kneeling, and wearing an heraldic mantle quarterly, i and 4 
Longford, 2 and 3 quarterly argent and gules for Solney, a coat 
claimed in right of a progenitor who was heir of Sir John Solney 
and her six daughters kneeling behind her. Randle Holmes gives 
the inscription as it appeared in his day : 


In 1527, when that ardent soldier, Sir John Stanley, of Honford, 
who had displayed so much valour on the field at Flodden, resolved 
on retiring from the world and devoting himself to a religious life 
in the Abbey of Westminster, he conveyed his estates to Edmund 
Trafford, Henry Trafford (clerk), and others, in trust for the benefit 
of his infant son, with the somewhat arbitrary condition, however, 

i86 Coitnty Families of 

that the young man, on attaining the age of twenty-one years, and 
not before, should be at liberty to choose for himself a wife " with 
the advice of the Abbot of Westminster and Edmund Trafford, 
esquire." Two years later Sir Edmund, for he appears to have been 
knighted in the interval, being then probably in failing health, 
deemed it prudent to make a settlement of his worldly affairs. By 
an indenture dated September 26, 21 Henry VIII. (1529), he 
conveyed certain manors and lands to Thomas Holt,* of Gristle- 
hurst ; Robert Langley, of Agecroft, near Manchester; William 
Trafford (his brother, then of Whitehall, in Wilmslow, but after- 
wards of Swythamley), and George Collier, warden of the Collegiate 
Church of Manchester, to hold the same for the purposes of his 
will ; :ind by another deed, dated October 4th of the same year, he 
bestowed certain lands upon his wife Elizabeth to have the use of 
for her life. She survived him several years, her death occurring 
January 2yth, 1548. 

Sir Edmund Trafford, who was born in 1485, died on the 28th 
June, 1533, being then forty-eight years of age. Of his numerous 
family, two sons, Edmund and George, and two daughters, Mar- 
garet and Cicely, were married at the time of his decease. Edmund, 
the eldest, who succeeded, had to wife Anne, daughter of Sir 
Alexander Radclifte, of Ordsall, Knt. George, the second son, 
married Ellen, daughter and heir of William Roberts, of Holbyche 
Heron, and in right of his wife became possessed of considerable 
estates in Lincolnshire, to which he afterwards made additions by 
purchase. ]5y his will, proved at Chester, December 18, 1572, a 
copy of which has been printed by the Chetham Society, he 
bequeathed the lands purchased in Lincolnshire, with other 
properties, to the warden or rector of Manchester, the income 
therefrom to be applied to the relief of poor men, inhabitants and 
parishioners of Manchester, a bequest that, like many others of that 
age, has unfortunately in the lapse of time become lost or diverted 
from its orignal purpose. 

* The Thomas Holt and Robert Langley named in the indenture were 
brother-in-law and son-in-law respectively of Sir Edmund Trafford. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 187 

Thomas, the fourth son of Sir Edmund Trafford, settled at 
Langham, in Rutlandshire, and took to himself a wife in the person 
of Elizabeth, daughter of James Faulkner, of that county, and by her 
became progenitor of the Traffords of Norfolk, now represented by 
Edward William Trafford, of Brundall House, in that county, and 
of Chateau de Beaujour, in Lori-et-Cher, France, the father of 
William Henry Trafford, who held the shrievalty of Norfolk in 1865. 
Of Richard Trafford, the youngest son, nothing appears to be 
known, and the probability is that he died in infancy. 

The third son of Henry Trafford, a secular priest, was, in 1542, 
presented by his eldest brother to the rectory of Wiltnslow, on the 
voidance of the living by Henry Ryle, who in that year was 
re-appointed cantorist of St. Nicholas' chantry in the Church of 
Manchester, in which, as previously stated, one of the Traffords 
had founded an altar. Henry Trafford must have been young at 
the time of his induction, for he held the living well-nigh half a 
century, his death occurring September 3, 1591, as the parish 
register states, " at three of the clocke in the morning." His will 
has been printed by the Chelham Society (C/id. Soc., \. li.), and 
as it contains some interesting particulars, and he appears, more- 
over, to have been a pioneer in the movement for funeral reform, 
we give some extracts from it : 

It is my wyll that my bodye shalbe buryed in the place wheare myne 
uncle Willyam Trafforde (of Swythamley) was buryed. Also that after my 
deceasse at my buryall Mr. Caldewall, parson of Moberleye, shalbe procured 
to make a sermon theare, and he to have for his paynes takynge in that 
behalfe vjs 1 viijd- Also that theare shall no mournynge gownes be given or 
had at my said buryall, but that theare shalbe a worshipfull dinyer (dinner) 
made for my frendes that shall happen to be at my said buryall. Also that 
all my bookes in Englysh shalbe and remayne at and in the parysh churche 
of Wylmeslowe foresaide to the use of the same churche theare. Also that 
whomsoever shall fortune to serve as curate at the said churche of 
Wylmeslowe at the time of my decease shall have my best gowne Item 
unto my nevewe Edmunde Trafforde of Trafforde, esquier, one ox, or 

else foure poundes of lawful! Englysh money Also that all the 

glasse, bed stockes and hyngynges belongynge, remainynge, and beyinge in 
and aboute the parsonage whearein I now dwell, with all bordes and shelves 
in the hall, butrye, and kytchyn &c shalbe and remayne at the said 
parsonage to the use of whom it shall fortune to be parsone theare after my 
decease . . . (Signed) HENRY TRAFFORD. 

1 88 Coitnty Families of 

The two daughters of Edmund Trafford married at the time of 
his decease were Margaret and Cicely the former to Sir William 
Radcliffe, of Ordsall, Knt., by whom she had Alexander, afterwards 
knighted, who, dying issueless in 1596, was succeeded by his brother, 
Sir John Radcliffe, the grandfather of Sir Alexander Radcliffe, 
K.B., the last of the family who resided at Ordsall, where his 
progenitors had been located from the time of Edward III., and 
the father of John Radcliffe, of Attleborough, in Norfolk, who died 
at Stoke in 1669, when the direct line became extinct. The old 
Lancashire mansion the scene of one of Harrison Ainsworth's 
most popular romances, " Guy Fawkes," and which still remains, 
though shorn of its original dimensions and much of its original 
splendour, as well as of its encircling moat having previously 
passed by purchase into other hands ; the Radcliffes being now 
represented by Charles James Radclyffe, Esquire, descended from 
Robert, youngest brother of John of Attleborough. This Robert, 
who was born at Attleborough in 1656, and had held a captaincy 
in the Duke of Monmouth's regiment in the service of the King of 
Spain, was unfortunately killed in a duel with Sir Samuel Daniell, 
of Tabley, on Bowdon Downs; February 2oth, 1685-6. Thomas 
Barrett, the Manchester antiquary, in his rhyming record of the 
Radcliffes, thus refers to the tragic event : 

Sir John, he died : 
But left a son, of Alexander's name, 
Made knight o'th Bath, which added to his fame, 
Who had a son, and he was Robert named, 
\Vliose haughty temper made his conduct blam'd : 
For, on a day some friends in Cheshire met, 
Some pleasant circumstance to celebrate ; 
But so this Robert, ere he went to bed, 
He with Sir Samuel Daniel quarrelled. 
The next day Robert out a shooting went, 
And still his mind upon revenge was bent. 
By accident he met Sir Samuel 
On Bowdon Downs, for so the people tell ; 
And fight he would till one of them should die 
Ere they did part, and that immediately. 
Sir Samuel says, " I see how discord ends ; 
I never thought but sleep had made us friends," 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 189 

" No parley, man," says Robert, " fight I will, 

Or with my gun I here now will you kill." 

" Well," says Sir Samuel, " if to fight I must, 

My sword is not the sort I wish to trust." 

Then fight they did, and on the sandy Downs 

Rash Robert fell, covered with blood and wounds. 

Some country men did then his body move 

From where he died unto some ground above ; 

Which little spot, as people yet do say, 

Is called the " Radcliffe's Croft " unto this day. 

From thence to Northen church he was convey' d, 

In Tatton chapel there his corpse was laid ; 

O'er him a stone does still remain to tell 

By what sad circumstance this Robert fell. 

Thus, in a fatal hour, he lost his life, 

And left at Withenshawe a widow'd wife. 

Of fifteen generations now not one 

Is left, of father, uncle, brother, son. 

In the last couplet Barrett is in error, Robert Radcliffe having 
married Anne, widow of William Tatton, of Wythenshawe, who 
bore him two sons and two daughters. Alexander, the eldest son, 
inherited the Foxdenton estates by virtue of the wills of his cousins, 
Mrs. Mary Byron and Mrs. Susan Potter. He^e-built Foxdenton 
Hall, and from him the present Charles James Radclyffe claims 
descent. Robert Radcliffe, the duellist, was buried at Northenden 
on the day following his death, and a stone, with a long Latin 
inscription to his memory, may still be seen there. 

Cicely, the second daughter of Sir Edmund Trafford, married 
(i) Sir Robert Langley, of Agecroft, who died without male issue 
in 1561, when his estates were partitioned among his four 
daughters; and (2) Edward Holland, of Denton. The other 
daughters of Sir Edmund were Alice, who died in 1578, married 
(i) to Sir William Leyland, of Morleys, Knt., and (2) to Sir Urian 
Brereton, of Handforth, Knt. ; Helen, married to Thomas Willett, 
of Manchester, gentleman; and Elizabeth, married (i) to George 
Booth, of Dunham, (2) to James, second son of Richard Done, of 
Utkinton, Cheshire, and (3) to Thomas Fitton, of Siddington, 
younger brother of Sir Edward Fitton, Knt., of Gawsworth, Lord 
President of Connaught and Thomond, and Treasurer of Ireland, 

i go 

County Families of 

When in 1533 Edmund Trafford the third in direct descent 
who bore that baptismal appellation with the, even at that time, 
proud historic patronymic succeeded to the hereditary estates of 
his Anglo-Saxon ancestors he had completed his twenty-sixth year. 
Several years previously he had been united in marriage with his 
cousin, Anne Radcliffe, a daughter of the knightly House of 
Ordsall, and that lady had borne him four sons Edmund, Robert, 
Alexander, and Lawrence. In the same year the herald, by special 
commission of Thomas Benolt, Clarencieux, made a visitation of 
Lancashire, when Edmund Trafford appeared, and entered his 
pedigree and arms, the former of which is recorded, and the latter, 
quartering the coats of Fitton, Thornton, and Helsby, is tricked in 
the herald's book. Unlike his father, 
who preferred a life of retirement, if not 
of ease, he took an active part in the 
stirring events of his time, and rose to 
be one of the most notable men in the 
Hundred. It was an important epoch in 
the country's history. At the time he 
entered upon possession of his patri- 
mony a great religious revolution was 
on the eve of being consummated. A 
month before his father's death the 
private marriage of Henry VIII. with 
Anne Boleyn was publicly owned. Cranmer had pronounced 
his final judgment, declaring the union with Katherine of Arragon 
null and void ; by another judgment he had confirmed the 
marriage with the Lady Anne, and ere Sir Edmund's body had 
been committed to the tomb the new Queen had been crowned. 
Immediately afterwards King and Parliament threw off all subjec- 
tion to the see of Rome, and Henry, asserting his supremacy in 
matters ecclesiastical as well as civil, as had been done by many of 
his predecessors, began his war with the Pope and the Papal 
system by the suppression of the religious houses. Three years 
later (1536) an army of crusaders, instigated by the northern 

Arms of Trafford, quartering 

Fit/on, Thornton, ami Hekl'y, 

Jn'ni tltc I'isitntion oj tjjj. 

Lancashire and CJwshire. 191 

monks and strengthened from the peasantry of Lancashire and 
Yorkshire the Pilgrimage of Grace, as it was called rose in 
insurrection. As \ve have seen, Edmund Trafford's kinsman, the 
abbot of Salley, was concerned in it, and for his share in the 
perilous enterprise was hanged at I-ancaster in the following year. 
Possibly the example which Henry made of the old abbot of Salley 
had a salutary effect on the young lord of Trafford, for in religious 
matters he appears to have been a time-serving and somewhat 
versatile individual, having in turn embraced and abandoned both 
the Reformed and the Roman Catholic creed. The great Earl of 
Derby told the Bolton martyr that the true religion was that which 
had most good luck, and Edmund Trafford seems to have acted 
upon the maxim, finding little difficulty in accommodating himself 
to the changing circumstances of the times. When Henry assumed 
the supremacy of the Church his loyalty forbade him to question 
the wisdom of that most religious and gracious prince ; in the 
" infant reign " of Edward VI. he was an uncompromising Protes- 
tant ; on the accession of Queen Mary he resumed every article of 
the Catholic faith ; and when Elizabeth came to the throne he was 
a staunch upholder of the doctrines of the Reformed Church, and 
ready to persecute those who had any lingering attachment to the 
religion of their fathers. 

In 33 Henry VIII. (1541-2), when a subsidy was ordered to be 
levied for the King, who had then resolved on renewing the old 
claim of the English sovereigns to the Crown of Scotland, 
" Edmude Trafforde Esquyer contributed for Ixxx 1 ' on lands iiij 
li." In the subsidy roll for 1543 we find 

Edmunde Trafford Iisquyer a 1 

I j iJ'J 

commissioner . . . lands J 

and with him his widowed mother 

Dame Elsabethe Trafforde Widowe 

for xl 1 ' inlands 

-el , 
I xb 

Henry, bent on securing a union of the two kingdoms by the 
marriage of his son with the infant Queen of Scotland, and 

192 County Families of 

dissatisfied with the treatment his proposal received, as well as 
with the evident leaning of the Scottish court towards Rome, in 
opposition to himself, declared war against Scotland, and des- 
patched the Earl of Hertford with a force into that country. 
Edmund Trafford, with his tenantry and retainers, joined the 
expedition, marched into Scotland, and on the 8th May, 1544, 
captured, burnt, and pillaged the city of Edinburgh. After the 
attack, which was rather a raid than a campaign, the army des- 
troyed the villages in the neighbourhood, and then moved on to 
Leith, which was also demolished. Before re-embarking the Earl of 
Hertford distributed honours to those who had been conspicuous 
by their bravery. Edmund Trafford was one of them, and gained 
his golden spurs. Sir Edmund, as he had now become, did not 
allow his sword to rust. Before the summer had far advanced he 
again put on his armour, and following the standard of his 
sovereign, who had joined the Emperor Charles in a treaty for 
the invasion and partition of France, took part in the siege of 
Boulogne, while the King, "armed at all points upon a great 
courser" as he is now exhibited in the armoury at the Tower 
conducted his part of the business of war with the safer parade of 
a tournament. While engaged in these military enterprises, Sir 
Edmund did not relax his interest in ecclesiastical affairs. 
"Between 1542 and 1548," says a recent writer, "he was 
interested in promoting in the Church the advancement of the 
following persons, who, belonging in some cases to the families 
of his tenants, were ordained at Chester upon the knight's title : 
] )ns Alexander Chorlton, Uns Alexander Hugson (Hudson), Dns 
Robert Williamson, Dns Johannis Gregorie, Dns Willms Trafforde, 
Dns Jacobus Walker." His zeal as a reformer marked him out as 
a fitting person to be joined in the commission appointed in 1552 
to collect for the King (Edward VI.) the property of the Lancashire 
chantries which had been suppressed at the beginning of his reign. 
Their greedy eyes fell upon the humble oratory which a former 
Trafford had founded at Stretford ; the chantry lands were seized 
and leased to laymen, who quarrelled over the possession, and the 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 193 

meagre ornaments a silver chalice weighing So/.., and two vest- 
ments, with the appurtenances (the alb, maniple, and amice) and 
some ornaments of the value of ten pence, were taken to swell 
their booty. Charles Gee, the officiating priest, could not, or 
would not, show his " compsicon " (deeds) to the commissioners, but 
he was nevertheless allowed a pension of five marks (^3 6s. Sd.), 
while William Trafford, " the Ladie priest of Manchester, 1 ' who 
had probably preceded him at Stretford, had an annuity for life of 
^4 35. 8d., which he received until his death in 1591, when he 
was nearly ninety years of age. His burial is thus recorded in 
the Manchester registers : 

1591. August 16, buryed Syr William Traftbrde an old Priest Dwellings 
at Trafforde. 

Within a week of the death of Edward VI. Lord Derby mustered 
20,000 men, and marched with them to support Queen Mary's 
cause against the Duke of Northumberland, who had claimed the 
crown for the Lady Jane Grey. At the same time the name of Sir 
Edmund Trafford appears at the head of the eight commanders of 
the 350 men raised in the Salford Hundred, which doubtless 
formed a contingent of Lord Derby's force; and this was probably 
the last military enterprise in which he embarked. H is active life was 
brought to a close in 1564, previous to which he had the satisfac- 
tion of seeing his eldest son united in marriage with a daughter of 
the ducal house which, next to the blood royal, stands at the head 
of the peerage of England Mary, third daughter of Lord Edmund 
Howard, and the sister of the beautiful but ill-fated Queen, Catharine 
Howard, consort of Henry VIII. In addition to the sons already 
named, Sir Edmund had William, Anthony, and John, and a 
daughter Eleanor, who became the wife of John Griffyn, of Barther- 
ton, in Nantwich Hundred, county Chester. 

On the 5th June, 6 Elizabeth (1564), Edmund Trafford, the 
eldest son, being then thirty-eight years of age, had special licence 
granted to him, without proof of age and without livery, upon all 
the lands of his inheritance. He carried forward the fortunes of 
the Traffords, and represented the house in the time of its greatest 
2 5 

194 County Families of 

glory. Devoted to the interests of Elizabeth, he was a staunch 
reformer, and, living in times when there were less inducements 
for change, he was less versatile in his religious beliefs than his 
sire. He had the misfortune to lose his first wife, the Lady 
Katharine Howard, who died childless, and before his father's 
decease he had taken to himself a second wife in the person of 
Elizabeth, one of the daughters of Ralph Leycester, of Toft, and 
then widow of Sir Randle Mainwaring, of Over Peover, who bore 
him a son and two daughters. In the year in which he succeeded 
to the family estates he made an agreement with John Booth, of 
Barton, for a marriage between his son, who could then have been 
only an infant, and John Booth's daughter and heir. This docu- 
ment, which is still in existence, is curious as illustrating the 
arbitrary way in which, in days of yore, parents arranged the 
matrimonial affairs of their children, even while yet unborn, and 
of the determination of two families to accomplish the union of 
their great estates by such means. It bears date 6th January, 7th 
Elizabeth (1564), and in it Edmund Trafford covenants that his 
son Edmund shall before the feast of " Lawe Sundaye," the 29th 
April " nexte comying take to \vyfe" Margaret, daughter of the 
said John Booth ; that in the event of Margaret dying before the 
consummation of the marriage, then Anne Booth, another of the 
daughters of the said John, and failing Anne the next daughter, 
and so on from one daughter to another, " until the maryage of one 
of the daught 5 then heire of the s' 1 John shall be fullie conformable 
af'" 1 " in like manner in default of Edmund the son, then from son 
to son, being heir, until a marriage between one of the sons of 
Edmund and one of the daughters of John shall have been fully 
completed. The agreement further covenants that if John Booth 
shall happen to have a son born, such son, and failing him the 
second son, and so from one son to another, shall marry Elizabeth, 
the daughter of Edmund the father, and for want thereof then one 
of the other daughters, and so from one to another as long as the 
said Edmund shall have any daughter living, " until a full & perfect 
marrying be hadd betweene the son & heire of s (1 John Booth & a 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 195 

daughter of s d Edmund Trafford the father." This curious docu- 
ment gives an interesting side-glance at the habits and customs of 
society three centuries ago. The likings and dispositions of these 
young people were not considered as of the least account, and the 
future of born and unborn was dealt with in a fashion that, if 
revived, would be startling to the unmarried ones of the present day. 
At this time Lancashire was accounted the most Catholic shire 
in the kingdom. The majority of the gentry and freeholders, as 
well as of the peasantry, continued steadfast in the faith of their 
fathers, and pursued their respective courses with little regard for 
episcopal mandates. The county became a hotbed of sedition, 
and was kept in a state of agitation by religious feuds, and the 
unceasing efforts of the Jesuits and other seminary priests sent into 

the country for the purpose of fomenting disorder and alluring the 
people from their allegiance to the Queen. To guard against the 
recurrence of rebellion, and the more speedily to suppress any 
attempts to disturb the public tranquillity, levies of troops, armour, 
and money were made, and the military strength of the kingdom 
fully ascertained. In 1574 a general military muster was made, 
and in the return for the Salford Hundred the name of " Edmund 
Trafforde Esquire " appears at the head of the list as ready to 
furnish the following men and arms for the Queen's service : 

Dimilaunce j 

Light horses ij 

Corseletts x 

Coates of plate x 

Pykes x 

Long-bowes (an essentially English weapon that 

had not then passed out of use) viij 

Sheffes (of) arrowes viij 

Steele cappes viij 

Calivers iij 

Morians iij 

196 County Families of 

A quota which, by comparison, exceeded that of most other 
Lancashire gentlemen. 

If in the earlier years of Elizabeth's reign the Reformation made 
but slow progress in Lancashire, it was not the fault of Edmund 
Trafford, for, if contemporary records may be relied on, he was a 
sore thorn in the side of the Papists, and took infinitely more 
delight in "coursing" priests than in coursing hares. Father 
Campion describes him as " a most bitter enemy of the Catholics," 
and the complaint was well founded, for he asserted his authority 
to some purpose, and made his power felt by the recusants in his 
own locality. If, however, he devoted much consideration to the 
spiritual concerns of his neighbours, he was not unmindful of those 
things which tended to the temporal prosperity of his own house- 
hold, and in the accomplishment of his purpose did not scruple to 
enrich himself by a sacrilegious appropriation of the revenues of the 
Church. When Laurence Vaux, the Catholic warden of Man- 
chester, refused to take the oath of allegiance to Queen Elizabeth, 
William Birch, a staunch Protestant and a member of the family of 
that name residing at Birch, in Rusholme, succeeded, but he had 
an unpleasant time of it, for the old rectorial endowments, which 
had escaped alienation when the college was suppressed, were 
sufficient to tempt the rapacity of Elizabeth's favourites, and, unable 
to resist their designs, Birch resigned his office, when a more pliant 
tool was appointed in the person of Thomas Herle, of whom it 
might with justice be said that his purity of faith was more remark- 
able than his honesty of life. Herle impoverished the Church by 
granting inordinately long leases at utterly inadequate rents to the 
Earl of Derby, Sir Edmund Trafford, and other zealous reformers, 
and enriched himself by pocketing the fines paid in consideration. 
In this way the tithes of Stretford, Trafford, and half those of 
Chorlton were, about the year 1574, conveyed to Sir Edmund 
Trafford by a lease which, apparently for twenty-one years, proved 
to be one for ninety-nine years after the expiration of twenty-one ; 
and this transaction Dr. Hibbert-Ware believed to have been the 
origin of the right to appoint the parish clerk of Manchester, which 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 197 

was recognised and confirmed to the Traffords by Elizabeth, and 
it may also have been the foundation of the right the family long 
claimed to appoint one churchwarden and two sidesmen. 

Lancashire at this time contained a goodly number of disloyal 
Papists, and treason was not unfrequently concocted in the 
secluded halls of the old Roman Catholic families, where the Jesuit 
missionaries found shelter. The urgency and necessity of the times 
required severe measures, and to check the advance of Romanism 
in its stronghold a vigorous crusade was commenced by the ( lovern- 
ment. In 1579 Dr. Chadderton, a noted Lancashire Puritan, was 
appointed to the bishopric of Chester, and the same year made 
warden of Manchester. He at once took up his abode in the last- 
named town, and, with the Earl of Derby, was made one of the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners, whose province it was to establish the 
tenets of the Reformation, and in Sir Edmund Trafford the bishop 
and earl found a zealous coadjutor. On the i6th May, 1580, 
being sheriff that year, Sir Edmund wrote to the Earl of Leicester 
on the condition of the county, which he described as being then 
lamentable to behold by reason that Masses were said in several 
places, and desired that the offenders should be rigorously dealt 
with. New and more severe measures were adopted, fines were 
levied, and those who continued to resort to secret masses and 
refused adherence to the reformed religion were imprisoned in 
the New Fleet at Hunt's Bank, at Sir Edmund's house at Traf- 
ford, and in other places. Much curious information relating to 
ecclesiastical affairs in Lancashire at this time is embodied in the 
correspondence of Bishop Chatterton, printed in Peck's Desiderata 
Curiosa. The Knight of Trafford was as active in furthering 
the Reformation, and hunting out and punishing those who still 
resorted to secret masses, as the Queen could desire. In 1552 we 
read of the apprehension of a seminary priest named Baxter, who, 
" for the more ease of Sir Edmund Trafford," was committed to the 
common gaol until the next assizes. In the following year two 
other obstinate Catholics, Williamson and Hatton, were arrested 
by him ; and about the same time he paid over to Robert Worsley, 

County Families of 

the keeper of the New Fleet, a sum of 100 marks, which during 
his shrievalty he had levied upon another recusant, James Ley- 
bourne, towards the maintenance of his poorer co-religionists 
imprisoned at Manchester. In 1584 the shrievalty was held by 
his son, who, following in the steps of the father, made a descent 
upon Blainscough Hall, in Standish parish, the home of Thomas 
Worthington, an adherent of the ancient faith ; but Worthington, 
anticipating his visit, fled to Rossall, where he was secreted by the 
widow of Gabriel, the brother of Cardinal Allen, his wife's kinsman. 
James Gosncll, a Puritan minister, writing from Bolton in the same 
year, says : " Here are great store of Jesuits, seminaries, masses, 
and plenty of whoredom (Romanism). The first sort our sheriff 
courscth pretty well."* The sheriff was Edmund Trafford the 
younger. The year was a fatal one for many of these ecclesiastical 
offenders, for the Queen's Government had determined to strike 
those among them of rank and authority, in the belief that the 
remainder would be frightened into submission. Three of the most 
notorious John Bell, James Finch, and James Leybourne were 
tried at Lancaster on the charge of denying the supremacy of the 
Queen, and found guilty. Bell and Finch were hanged in the 
county town, and Leybourne, as Campion affirms, suffered at 
Manchester Knot Mill, according to tradition, being the place of 
his execution and the heads of the three were afterwards fixed on 
the tower of the Collegiate Church. The exhibition was a bar- 
barous one, but severe measures had become necessary to secure 
the peace of the country ; and it must be remembered that these 
men were tried and executed, not for the Catholic doctrines, but 
for high treason. 

To turn the disloyalty of the subject to the advantage of the 
State, the Lords of the Council, on the iyth August following, 
wrote to the sheriff and justices of Lancashire, requiring the 
recusant gentlemen in the county to set forth certain horsemen for 
the Queen's service, or in lieu thereof to pay a composition in 

* Baker's MSS., Univer. Coll., Camb., v. xii., p. 211. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 199 

money of ,24 for every horseman ; and the Queen, whose zeal for 
the military service was no less active than that of her Ministers, 
addressed a letter at the same time to the sheriff, ordering him to 
levy two hundred footmen in the county, to be ready at three days' 
notice to march under Edmund Trafford, Esq., "the eldest sonne 
of Edmunde Trafforde, Knighte," she having " thoughte good that 
some gentleman of that countrie and shyre should bee the captaine 
vnder whom they should s've, and not to have them comitted to 
any other stranger neyther here nor in Ireland." 

A close friendship existed between the Traffords of Trafford 
and the Leghs of Adlington, in Cheshire. On September 3, 1586, 
Thomas Legh, of Adlington, executed a deed by which Sir 
Edmund Trafford, of Trafford, and Edmund, his son and heir, 
were appointed trustees under a settlement whereby the Adlington 
estates were charged with an annuity for the benefit of Thomas 
Legh's younger children ; and three days later a marriage was cele- 
brated between Thomas Legh's son and heir, Urian I.egh the 
companion-in-arms of the Earl of Essex at the siege of Cadis and 
the reputed hero of the ballad of "The Spanish Lady's Love"- 
and Margaret Trafford, Sir Edmund's daughter. The occasion 
was one of great rejoicing. A large company assembled to grace the 
festivities, among them being the Earl of Derby, Chadderton, 
Bishop of Chester, who probably tied the marriage knot, and 
" diverse knightes and esquires of great worship ; " and Sir 
Edmund's chaplain, William Massie, an offshoot of the Masseys 
of Sale, who had been educated at the Grammar School at 
Manchester, and subsequently at Brasenose College, Oxford, 
preached a sermon (it was a preaching age) for the edification of 
the " modest and vertuous gentlewoman " and the " young gentle- 
man of great worship and good education," who had been made 
one, and their assembled friends. He chose for his text the Psalm 
Beat I Omnes in the office for matrimony, and so highly was his 
discourse approved that it was afterwards printed. A copy of this 
very rare print is preserved in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, but 
the one that was formerly in the British Museum has unfortunately 

2oo County Families of 

been lost. The sermon itself is simply a commentary on the Psalm 
in the style and language of divines in the sixteenth century ; very 
condemnatory of the Pope and Popery, and very plain and pointed 
on the duty and blessings of Christian wedlock. The chief interest 
is in the complimentary dedication to the preacher's " very good 
patrone Sir Edmund Trafford, I having," he says, " right honour- 
ably reccaued by your good means great courtesies both in the 
country and at my studie in Oxforde." Having described the 
circumstances under which the sermon was delivered, the chaplain 
thus characteristically speaks of his " patrone" : " For your selfe as 
you have long beene a principal protector of God's trueth, and a 
great countinance and credit to the preachers thereof in these 
quarters, and have hunted out and vnkeneled those slie and subtil 
foxes the Icsuites and seminarie priests out of their celles and 
caues, to the vttermost of your power, with the great ill will of 
many both open and priuat enemies to the prince and the Church, 
but your rewarde is with the Lord ... so I pray God still 
continue your zeale, your liberality," &c. The preacher did not 
go without his reward, for in 1591 he was collated to the rectory 
of Wilmslow, which had become vacant by the death of his 
" patrone's " uncle, Henry Trafford, who had held the living well- 
nigh half a century. 

Sir Edmund was not called upon to exercise the trust created by 
the deed of September 3, 1586, before referred to, Thomas Legh 
having survived him, and by his will, dated 2oth November, 1600, 
bequeathed to his younger son, Edward Legh, the annuity, together 
with _^2oo. There is a provision in the will for his youngest daughter, 
Margaret, then a young lady in her nineteenth year, which is worth 
quoting, by reason of the remarkable conditions attached to it. He 
requires his son and heir, Sir Urian Legh, Knt. (the husband of 
Margaret Trafford), or the person to whom the inheritance of the 
Manors of Adlington, Prestbury, and the parsonage of Prestbury 
shall descend, to pay ^200, by equal portions, in the south porch 
of the Parish Church of Prestbury, to his daughter Margaret, until 
she has received ,600, and also ,400 more and 20 marks 

Lancashire and Cheshire, 201 

6s. 8d.) yearly for life, to make her preferment ,1,000, 
" provided she doe not dispose of herself in marriage without the 
consent of the said Sir Urian and my executors, but if she doe 
then I give her 100 only, which I think too much in that case 
to bestow upon her." On the 4th of June, 1602, less than five 
months from the date of her father's death, the lady became the 
wife of John Arderne, of Alvanley and Harden, in Cheshire, and 
by him was ancestress of the distinguished lawyer, Sir Richard 
Pepper Arden, created Lord Alvanley ; but as the marriage was 
celebrated at her own parish church, it may be fairly assumed that 
it was with the consent of Sir Urian and the executors, and that 
the payments in " the south porch of the Parish Church at Prest- 
bury" were continued. 

Sir Edmund died at his manor-house of Trafford on the i4th 
April, 1590, and seven days later his remains were committed to 
the earth in the chantry of S. Nicholas, at Manchester the Trafford 
Chapel the burial being thus recorded in the parish register : 

1590 Male 21 Sir Edmund Trafford, Knight. 

His death is also recorded in the registers at Wilmslow. Dying 
intestate, an inventory of his personal estate, which has been printed 
by the Chetham Society, was made on the 27th May following, and 
in it mention is made of goods in the knight's chamber, the chapel 
chamber, and the schoolmaster's chamber, at Trafford Hall. 
Though he kept up a good establishment and maintained a large 
retinue, his plate appears to have been small for one of his social 
status, consisting of two silver basins, ewers, and other small articles 
to the value of 20. 

Though Sir Edmund Trafford was twice married, he had been a 
widower eleven years at the time of his death, in 1590. Edmund, 
his only son and heir the fifth in direct succession who bore the 
name had, as we have seen, taken an active part in public affairs 
long before he entered upon his inheritance ; he had served the 
office of sheriff of his county in 1584, and had been as zealous in 
"coursing" refractory recusants as his father could have desired. 


County Families of 

In fulfilment of the conditions of that singular marriage contract we 
have before cited, he married, in 1564, Margaret, the eldest of the 
four daughters and co-heirs of John Booth, of Barton. It was an 
eligible match in a worldly sense, for at John Booth's death he 
obtained half the township of Barton, in Eccles parish, an acquisition 
that added materially to his status in the county, and one that has 
remained in the possession of his descendants ever since. When 
in 1583 Burleigh ordered an inquiry as to the " Breedinge of 
horses " within the realm, the return made by the jurates set forth 

Edmunde Trafford, esqr., hath ij p'kes (parks) wthin the said hundrethe, 
eyther of them contayninge in quantitie twooe myles Compas, and hath 
mares for breede accordinge to the statute. 

In the succeeding year, as previously stated, he was appointed 
to the command of the two hundred men raised for service in the 
Irish wars, that the Lancashire lads might not be "comitted to 
straunge captaines who for the most p'te have not used their 
souldiers w" 1 that love and care that appteyned." Concerning this 
levy there is a curiously expressed entry in the court leet books of 
the Manor of Manchester : 

1586. Paid by us constables aforesaid for the use of the town, as 
cnsueth : 

Item paid to the hands of Mr. Edmunde Trafford and Mr. Edmund 
Asheton, for the making of soldiers into Ireland _i6. 

To the warlike Parliament which assembled on the I4th 
February, 1588-9, while the heart of England was yet throbbing 
with joy at the overthrow of the Spanish Armada, Edmund Trafford 
was returned as the representative of Newton, the nomination 
being then in the_Leghs of Lyme, as lords of Newton. He was 
again returned for the same borough in the Parliament which met 
on the i Qth February, 1592-3, that in which the Act against 
" Popish recusancy " and the Act against the Puritans " to restrain 
the Queen's subjects in their obedience " were passed with little 
debate but much heartburning. Shortly after the death of his 
father he had the misfortune to lose his wife, who had borne him 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 203 

three sons Edmund, John, and Richard and a daughter, 
Elizabeth, who became the wife of Richard Fleetwood, of Pen- 
wortham. In 1598, or a little earlier, he again entered the married 
state, his second wife being the Lady Mildred, third daughter of 
Thomas Cecil, Lord Burleigh, whom King James afterwards 
created Earl of Exeter, the widow of Sir Ralph Read, the wealthy 
nephew and heir of Sir Thomas Gresham, the founder of the Royal 
Exchange, London, and grand-daughter of the great Lord Treasurer 
Cecil, the builder of " Burleigh House by Stanford Town," as 
Tennyson phrases it, where Elizabeth was on twelve different 
occasions an honoured guest. If the first marriage added to Edmund 
Trafford's material wealth, his second added in an equal or greater 
degree to his socal and political influence, and in him the glories 
of the House of Trafford may be said to have culminated. 

That he had bettered his position is evident, for shortly before 
the marriage (1596) he had parted with the White Hall estate 
the old manorial residence at Wilmslow, which had been in the 
family for many generations to Edward Mosley, of Gray's Inn, 
eldest son of Sir Nicholas Mosley, of Hough End, the first of the 
name who owned the Manor of Manchester, and who had pre- 
viously held it on lease, but in an indenture dated loth August, 43 
Elizabeth (1600), we find him entering into an agreement for the 
re-purchase of the hall, with all houses, rents, services, &c., pertain- 
ing thereto, for the use of himself, Dame Mildred his wife, Cecil his 
son, and his heirs male, with remainder to the right heirs of the 
said Edmund. In 1602 he again served the office of sheriff, and 
in the following year an official letter was addressed from Trafford 
to Cecil on the religious affairs of the county, from which we gather 
that he was still busy " hunting out and unkeneling those slie and 
subtil foxes the lesuites and seminarie priests." As Lord Derby 
had kept a spy named Bell to ferret them out while pretending to 
be interested in local affairs, he evidently thought it well to follow 
so laudable an example, and sent persons privately among the 
Papists to discover their doings, one Christopher Bayley being 
specially employed in that creditable service. 


County Families of 

On the 24th of March, 1603, Queen Elizabeth breathed her last 
in the old Palace at Richmond. On the 5th of the following 
month the first of our Stuart Kings took his departure from Edin- 
burgh to receive the English crown, and arrived on Saturday, the 
1 6th, at York, where he stayed three days. Robert Cecil was 
there to receive him ; his niece's husband, Edmund Trafford, and 
Thomas Holcroft also attended, charged with the expression of the 
loyalty and allegiance of Lancashire to his Majesty, and on the 
following morning both gentlemen were knighted in the garden of 
the archbishop's palace. James was lavish in the distribution of 
honours that cost him nothing ; it is said that during his progress 
to London he showered the honours of knighthood on no less than 
two hundred and thirty-seven gentlemen who were presented to 
him, and before three months expired had increased the number 
to seven hundred, making the noblest title of the old chivalry 

In 1609 Sir Edmund for the third time served the office of 
sheriff; two years later he lost his second wife, whose burial is 
thus recorded in the Manchester register : 

1611, Deer. 23. Lady Mildred, wyfe to ye Right worll. Edmund Trafford 


In the following year (March 24, 1612) his name occurs as one of 
the justices who assembled at Wigan, and with the Earl of Derby, 
then Lord Lieutenant of the county, signed the order for disarm- 
ing recusants. By his second wife, " Dame Myldrade," he had a 
daughter born to him, who was baptised at Manchester, September 
3, 1598, and to whom the name of Cecilia was given, in compli- 
ment to her mother's family; and on the loth August, in the 
following year, a son was born, who received the name of Cecil. 
The later years of Sir Edmund's life were passed in comparative 
quietude ; he lived long enough to see a knighthood bestowed upon 
the son by his second marriage, while he was yet only in his teens, 
and died in 1620 at the age of fifty-nine. The Manchester register 
thus records his burial : 

1620, Maye 8, Sir Edmund Trafford of Trafford, Knight. 

Lancashire and Cheshire, 205 

Leonard Smedley, or Smethley, as he indifferently spelt his 
name, the deputy herald, writing to Norroy from Manchester on 
the loth May, says: "Sr Edmund Trafford of Trafford was buried 
the 8 of this month with Black onely att Manchester Church, by 
torch leight, and had a funurall sermon by candle leight, whoe 
haith left such an ambiguous will that neather the heir which shall 
in heritt is known, nor the number of executors, nor can not be 
before ten dayes after midsomer next, which time Sr Vrian Leigh 
of Adlington, Sr Peter Leigh of Lyme and others have apoynt, for 
the ordering and establishing of quietnes and vnitie among the 
4 Bretheren." The reason of these family dissensions was that for 
some unexplained cause Sir Edmund had disinherited his eldest 
son, also named Edmund, who in some accounts is said to have 
pre-deceased the father, but this is incorrect, for he was living at 
the time of his father's decease, and was then married, but neither 
he nor his wife long survived, for, as appears by the Manchester 
registers, "Ciceley ye wyffe of Edmund Trafford, Esquire," was 
buried at the Collegiate Church, July 27, 1621, and "Edmund 
Trafford of Trafford, Esquire," was buried there February 17, 

Sir Edmund's funeral certificate, which was taken by Smethley 
on the 3ist of October in the same year, sets forth that he had in 
his lifetime made his youngest son, Sir Cecil, " heire of all his land 
and sole executor, who now doth succeede him in ye possession 
and occupation of all his lands, demesnes, parkes and priviledges, 
and whatsoever his late father did hold given vnto him by his 
father, and confirmed vnto him by his eldest brother Edmund and 
the rest, under the handes and seale, he paying unto his said 
elder brother and sister Elizabeth such portions and annuities as is 
agreed upon, and so to continew heire and successor to his father, 
both he and his heires to be ' Trafford of Trafford.' " The three 
sons by the deceased's first wife Edmund, John, and Richard 
died without issue, and thus the large estates of the Booths of 
Barton, which ought to have descended to the eldest son in right 
of his mother, passed away from the blood and lineage of that great 

206 County Families of 

house during the lifetime of Edmund Trafford and his two brothers, 
maternal grandsons of John Booth, and were confirmed by deed to 
Cecil Trafford, their younger brother in half-blood, in whose descen- 
dants they have since continued. 

Sir Cecil Trafford, who had been dubbed a knight on the occa- 
sion of King James's visit to Hoghton Tower, August 16, 1617, 
was in his twenty-first year when he succeeded to the Trafford and 
Booth estates. About the year 1623 he took to himself a wife in 
the person of Penelope, younger daughter of Humphrey Davenport, 
of Sutton, near Macclesfield, a scion of the House of Bramhall, and 
then serjeant-at-law, but afterwards knighted and created Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer. 

The Traffords in each successive generation from the time of the 
Reformation had, as we have seen, been unwavering in their 
attachment to the cause of the reformed faith. Sir Cecil inherited 
the Protestant principles of his progenitors, and strongly inclined 
towards Puritanism ; he was withal a vigorous persecutor of Papists, 
levying (besides other severities used against them) i2d. per head 
for non-attendance at church on each Lord's Day ; but his religious 
opinions underwent a sudden change. About the year 1632 Francis 
Downes, of Wardley, whose brother John afterwards married one of 
Sir Cecil's daughters, " revolted from the reformed faith." In an 
excess of religious zeal Sir Cecil determined, before resorting to 
harsher measures, to attempt by argument the re-conversion of his 
friend. But the path of controversy was ever a thorny one, and 
Sir Cecil's well-intentioned efforts had a result he little anticipated. 
Instead of converting Mr. Downes, Mr. Downes converted him 
so at least says Hollingworth, though it is more than probable the 
re-conversion was effected by Richard Huddleston, a Benedictine 
monk who carried on a mission in the county ; and from that time 
the Traffords, who had been among the earliest adherents of the 
Reformation in Lancashire, have been steady and consistent 
Catholics. The change of faith was quickly followed by a change 
of fortune. In 1642 the storm which had been so long gathering 
burst, the great conflict between King and Parliament began, and 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 207 

from that time the political influence of the Traffords declined. 
Thirty years before, Sir Cecil's father had ordered the disarming of 
those who refused to take the oath of abjuration, but in the revolu- 
tion in parties which in the interval had taken place changes had 
been effected ; the recusants now appeared among the supporters of 
the Royalist cause, and the lord of Trafford and other Catholics 
petitioned the King that they might be allowed to bear arms for 
the defence of the Crown and the country. The prayer was 
granted, but as far as Sir Cecil was concerned it was of little avail, 
for on the 2nd December, 1642, the "arch-Papist," as he was 
stigmatised, was seized by the order of Sir John Seaton and con- 
fined in the prison at Manchester, the same prison in all likelihood 
to which his father had consigned so many recusants. When 
Parliament found itself sufficiently powerful it commenced to 
sequestrate the estates of those who had taken up arms on the 
King's side, and the Traffords were among the " delinquents " who 
suffered for their loyalty. Notwithstanding the change in his 
religious belief, Sir Cecil Trafford ever remained true to his sove- 
reign, and in the eventful period which immediately preceded the 
outbreak of the civil war he took an active part in public affairs. 
On the arbitrary levy of ship-money without the authority of Parlia- 
ment, the most momentous in its results of any impost ever levied, 
he addressed a letter to his " very good friend Humfrey Chetam, 
Esq.," who was sheriff that year, advising him as to the way the 
levy should be made. Three years later we find him busy in the 
King's cause. Writing to William ffarington on the i6th February, 
1638, he says "wee" have enrolled all the able men between 16 
and 60; on the nth March following he writes that he had been 
to the houses of various gentlemen to sec who would help with 
arms and money, and that "few denyed;" and in the succeeding 
year he, with other Loyalists, "suspecting that sundry in the towne 
did favour the Scots did charge the towne of Manchester with more 
arms than ever before in the memory of man it had been charged 
with, which war being composed they had their arms in their own 
possession." In 1664, when " the noble science " which the Puritans 


County Families of 

had deemed to be only a " puerile vanity," had revived, Sir William 
Dugdale, Norroy, made a visitation of Lancashire, when Sir Cecil's 
eldest son, Edmund Trafford, who was then 39 years of age, 
attended his court, entered a pedigree of twenty-three descents, and 
established his claim to the arms still borne by the family, as well 


as to the peculiar crest which Laurence Dalton had granted them 
more than a century previously. Sir Cecil lived through the 
troublous period of the Commonwealth, saw monarchy restored in 
the person of Charles the Second, and, having passed the age 
allotted to man, ended his chequered life in November, 1672, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 209 

in the seventy-fourth year of his age, and was laid by the side of his 
fathers in the Trafford Chapel. 

1672, Nov. 29. Sir Cecill Trafford of Trafford, knight. 

So runs the simple record of his burial in the Manchester register. 
If Sir Cecil Trafford had, in his earlier years, waged war upon 
opinion and persecuted conscience, he in turn was made to feel the 
weight of the iron rod when, during the usurpation, the Indepen- 
dents gained the ascendancy and became the dominant faction. In 
Dugdale's MSS., copied by the late Canon Raines, it is said that 
his house was plundered, his estates sequestrated, and himself 
imprisoned at Kingston-on-Hull on board ship, under decks in the 
bottom of the ship, closer than any dungeon, and that he had Sir 
Thomas Gascoigne, of Bamboro', in Yorkshire, Baronet, with him, 
which, it is added, was some comfort as companion in the gloomy 
recess, without light or fresh air, for several months. Lady Penelope 
Trafford did not live to share the troubles that befel her husband 
during that stormy period. She died in 1638, and was buried in 
the Collegiate Church at Manchester, as the registers there testify : 

1638, Maye i, Penelope, wiffe to the Right Worll. Sr Cicille Trafford, of 
Trafford, Knight. 

Sir Cecil did not marry again, and must, therefore, have remained 
a widower nearly thirty-five years. The issue of the marriage was 
seven sons and four daughters. In the library of the Unitarian 
Chapel, Bowl Alley Lane, Hull, there is a copy of Tyndale's 
English Bible (folio, black letter), in which is written the names 
and the dates of baptism of eight of his children. A copy of 
the entries was communicated to the Miscellanea Genealogica by 
Mr. W. W. Consett Boulter, F.S.A., and from that the following 
transcript is taken : 

Edmund Trafford was cristned the 25th of August, 1625. 

Mildred Trafford was cristned the first of November, 1626. 

Ceceyll Trafford was cristned the 29th of februarie, 1627. 

Humphrey Trafford was cristned the 2jth of Marche, 1628. 

John Trafford was borne i6th of July, and cristned the I7th of July, 1632 

2 7 

2io County Families of 

Henery Trafford was borne i6th of September, and cristned ye igth of 
September, 1633. 

Richard Trafford was borne the loth of Septembr and cristned the I4th 
of Septembar, 1635, gcd fathars and god mothar ye Lady Radely (?), Mr 
Humfrey Davenport and Mr. Mousleye (Mosley), of ye Houghe Hall. 

William Trafford was borne the 23th of July, being the (Sabbath ?) daye 
and cristned the same daya att Trafford, 1637. 

How this copy of the Scriptures came into the possession of its 
present owner is not known, but there is no doubt that originally it 
belonged to the Traffords. The names of three of Sir Cecil's 
children are omitted Mary (the first-born apparently), who was 
buried at the Collegiate Church, January 12, 1622; an infant 
daughter, buried there, April 4th, 1630; and Penelope, the 
youngest daughter. As the mother was buried May ist, 1638, the 
probability is that she died in giving birth to the daughter last 
mentioned, who was named after her. 

Kdmund Trafford, the eldest son, married Frances, one of the 
daughters of Philip Draycott, of Painsley, in Staffordshire, but had 
no surviving issue ; Cecil, the second son, ivho died in the lifetime 
of his father, and was buried at the Collegiate Church, February 
22nd, 1666-7, was also childless. Through the deaths of these sons 
without offspring the family estates devolved on the third son, 
Humphrey, so named after his maternal grandfather, the distin- 
guished lawyer and Chief Baron of the Exchequer. John, the fourth 
son, of whom we shall have more to say anon, married Ann, 
daughter of Richard Assheton, of Croston, and in her right became 
possessed of the Croston estates, which had been held by the 
Asshetons from the time of Henry VI. The other sons of Sir 
Cecil seem to have died issueless. Of the four daughters two only 
were living at the time of the father's decease Mildred, who 
became the wife of William Massey, of Puddington, in Cheshire, 
and Penelope, who married John Dowries, of Wardley, and by him 
was mother of Penelope, and a son, Roger Downes, the last of the 
family, who was killed in a fray at Epsom Wells, and formed the 
subject of the Wardley legend the skull which is erroneously said 
to have belonged to him being still preserved there. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 1 1 1 

Humphrey Trafford, the third son, who succeeded as heir, 
married a daughter of (William ?) Holland, of Clifton. She dying 
childless, he again married, his second wife being Catherine, one 
of the daughters of Sir George Warburton, of Arley, who bore him 
two sons, Edmund, who died unmarried at Angiers, in France, at 
the age of twenty-one, and Humphrey, who became heir to the 
estates, and married at Manchester, August 15, 1701, Ann, eldest 
daughter and co-heir of Sir Ralph Assheton, of Middleton. To 
this Humphrey, the second of the name, a son and heir was born 
in 1 703, an event that is thus recorded in the Stretford registers : 

Humphrey ye son of Humphrey Trafford of Trafford was born ye 20 day 
of August & about 8 of ye clock in ye morning Annoq. Domini 1703. 

The other children of the marriage were Sygismond (buried July 
2 7> T 758), Asheton and Vavasour (both buried September 12, 
1717), Mary (buried January 31, 1706-7), Catherine Maria (buried 
October 2, 1717), Anne, married to Philip Barnes, Esq., and 
Elizabeth, who became the wife of Mail Yates, Esq. Humphrey 
Trafford died March 5th, 1746, and was buried at the Collegiate 
Church. He had then been a widower seventeen years, his wife 
having died in 1729. They are both buried in the Trafford 
Chapel within the Collegiate Church, and are commemorated on a 
brass affixed to the south wall, which bears the following inscrip- 
tion : 

Anna Trafford, obiit Nono die Augusti, MDCCXXIX. ,-litatis su;c 

Humphrey Trafford of Trafford, Esq., obijt 5th March, 1746. /Etatis 66. 

The third Humphrey had reached his forty-third year when, by 
the death of his father, he succeeded to the ancestral estates. He 
was then married, his wife being Elizabeth, the only daughter of 
Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart., of Rolleston, the manorial lord of 
Manchester. He appears to have been more distinguished for his 
benevolent disposition and private worth than for any public 
services he rendered to the community. In the Characteristic 
Sketches, written by the Rev. Thomas Seddon, and published in 

212 County Families of 

1777, in which in the description of an imaginary exhibition of 
portraits many of the Lancashire and Cheshire notabilities are 
portrayed, he figures as the " Good Samaritan," and is thus 
referred to : 

That universal benevolence is an enemy to restraint and that charity is 
not the effect of a liberal spirit is here most laudably expressed. The pure 
motives of compassion cannot be restrained by religious tenets ; the manner 
in which their sentiments actuate the Samaritan to relieve his fellow- 
creatures in distress is most beautifully sublime, and every after-stroke gives 
lustre to the whole. The formality of the habit is the only fault in the 
performance, as it is batter calculated for a recluse than a travelling 

He died childless on the ist July, 1779, and was buried by the 
side of his father in the Trafford Chapel at Manchester, his wife, 
Eli/,:ibeth, who survived him a few years and died at York, October 
1786, being buried there also. In him, through failure of issue, 
terminated a line that in direct succession had owned and culti- 
vated the broad lands of Trafford from a period long anterior to 
the Norman conquest. 


l!y a will dated June 5, 1779, a few days before his decease, the 
Trafford estates were devised by Humphrey to his collateral cousin, 
John Trafford, the third in descent from John, younger son of Sir 
Cecil Trafford, who, as already stated, acquired the Croston estates 
by his marriage with the co-heiress of Assheton, of Croston, and to 
this offshoot of the parent stock we must now return. 

Croston, anciently the most extensive parish in the Hundred of 
Leyland, gave name to a family who owned lands in the township 
for many generations. Lyulph or Lidulfo de Croston appears 
about the time of Henry I. as witness to the confirmation of the 
charters by which William, son of Warin Bussel, the second 
Norman baron of 1'enwortham, and joint grantee of the Hundred 
of Blackburn, gave lands to the Priory of Penwortham ; and the 
name of Nicholas de Croston is found among the witnesses to the 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 

confirmation by Hugh, Bishop of Coventry (circa. 1192), of the 
grant of a mediety or half of the Church of Eccles from Edith do 
Barton, lady of the manor, to Geoffrey de Byron ; and in deeds in 
the writer's possession William de Croston is found owning lands in 
Croston in the reign of Edward IV. A branch of the family was 
seated, near the close of Elizabeth's reign, at Heath Charnock, and 
was then represented by George Croston, whose grandson, Jeremy 
Croston, married Elizabeth Le Flayt, one of the ladies-in-waiting of 
Charlotte Tremoille, Countess of Derby, the defender of Lathom 
House, and settled at Thirsk, in Yorkshire, where he entered a 
pedigree and arms at the visitation of 1665. This Jeremy was a 
younger brother of George Croston, of Gray's Inn, and of John 
Croston, of Heath Charnock, who was admitted scholar of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, in 1636, and whom James, the Martyr Earl of 
Derby, recommended for a fellowship, " for the good affection I bear 
him for his father's sake." He appears to be identical with the 
" Mr. Crosson " who was a prisoner with his patron, the earl, at 
Chester Castle immediately before the sad tragedy at Bolton, in 
1651. In the time of Edward II. Sir John Delamere, Knight, 
held large estates in Croston. Isabel, one of his two daughters 
and co-heirs, conveyed her moiety in marriage to Sir Thomas 
Fleming, Knight, Baron of \Vath, county York, the father 
of Sir Thomas Fleming, whose great-grandson, John Fleming, 
died childless 17 Edward IV. (1477-8), when the estate 
was divided between his two sisters, one of whom, Elizabeth, 
as appears by the Yorkshire Visitation of 1584-5, married 
Richard de Croston, and had a son, Roger de Croston, 
living in the early part of Elizabeth's reign, the ancestor, 
probably, of Henry Croston, of Croston, who, in 1693, founded the 
almshouses in that township, and possibly of Edward Croston, who 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Ralph Chetham, brother of 
Humphrey, the founder of the Chetham Hospital and Library, and 
of Eleanor Croston, the mother of the noted extempore preacher- 
" the truly great person and glory of his age," as Thoresby calls 
him Tobias Matthew, one of the lights of the Hampton Court 

214' County Families of 

Conference, and successively Bishop of Durham and Archbishop of 
York, who died at Cawood Castle, March 29, 1628. The other 
co-heiress of Sir John Delamere, Isolda (?), married William Lea, 
of Lea, a cadet of the first dynasty of the Lancasters, primitively 
barons of Kendal, and lineally descended from Ivo Taylboys, 
Count of Anjou and Baron of Kendal, whose wife, Lucia, was sister 
of Edwin and Morcar, Earls of Northumbria, at the time of the 
Conquest. From this union, says the pedigree, descended 
" Hoghton of Hoghton and Assheton of Croston." Alice, the 
daughter and heir of William Lea, married Thomas Assheton, 
descended, according to the Suffield MSS., from the Asshetons, of 
Assheton in Craven, and the father of Sir William Assheton, of 
Croston, living in the reign of Henry VI., in whom a moiety of the 
manor in right of his mother was vested, and from him descended 
Richard Assheton, whose daughter and co-heiress Anne, conveyed 
her portion of the Manor of Croston in marriage to John, fourth 
son of Sir Cecil Trafford. 

John Trafford died February 25, 1686, at the age of fifty-two, 
having had issue five sons Assheton, Cecil, Richard, John, and 
Edmund. John, the eldest surviving son, succeeded as heir, and 
married, February 10, 1688, Catharine, daughter and eventually 
co-heiress of Thomas Culcheth, of Culcheth, who bore him four sons 
and two daughters. He died August 25, 1727, when the Croston 
estates descended to his eldest son, also named John, and then in his 
thirty-ninth year. He married (i) Elizabeth Thornbury, an heiress, 
who died childless, and (2) on the i8th August, 1756, Alice 
daughter of James Shorrock, of Preston and Fulwood, by whom he 
had a son, John, born 5th December, 1758, who died in infancy, 
and a daughter, Catherine Eloisa, who survived him, and became 
the wife of Lawrence Nichell, Esq., M.D. The fortunes of the 
house were < ontinued by Humphrey, a younger brother of John, 
born I5th November, 1698. He died December i r, 1773, 
having had by his wife, Frances, daughter of John Dalton, of 
Thurnham, who survived him, three sons and two daughters 
Humphrey, Thomas, and Mary, who died in infancy, Frances, who 

Lancashire and Cheshire, 215 

became the wife of Henry Livesay, of Ormskirk, and John, the 
first-born, who succeeded as heir. Shortly before his decease he 
married (September 21, 1773) Elizabeth, daughter of Stephen 
Walter Tempest, of Broughton Hall, county York, and on the 
death of his kinsman, Humphrey Trafford, in 1779, he succeeded, in 
accordance with the provisions of the will, to the estates which the 
senior line of the Traffords had owned for so man}' generations, and 
thus united the ownership of the lands of Trafford and Croston. 
In 1793 he obtained an Act of Parliament empowering him to let 
his lands of inheritance on building leases, and to lease the waste 
(the Weas^e in Eccles parish) and moss lands in the parishes of 
Manchester and Eccles for periods of ninety-nine years. His wife 
died September 28, 1813, at the age of sixty-three, and was buried 
in the Trafford Chapel, where, at the south-east corner, a marble 
monument from the chisel of Napper commemorates her many 
virtues. He did not long survive her, his death occurring October 
29, 1815. He had by his wife a numerous offspring eight sons 
and four daughters several of whom, however, died in infancy. 
The youngest daughter, Maria, married, April 28, 1817, John, 
second son of John Clifton, of Clifton, Westby, and I .ytham, and 
had, with other issue, Edmund Clifton, now of Millbrook, in Hamp- 
shire. Thomas Joseph Trafford, the fifth but eldest surviving son, 
succeeded as heir. He was born at Croston 22nd March, 1778, and 
married, August 17, 1803, Laura Anne, third daugl.ter and co-heir 
of Francis Colman, of Hillersdown, Devonshire, who bore him a 
family of fourteen children six sons and eight daughters. With 
the relaxation of the laws which had made creed the test of citi/en- 
ship, the Traffords resumed their old position in the count)', and 
once more took an active part in public affairs. Mr. Trafford, who 
had shown himself a zealous county magistrate, was made Lord 
Lieutenant of the shire. In 1834 he was honoured with the 
shrievalty, a dignity that had not been enjoyed by any of his line 
for more than two centuries, though the office had been oftentimes 
served by his earlier progenitors; and in August, 1841, he was 
created a baronet, receiving in the month of October following the 

2i6 County Families of 

the royal licence to alter the orthography of the family name to 
De Trafford the ancient method of spelling it. 

Sir Thomas Joseph de Trafford died November, 1852, and was 
succeeded by his eldest son, Humphrey, born May i, 1808. 
He married, January 17, 1855, the Lady Mary Annette Talbot, 
eldest sister and co-heir of Bertram Arthur, ryth Earl of 
Shrewsbury, by whom, in addition to Humphrey Francis, his 
heir, born July 3, 1862, he had Charles Edmund, Gilbert 
Talbot Joseph, and five daughters. Of the other issue of 
Sir Thomas Joseph de Trafford, John Randolphus, the third but 
second surviving son, who died February 13, 1879, resided at 
Croston, and married, July 13, 1850, the Lady Adelaide, third 
daughter of Charles, Earl Cathcart, by whom he had, in addition to 
Segismond Cathcart de Trafford, born 1853, and now of Croston 
Hall, who holds the Trafford moiety of the Manor of Croston, three 
sons and two daughters. Sir Humphrey de Trafford died on the 
4th of May, 1886, when the honours and estates descended to his 
eldest son, the present baronet, who married, at the Oratory, 
Brompton, London, August 9th, 1886, Violet, eldest daughter of 
the late Captain Franklin, 77th Regiment. 

For eight hundred years and more the Traffords have been 
located on the confines of Manchester, and have watched its growth 
through the long centuries that have intervened since the time 
when a progenitor, in the days of Gurth and Wamba, first settled 
on his holding near the ford where a branch of the Roman road 
crossed the Irwell. They have seen the scattered hamlet of the 
Saxon era become the village of the Norman period, and the 
Norman village expand into the picturesque but narrow-laned and 
ill-paved town of Elizabeth's days, and the town grow and increase 
until it has become the busy, bustling mercantile city, whose broad 
streets we tread to-day. They furnish a notable example of 
a family holding its lands in continuity through successive genera- 
tions, retaining its own, but seldom or never enlarging its domains 
or profiting by the varying vicissitudes which enabled many of its 
neighbours to enrich themselves. The protracted struggle of the 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 2 1 7 

Plantagenets, when the descendants of the Norman barons menaced 
the Crown, and the Wars of the Roses, which destroyed the flower 
of the nobility and impoverished the nation, left the Traffords 
unharmed. Though mating with the noblest and most powerful in 
the land, they never until recent years attained higher rank than 
the knighthood which successive representatives gained by their 
own good swords ; and though their domains have been added to 
from time to time, those additions have been the results of the 
prudent alliances they have formed, and have not been gifts 
made from the forfeited possessions of others. What they have thus 
acquired they have continued to hold ; permanence seems to have 
been through all time their distinguishing characteristic, and in this 
sense we may interpret the motto of their house "Gripe, griffin, 
hold fast." 




FAVOURITE expression of Cheshire men, when 
speaking of anything that is difficult of separation, 
is " as ill to part as Lymm from Warburton ; " the 
proverb referring to the two parishes which, for 
a long course of years, were reckoned as one, 
though the privileges of the inhabitants were not quite identical, 
those of Warburton having an advantage over their brethren at 
Lymm in that they were exempt from serving on juries, Warburton 
having once been a fief of the Priory of St. John of Jerusalem. 
Warburton is a place of considerable antiquity, and has undoubtedly 
a Saxon origin. When that " Saxon Amazon," ^ithelfleda, the 
widow of /Kthelred, erected a chain of fortresses along the banks of 
the Mersey to protect her territories from the repeated incursions of 
the Danes, who had then established themselves in Wirral, she 
named one after that saintly virgin, Werburgh, daughter of Wulf- 
here, the Mercian King, for whom she appears to have had a 
special veneration, she and her husband having previously dedi- 
cated the great abbey at Chester to her honour. The group of 
humble dwellings that gathered round /Kthelfleda's Castle became 
known as St. Werburgh 's Town spelt Warburge-tone in the 
Domesday Survey and this in course of time became corrupted 
into the present Warburton. 

After the subjugation of England by the Norman invaders a 
moiety of Warburton was given to the Baron of Halton, under 
whom it was held by the Duttons of Dutton, and the other moiety 

County Families of Lancashire, &c. 2 1 9 

Adam, the son of Sir Hugh Button, acquired, as is believed, by 
his marriage with Agnes, the daughter and co-heir of Roger Fitz- 
Alured, about the time of Henry II., and who thus became first 
mesne lord of both moieties. The heir and successor of this Adam, 
Sir Geoffrey de Dutton, who was sometimes called Geffrey de 
Budworth from his owning that estate as well as the lordship of 
Dutton, fired by the religious enthusiasm of the age in which he 
lived, took the cross and went out to the Holy Land to assist in 
rescuing the sacred city from the dangers with which it was 
threatened. With commendable prudence he assigned a portion 
of his estates to the care of Herbert, son of Philip de Orreby, justice 
of Chester, before taking his departure. The Crusades furnished an 
excellent field for the exertions of those adventurous spirits who 
possessed an ardent temperament and an avidity for glory. Geoffrey 
Dutton was one of them, and it is recorded that in the conflicts 
with the Paynim foe he greatly distinguished himself. Laurence 
Bostock, writing in 1572, says: "This Galfrid (or Geoffrey) lived 
1244. He was serving his Prynce and vanquyshed a Sarrazin in 
combate," an exploit commemorated in the heraldic insignia of 
the Warburtons at the present day. The old warrior, who was 
doubtless proud of his prowess, adopted the head of his vanquished 
foe as his helm-totem or crest, and from that time to the present 
the Saracen's head, surmounted by three ostrich feathers, has 
continued to be used by his descendants, and is still borne as one 
of the crests of the lords of Warburton. 

The old Crusader is believed to have married Alice, a daughter 
of John de Lacy, Baron of Halton, by whom he had a son, Geoffrey, 
who succeeded at his death, about the year 1248, and was in turn 
the father of a Sir Peter, who seems to have forsaken the old mansion 
at Budworth, and to have taken up his abode at Warburton, from 
which circumstance, in accordance with the custom of the age, he 
assumed the surname of Warburton, " which sire-name," as Sir 
Peter Leycester says, " his heirs have ever since wholly retained 
to this day." It was in the lifetime of the father of this Sir Peter 
that the Warburtons acquired possession of the advowson of the 


County Families of 

church. A priory of Premonstratensian canons had been founded 
at Warburton in the time of Henry II., the precursor of the present 
church, which was ultimately absorbed by the great abbey of 
Cockersand on the Lune, one of the three wealthiest religious 
houses in Lancashire, but, as appears by some original evidences 
still preserved at Arley, the abbot of Cockersand, in 1271, doubt- 

Quartering Dutton (male ancestor of Warburton), and Warburton ancient.* (Sec f. 219). 

less for some good consideration, surrendered the advowson of the 
church to Sir Geoffry, the father of Sir Peter Warburton, and the 
benefice has ever since remained in the family, though it appears 

* The canton in the ancient coat of Warburton was occasionally charged 
with a trefoil slipped, and so appears on the seal of Sir Geoffrey Warburton 
in 1383, but the trefoil would appear to have been only a temporary 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 


to have been then, and for long after, an independent rectory, and 
not, as has been commonly supposed, a joint benefice with Lymm. 
Sir Peter VVarburton had, in addition to a younger son, Peter, 
to whom he gave estates in Bud worth and Aston, Gcoffry, eldest 
son and heir, who served the office of sheriff of Lancashire in 1326, 
though his name does not appear in either Kenion's or Hopkin- 
son's lists. When he delivered up to his successor, John de 
Burghton, the castle and gaol of Lancaster, there were then incar- 
cerated in it four prisoners, three being in custody for murder and 
one for larceny. Two years before he 
entered upon the shrievalty his name 
occurs as having entered into a recog- 
nisance in the sum of 66s. 8d. to the 
Earl of Chester on behalf of that book- 
loving ecclesiastic, Richard de Aunger- 
ville, better known as Richard de Bury, 
the monk of Chester, and the author 
of the Philobiblon, who was Chamberlain 
of Chester (1321-1324), and afterwards 
Bishop of Durham. This Geoffry, who 
died about the year 1343, had, like his 
progenitors, the honour of knighthood 
conferred upon him, and was in turn 
followed by three successive lineal descen- 
dants who bore the same baptismal name, the last of whom 
dying some time before the year 1383, without male issue, the 
estates devolved upon his younger brother, John. The War- 
burtons were a chivalrous race, and this last Geoffry was not 
wanting in the martial spirit that distinguished his father. In 1365 
he was with the Earl of Chester, Edward the Black Prince, in 
Aquitaine, and was in the retinue of that distinguished soldier when 
he led the great army of English, Gascons, and Normans from 
Bordeaux through the Pass of Roncevalles the pass 

tll>'/ Sir C.Ci'ji'ry U'arl'Mrl,', 
c- 'JJo. 

Where Charlemagne and all his peerage fell 

222 County Families of 

to Navarre, and achieved the brilliant victory over the army of 
Henry of Castile. 

John Warburton, who succeeded to the family estates, did not 
long enjoy possession. He died in 1384-5, leaving by his wife 
Alice, daughter of Richard de Wevre, a son, Peter, who at the 
time was a youth of thirteen. Sir John Massey, of Tatton, had the 
wardship and disposal of him in marriage, and being the heir to a 
good estate, Sir John, like a prudent father, contracted him in 
marriage to his own daughter, Dulcia, then a child under five years 
of age. The head of the House of Tatton was a man of some 
consequence, and his name occurs in the list of knights who 
appeared as witnesses on the part of CTrosvenor in the great heraldic 
dispute in 1389, when he deposed to having seen the disputed arms 
the Bend or painted by the Grosvenors in their proper blazon 
upon the cross at Bradley on the highway between " Knottesford 
and Weryngton," for twenty-six years then past. An alliance with a 
daughter of the House of Tatton could not, in a worldly sense, be 
otherwise than advantageous to the Warburtons ; but Phomme propose 
et Dieu dispose, and the design of the contriver came to nought, for 
the marriage was distasteful to Peter Warburton, and on attaining 
manhood and receiving possession of his estates he had it annulled 
by a decree of the Court of Arches (May 4, 1402), though he had 
to pay the lady, as appears by receipts for different instalments, 550 
marks. Some curious references to this divorce are found on the 
Recognisance Rolls preserved in the Record Office, London. On 
the 4th April, 1402, Sir John Massey (the father of Dulcia), Sir 
(icorge Caryngton, and others entered into a recognisance of 600 
marks to Peter Warburton that no impediment should be offered 
to a divorce between Peter and Dulcia, and at the same time Peter 
Warburton and Richard Warburton his brother probably, who was 
sheriff of Cheshire in 1424 entered into a covenant with Sir John 
Massey that the said Peter should pay to him 300 marks within six 
years, but this covenant was set aside by the King's letters patent, 
dated August i6th in the following year, which granted 300 marks 
to Dulcia, to be received out of the issue of the goods and chattels 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 223 

of Peter. Before the date of that revocation he had married a 
young widow Alice, daughter of Sir Henry de Braylesford. Within 
a few months of his marrage we find him in arms against the 
Lancastrian usurper, Henry IV. When the valiant Hotspur, 

Who was sweet Fortune's minion and her pride, 

raised the standard of revolt, and his party proclaimed that the late 
King (Richard II.) was still alive, Peter Warburton, like many 
another Cheshire man, unable to forget the misfortunes of his former 
master, joined the rebel forces. The Cheshire archers assembled 
at Sandiway, near the borders of Delamere Forest, whence they 
marched southwards by way of Prees and Whitchurch, until a 
junction was effected with the main body of the insurgents, under 
Percy and Owen Glendower, the renowned Welsh chieftain. The 
rival armies met on July 20, 1403, at Hateley Field, three miles from 
Shrewsbury, and on the following morning, when the sun rose over 
the woods of Haughmond Hill " the busky hill " of Shakespeare 
and the southern wind "did play the trumpet to his purposes," the 
conflict began. In that sanguinary struggle Falstaff "fought a 
long hour by Shrewsbury clock," and his ragamuffins got well 
peppered. When it was over two Cheshire men of note Yenables, 
the Baron of Kinderton, and Sir Richard Yernon, the Baron of 
Shipbroke paid the penalty of their revolt at the market cross of 
Shrewsbury, with the same horrible barbarities that were inflicted 
one hundred and twenty years before on David, Prince of Wales, the 
brother of Llewelyn. Peter Warburton escaped the fate that befel 
some of his more influential neighbours, and he was fortunate enough 
to obtain the royal pardon on the i5th of September following, 
and a second pardon on February 6th in the succeeding year, and 
shortly after he was restored to the royal favour. Henry, Prince 
of Wales, the whilom roysterer and tavern brawler Hotspur's 
" nimble-footed mad-cap Harry" was Earl of Chester, and passed 
much of his time within the palatinate. Anxious, as it would seem, 
to gain the good will of the Cheshire chivalry, and to remove the 
prejudice provoked by the wrongs his 

Father made in compassing the Crown, 

224 County Families oj 

he took Peter \Varburton into his service, and granted him an 
annuity of ten marks for life "pro bono et g'tuito s'vicio quod 
nobis impendit." He must have died within a few years of the 
fight at Shrewsbury, for his inquisition was taken 13 Henry IV. 
(1412-13). Geoffry Warburton according to some of the pedi- 
grees his brother, but more probably his son succeeded. He 
was knighted by Henry VI. in 1432, and ten years later was made 
steward or seneschal of the important stronghold of Halton, on the 
banks of the Mersey, by the Earl of Buckingham. He married 
Ellen, sister of John Bruyn, of Tarvin, and died in 1448, being 
succeeded in the estates by his eldest son, Piers Warburton, the first 
of the race who made Arley his chief abode, and who is better 
known to later generations by his sobriquet of " Wise Piers." 

The Piers Warburton, who rejoiced in the cognomen of " Wise 
Piers," succeeded to the patrimonial lands on the death of his 
father in 1448. Sir Peter Leycester says that a dozen years 
previously he had been united in marriage with Elizabeth, the 
daughter of Sir John Maimvaring, of Over Peover, by his first wife, 
a daughter of John Delves, of Doddington. This marriage must 
have been subsequently annulled, for, according to the same 
authority, he, in 1469, obtained a dispensation from Pope Paul II. 
for a marriage with Ellen, daughter of Sir John Savage, of Clifton, 
to whom he was related in the third degree, his first wife being then 
alive, as evidenced by the dates of various receipts and deeds 
between the parties in regard to sums of money due from Piers 
Warburton to Elizabeth Mainwaring. Concerning the second 
marriage, statements have been made that it is difficult to reconcile 
with actual facts. Leycester affirms that Ellen Savage had 
previously (1467) a licence from the same Pope to marry Peter 
Legh, of Lymc, and this is unquestionably true, the licence bearing 
date Romot 2 idus Januarii, anno quarto papx Pauli secitndi. 
There was a close kinship between the lady and Peter Legh, and 
hence the necessity for the Papal dispensation. There is no reason 
to believe that she was ever divorced or separated from her 
husband ; on the contrary, she bore him a family of five sons and a 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 225 

daughter, and when Sir Peter Legh, who survived her many years, 
made his last will in 1522, a few years before his death, he directed 
his executors to erect a marble monument in Winwick Church, 
where his body was to be interred, with a "pictor" of himself and 
his wife, the said Ellen, their respective coats of arms, and a 
"sup'cripcon," showing their names and the days and years of their 
decease. The monumental brass, with the " pictor " of Sir Peter 
and his wife Ellen, may still be seen in Winwick Church, with the 
armorial ensignia of Eegh and Savage, and the "sup'cripcon" which 
he had ordered to be provided, and from which it appears that he 
died in 1527, and his wife Ellen (filie Johis Savage militis) in 1491. 
It is clear, then, that Sir Peter Leycester is in error ; that the wife of 
Piers Warburton must have been the daughter of some other mem- 
ber of the Savage family, and this is further evidenced by the fact 
that she was living in 1502, eleven years after the decease of Sir 
Peter Legh's wife. 

"Wise Piers" stands out as one of the great men of his family. 
As we have said, the Warburtons were a fighting stock, and Piers 
Warburton, in 1461, when he must have been quite a young man, 
began his military career by engaging to serve in the retinue of Sir 
William Stanley, of Holt. The agreement, which is still in exis- 
tence, is interesting, as showing the way in which the military 
affairs of the country were then carried out. It reads : 

This indenture made between William Stanley, knyght, on that one 
partie, and Pyers Werburton, squyer, on that other p'tee, witnesseth that 
the said Piers is reteigned and witholden for time of his life with the said 
William, and g'untes to do him service duryng the same tyme in pease and 
werre before all other p'sonnes, except our sov'aigne lord kynge Edwarde 
the iiiite, and all other that shall be kynges of Englonde after the dethe of 
the said kynge Edwarde ; takyng therefore yerely duryng the lyfe of the 
said Willyam C. M'r's of money of the ffe that the said Willyam have of 
the g'unte of the lordes of Bromfelde and Yale for time of his life be the 
hondes of the receyvor of the Holt for the tyme beyng at the feestes of 
Estur and Michelmas be even por'cons. In witness whereof to these 
presents en'dentures the p'ties aforesaid interchangeable have set to their 
seals. Yeven at Chestre the xxvii day of October, thi yere of the regne of 
the said Kynge Edwarde the iiiite the furste. 

226 County Families of 

Sir William Stanley was the historical personage who afterwards 
played so conspicuous a part in the fight at Bosworth Field, where, 
according to some versions, he placed the crown upon the head of 
the victorious Henry of Richmond. He became, says Lord Bacon, 
" the richest subject for value in the kingdom," but he reaped the 
reward of his treachery, for, when at the height of his prosperity, he 
was suddenly hurled from power, dispossessed of his estates, and 
deprived of his head (February 15, 1495), f r having, as was 
alleged, joined in the conspiracy to place Perkin Warbeck upon the 
throne. Piers Warburton was appointed seneschal of the Castle 
of Halton, an office his father had held before him; and it was 
about this time that a letter was addressed to him by Sir William 
Stanley, which Mr. Beamont has transcribed from the original in 
the possession of Mr. Egerton Warburton, of Arley : 

Cosyn Pers, I comaunde me unto you. 

I dowte not yc remembre how I pr'mised you to come unto yor Pke yr 
to have kylled a buk wth my hownds & hit ys so as now I am so besy wth 
olde Dyk I can have no layf thereunto ; notwthstandyng if hit pleas you to 
have my S'vaunt and my hownds they shal be redy at yor comaundement 
and Crist kepe you. Written at Rydeley the vi day of Septembr. 


While seneschal of Halton, he was the correspondent of Eleanor, 
wife of Thomas, Lord Stanley, afterwards Earl of Derby, the sister 
of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, the renowned " king-maker," 
who seems to have considered his assistance of value as a matter of 
business. This Piers Warburton is commonly supposed to have 
built the Hall of Arley. Leycester says the family, "disliking the 
seat at Warburton, either for the inundation of the water or for some 
other cause, removed their seat to Arley, in Aston (township), near 
to this Budworth, about the beginning of Henry VII. 's reign ; which 
House of Arley was built by Peter Warburton, Esq., who died 
Anno Domini 1495." It would be more correct to say Piers re-built 
or greatly enlarged the house, for there was a residence there at a 
very early date ; and Mr. Helsby found among the entries in the 
Lichfield diocesan register a licence granted to Geoffrey Warburton 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 227 

in 1360 for an oratory in his mansion at Arley. The close intimacy 
existing between Piers Warburton and Sir William Stanley, of Holt, 
is further evidenced by the fact that two years after the battle of 
Bosworth (2 Henry VII., 1486-7) the same Piers is found entering 
into a contract for the marriage of his son and heir apparent, John 
Warburton, with Johanna, the daughter of Sir William Stanley, of 
Holt, and covenanting to settle Sutton Hall, &c., on William, son of 
the same Sir William, for the use of Johanna for life, with remainder 
to his son and heir apparent, John, and next remainder to his 
younger son, Peter Warburton. Wise Piers did not survive the 
marriage many years, his death occurring in 1495. By his wife, 
Ellen Savage, he had two sons and two daughters, all of whom 
appear to have been living at the time of his decease. 

John Warburton, the eldest son, succeeded as heir, and on the 
1 4th February, 1495, administered to the effects of his father, whom 
he also succeeded in the seneschalship of Halton, an office he held 
for life. In the same year he was entrusted with the shrievalty of 
the county, and in 1503, or thereabouts, received his knighthood, 
being also a knight of the body to Henry VII. In the following year 
he was again appointed sheriff, an office which, by patent under the 
Great Seal, was, three years later, conferred upon him for life. In 
1510, as we learn from a deed entered upon the Chester Recog- 
nisance Rolls in the Record Office, he was busy arranging a 
marriage between his son and Elizabeth, one of the daughters and 
co-heiresses (eventually sole heiress) of Richard \\~ynyngton, of 
Wynyngton, a young lady who was then approaching the ripe age 
of ten years. She was in the wardship of her mother's uncle, 
William Smyth, Bishop of Lincoln, the founder of Farnworth 
Grammar School, in Prescot parish, and the co-founder, with Sir 
Richard Sutton, of Brasenose College, Oxford ; and by the deed in 
question Sir John Warburton covenants with the bishop that Piers, 
his son and heir, shall marry the youthful heiress, and that in the 
event of his dying before the consummation of the marriage his 
next son, John, should take her to wife, none of the parties who 
were most directly concerned in the arrangement being, as it would 

228 County Families of 

seem, in any way consulted in the matter. In the agreement Sir 
John undertakes to pay to the bishop 400 marks in yearly instal- 
ments of 26 135. 4d., to commence on his ward's attaining the 
age of fourteen, and he further covenants that his manors, &c., shall 
descend to Piers, his son, in accordance with the entail made by 
" Wise Piers," his father. The demand made by the bishop for the 
hand of his ward was an exorbitant one, and as the first instalment 
had not become due at the time of his death, in 1513, his executors 
found considerable difficulty in obtaining payment, and then only, 
as it would seem, under an order of the Court of Chancery. Arch- 
deacon Churton, in his Lives of the Founders of Brascnose, 
mentions that this particular item of 400 marks was bequeathed by 
the bishop, with other sums, to his poor relations. Three years 
after the date of this agreement the battle of Flodden Field, so 
disastrous to the arms of Scotland, was fought. Sir John Warburton 
was amongst the Cheshire chivalry who shared in the glories of the 
day. as appears by a contemporary ballad, published in Weber's 
Flodden Field (1808), in which many of the Lancashire and 
Cheshire men are specially named : 

The Royall Ratcliffe that rude was never, 

And trustye Trafforde kene to trye ; 
And wighty WARKERTONE out of Chesshire, 

All came with the Earle of Derbye. 

The author has evidently availed himself of the poet's licence, for 
it was not the Karl of Derby, but Sir Kdward Stanley, afterwards 
created Lord Monteagle, who so valorously headed the Lancashire 
and Cheshire contingent. Sir John appears to have been a con- 
tributor during his lifetime to the re-building of the tower of Great 
Budworth Church, for over the west door there appear three shields 
of arms, the centre one being that of Warburton, with the words 
" John " on one side and " Warburton, knight," on the other ; the 
same coat of arms being repeated on a shield above the great west 
window. He died in 1523, at which time he could have been 
little more than fifty years of age, his eldest son, Piers, succeeding 
to the estates. 

Lancashire and Cfieshire. 229 

Piers Warbutron, the grandson of " Wise Piers," who succeeded 
to the patrimonial lands on his father's death, in 1523, added con- 
siderably to the territorial possessions of the Warburtons by his 
marriage with the child-heiress of Wynyngton. The estates of that 
house had been partitioned between two co-heiresses, but on the 
death of one of them Katherine Wynyngton, who had never 
married the Whole, together with those of the grandmother, 
Katherine Venables, devolved upon the survivor, Elizabeth, the 
wife of Piers Warburton. The fortunate lady made proof of age at 
Northwich, January 22, 6 Henry VIII. (1514), with much form 
and ceremony, and with what in these days would be considered 
much unnecessary corroborative evidence. Sir George Holford, 
a Cheshire knight, deposed that she was fourteen years of age on 
the 1 5th December preceding, as he remembered from the circum- 
stance that at the time a servant of Richard Wynyngton, her 
father, brought him the intelligence of her birth ; that she was born 
at Luddington, in Rutlandshire, and baptised at the Parish Church 
there; and that William, late prior of I/nund, in Leicestershire, and 
Elizabeth, wife of Robert Hardy, were the sponsors ; and eleven 
other esquires and gentlemen bore similar testimony. Two days 
after proof thus given she had a writ of livery granted to her. The 
estates were considerable, including, as we learn from the inquisi- 
tion taken after her death, the Manors of Wynyngton, Marthall, and 
Pulford, with the advowson of the latter ; and lands in Cleycroft, 
Broxton, Elton, Catesbach, Northwich, Castle-Northwich, Chester, 
Newton, Twembrooke, Over, and Nether Peover and Allostock. 
These acquisitions added much to the social influence of Piers 
Warburton, who in consequence became one of the chief terri- 
torial magnates -of the shire, and as I -eland, the antiquary, in his 
Itinerary describes him, one of the principal gentlemen in Cheshire. 

To this couple a son and heir was horn in 1523 the year which 
witnessed the death of Sir John Warburton, the father, and in 
compliment to him the child was named John. The other issue of 
the marriage were two sons, Peter, of Hefferston, in Weaverham, 
the commonwealth judge and the grandfather of Matthew Henry's 

County Families of 

second wife, and Richard, and four daughters, one of whom, Jane, 
married (i) Sir William Brereton, of Brereton, and by him was 
mother of the Sir William Brereton who built the stately hall of 
Brereton now existing, and (2) Sir Laurence Smith, of the Hough. 
Another daughter, Anne, was married when a child to one of the 
" fighting Fittons," Sir Edward Fitton, of Gawsworth, who so 
greatly distinguished himself in the suppression of Shane O'Neill's 
rebellion in Ireland and restoring order in that distracted country. 
She accompanied her husband to Ireland, and died there in 1573. 
Her remains were interred in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, 
where those of Sir Edward were also laid in the following year, the 
memory of both being perpetuated in an inscription on a sepulchral 
brass still remaining, a replica of which, with the figures of Sir 
lid ward, his wife, and their fifteen children, may be seen in the 
church at Gawsworth, in Cheshire. A great ceremonial was 
observed at the funeral of Lady Anne F'itton, some curious particu- 
lars of which are preserved in the MSS. of Bishop Sterne, too long 
for insertion here, but which are given in extcnso in Nooks and 
Corners of Lancashire and Cheshire (pp. 123-4). 

I'eter Warburton, who received his knighthood in the later years 
of his life, died on the 5th June, 1550, his widow surviving him 
about eight years. John Warburton, his eldest son, who was then 
twenty-seven years of age, succeeded as next heir. Three years 
later Edward VI. finished his "short but saintly cc-urse," and, after 
the failure of the ill-judged attempt to place the Lady Jane Grey 
upon the throne, Queen Mary was proclaimed. The coronation 
took place on the ist October with much pomp and pageantry, the 
Queen appearing in the procession in a gown of blue velvet, furred 
with powdered ermine, a cloth of tinsel beset with pearl and stone 
hanging on her head, and round it a caul and circlet of gold so 
massy and ponderous that, as the old chroniclers relate, "she was 
fain to bear up her head with her hands." On the following day, 
at Westminster Hall, honours were freely distributed, and among 
those present to receive them were John Warburton, of Arley, and 
his brother-in-law, Edward Fitton, of Gawsworth, both of whom 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 231 

were dubbed Knights of the Carpet. Just before the close of the 
short reign of Mary, while hostilities were being waged between 
England and France, Mary of Guise, the Queen Dowager and 
Regent of Scotland, was incited by the French King to invade 
England. To meet this incursion the " great " Earl of 1 )erby, who 
was at the time Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire and Cheshire, 
mustered the forces of the two counties, and placed a company of 
one hundred and fifty men under the command of the Knight of 
Arley. In the year following Elizabeth's accession to the Crown 
a force was despatched to Scotland to render assistance to the 
reformers and prevent the conquest of the country by France ; and 
at the same time we find Sir John Warburton named, with Sir Ralph 
Leycester and Philip Mainwaring and Thomas Holford, esquires, 
collector of a mise throughout the Bucklow Hundred. On the 28th 
July in the same year his mother, the dowager Lady U'arburton, 
died; on the nth September, 1561, he, as son and next heir, had 
special livery of her lands, and two months later he had a grant 
during pleasure of the office of sheriff of the county. 

Towards the close of his life he appears to have been busily 
employed in preparing a rent-roll of his extensive estates. This 
singular document, which is still preserved among the muniments 
at Arley, consists of skins of parchment stitched together, and is 
about ten yards long and one foot wide. The armorial ensigns of 
the family are emblazoned at the top of the roll, and along each 
side is an ornamental border of a running pattern about two inches 
in width. Beneath the heraldic shield is the inscription "Rentale 
d'ni Joh'is Warburton Militis pro festo Sti Joh'is Baptiste de o'ib's 
man'ijs terr' ten'nt' messuagijs villis et alijs Reddit' infra Com> 
Cestr' & Lancastr' factu' & Renovat' decimo die Jul y anno regni 
d'ne Elizabeth dei grac' Anglic ffraunc' et hib'ni' regine fideo 
defensor, &c., decimo quarto (1572)." The several manors are 
enumerated, and the names of the respective tenants are written in 
a neat hand under each. Sir John died August 31, 1575, at the 
age of fifty-two, and was buried in the Warburton chancel on the 
south side of Great Budworth Church, where his mutilated effigy 

232 County Families of 

in plate armour may still be seen resting on an altar-tomb of later 
date, with a tablet near thereto, bearing a Latin inscription, in 
which his virtues are set forth Qui fait in religione fo'stans, 
amator litcratii et amicii' fauperrf ? There is also a full-length 
portrait of him on the walls at Arley. 

Peter Warburton, the eldest son, succeeded as next heir ; he was 
then thirty-one years of age, and had been married several years, 
his wife being Mary, daughter of Sir John Holcroft, of Holcroft, in 
Lancashire, and a niece of the Sir Thomas Holcroft, of Vale Royal, 
who, l>y favour of Henry VIII., succeeded in obtaining so large a 
slirc of the lands of the suppressed monasteries. There appears to 
have been a doubt as to Peter's orthodoxy, if we may judge from 
the replies to some ecclesiastical inquiries concerning Great Bud- 
worth, made a few years before Sir John's death, and which have 
been unearthed by Mr. J. E. Bailey, F.S.A. Sir Richard Eaton, 
the vicar of Budworth (the father of the " renowned governor of 
Newhaven," in New England), being examined (February, 1569-70) 
deposed "that Thomas Starke, csquier, hath not rec' at his hands, 
but he thinks he is not obstinate . . . and yet he is a favourer 
of the Romish religion. The Roade (Rood) loft yet standeth. He 
saieth that one John Warburton (probably John of Winnington, the 
youngest brother of Peter) useth to praie upon a Latin primer, and 
this depont. hath undertaken to bringe in the same, &c. Peter 
Warburton thilder and his wief are as under. They had no sermon 
sithcnce the visitac'on. Sr Ran' Antrobus an old papist priest and 
doth not mynister. Homfrey Hall, Wm. foxley, and Pier Ricson 
gard' sworne and exa'i'ed saie and the said foxley saieth that he 
hath div'se old Latin bokes remayninge in his hands wch he is 
enjoyned to bringe in to the Sinode at Warington the Towesdaie 
after lowe Sondaie next. Brought in. The Rode lofte standeth.'' 

Peter Warburton had writ of special livery granted him April 20, 
1577, and three years later, when Robert Glover, the Somerset 
Herald, made a visitation of Cheshire on behalf of William Flower, 
Norroy, he attended and registered a pedigree of seventeen descents 
and a heraldic achievement quartering Button, Warburton (ancient), 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 


Winnington, Pulford, and Grosvenor. Whatever may have been his 
religious tendencies, it is evident he succeeded in gaining the confi- 
dence of his sovereign, for on December 5, 1582, he was appointed 
during pleasure Sheriff of Cheshire. Though he never received 
the honour of knighthood, he filled many offices of trust and 
responsibility. In 1592 he was appointed Queen's attorney in the 
counties of Chester, Flint, Anglesea, Caernarvon, and Merioneth 
for life; in the following year Henry, Earl of Derby, appointed him 
Vice-Chamberlain of Chester ; and on the death of the earl, before 
the close of the year, he was confirmed in the office by the Queen. 
Two months later he was again entrusted with the shrievalty, and 
in March, 1593-4, when Thomas Egerton had been appointed 
chamberlain of the county, Peter Warburton was named as his 

In the description of Cheshire compiled by William Webb, under- 
sheriff to Sir Richard Lee, circa 1615-6, we have a characteristic 
account of Peter Warburton. After describing Toft, Plumleigh, 
and Pickmere, he says : 

And so we are come to the sight of that beautifull house of Arley* that 
doth, as it well may, shew itself to beholders a farre off as a place worthy 
to be regarded. And the famous seat of Warburtons, which, being come by 
succession of many renowned knights of great worth and estimation to the 
now owner, Peter Warburton of Arley, Esquire, a gentleman not affecting the 
stile and degree of a Knight, yet one who could never avoid that Dignityi 
Authority, and Worth, which ever had been deservedly thrown upon him 
for wisdome and government, in his greatest places wherein his experience 
brought him to greater maturity, and his wise and singular moderation 
preserved him to a long experience, continuing in an excellent constitution 
of body even to a reverend Age, as though Nature her self were loath the 
world should be deprived of such an Ornament, the People of his Govern- 
ment, the Country of his Hospitality, the poor of his Relief, and that 
famous house of such a pillar, because though there be such a plentiful 
increase of his own beautiful daughters, and of the numerous issues of 
many of them : yet there wants an heir-male of his body, which how he 
will supply rests in his own wisdom to appoint, and is a matter that becomes 
not me to meddle in. 

* The " beautiful house," built in 1495, was taken down and re-built in 
1758; the structure then erected being in turn succeeded by another, the 
building of which was commenced in 1833 and finished in 1842. 


234 County Families of 

The "plentiful increase" of " beautiful daughters" all married, and 
married well. Mary, the eldest, became the wife of Thomas 
Wilbraham, of Tilston ; Elizabeth married Ralph Egerton, of 
Ridley, whom she survived; Jane married, in 1589, William 
Brereton, of Ashley; Eleanor married Thomas Marbury, of Mar- 
bury; Isabel became the second wife of Sir Edward Stanley, of 
Bickerstaffe ; Frances married Sir Christopher Trentham; and 
Alice, whose name for some cause or other was omitted from her 
father's will, married her kinsman, Sir Peter Warburton, of Grafton, 
one of the judges of the Common Pleas. Having no " heir-male 
of his body," Peter Warburton, in 27 Elizabeth (1584-5) made a 
settlement of his estates, entailing them upon the issue of his next 
brother, George, of The Lodge, in Crowley, who had married Eliza- 
beth, sister of Sir Thomas Hesketh. His death must have occurred 
soon after the accession of Charles the First, for his inquisition (per 
Comm. de Mand.) was taken in the third year of that king's reign. 
The disposition of the estates gave rise to considerable litigation, 
and suits at law were entered in the court at Chester and in the 
Prerogative Court at York, but eventually they passed to George 
Warburton, the grand-nephew'of Peter, and grandson of the George 
Warburton, of Crowley, named in the before-mentioned settlement. 

George Warburton, who succeeded, inherited as next heir to his 
brother Peter, who died childless and before attaining full age. 
This Peter, who was born about the year 1622, married, in 1638, 
Eleanor, daughter of Robert Needham, Viscount Kilmorey. The 
lady, who was then only a child of eleven years of age, must have 
been distinguished for her beauty, if we may judge from the account 
given at a later date by the noted Cheshire antiquary, Sir Peter 
Leycester, who described her as a " Person of such comely Carriage 
and Presence, Handsomeness, sweet Disposition, Honour, and 
general Repute in the World, that she hath scarce left her Equal 
behind." Three years after the marriage Peter Warburton died at 
Oxford of smallpox, his burial being thus recorded in the register 
of Great Bud worth : 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 235 

1641, August 5. Petrus Warburton de Arley, armiger qui Oxoni;e 
moriebatur circiter decima norm' setatis annu'. 

His youthful widow subsequently became the wife of Sir John 
Byron, the distinguished Royalist commander and the victor of 
Roundway Down, whom Charles I., in acknowledgment of his 
bravery, raised to the dignity of a baron of the realm. Him she 
also survived, her death occurring in January, 1663, at the compara- 
tively early age of thirty-six. 

It was in the days of young Peter Warburton that Richard Braith- 
waite, better known to fame as " Drunken Barnaby," in one of his 
" Four journeys to the North of England," passed through or close 
by Arley on his way from Warrington to Holmes-Chapel, when he 
made acquaintance with "mine honest hoast" of the "Cock" at 
Budworth. As the merry fellow expresses it 

Thence to the Cocli at Budworth, where I 
Drunk strong ale as brown as berry, 
Till at last with deep healths felled, 
To my bed I was compelled ; 
I for state was bravely sorted, 
By two poulterers well supported, 
Where no sooner understand I 
Of mine honest hoast Tom Gandi, 
To Holme Chappdl forthwith set I. 
Maid and hostesse both were pretti ; 
But to drink took I affection, 
I forgot soon their complexion. 

Doubtless " Dapper Dick " found the host of the " Cock " a more 
congenial companion than the Puritan at Over, whom he has thus 

I came to Over O, profane one 
And there I saw a Puritane one ; 
A-hanging of his cat on Monday 
For killing of a mouse on Sunday, 

There is a "Cock at Budworth" is these days, but it is not the 
identical hostelry in which " Drunken Barnaby " found such excellent 
entertainment, the present building having replaced an earlier struc- 

236 County Families of 

ture ; a picture of it with its swinging signboard has, however, been 
happily preserved, and may be still seen in the inn parlour. 

George Warburton, who inherited the estates, was a year younger 
than his brother Peter. He married, in 1649, a daughter of Sir 
Thomas Myddelton, of Chirk, in Denbighshire, a grandson of Sir 
Thomas, Lord Mayor of London, the brother of the celebrated 
Hugh Myddelton, projector of the New River. Though living in 
troubled times, when the blast of discontent had swept over the 
country, and stern and staunch enthusiasts were preparing them- 
selves for the struggle that was to determine whether the monarchical 
or the democratic estate of the kingdom should possess the ruling 
power, George Warburton seems to have lacked the spirit of energy 
and martial enterprise which distinguished his forefathers. Mr. 
Beamont describes him as a passive rather than an active partisan 
in the civil commotions of those critical times. It was well for his 
descendants that he held aloof from the strife then being waged, for 
his passiveness enabled him to keep the estates together and escape 
the penalties and exactions he would have been subjected to had he 
shown any active zeal in the cause, either of the Cavaliers or the 
Roundheads. His leanings, however, were on the side of the 
Parliament party. John Ley, the energetic Puritan divine, who 
represented Cheshire in the Westminster Assembly in 1643, was 
then, and had been for more then thirty years, vicar of Budworth, 
and it is not unlikely that he exercised a powerful influence over the 
mind of the young squire of Arley, and may have indoctrinated him 
with the Presbyterian principles which he professed. 

In 1650 Mr. Warburton had the misfortune to lose his wife, who 
had borne him two sons, Peter and George, and four daughters. 
She was buried in the family vault at Great Budworth, in the 
register of which church the interment is thus recorded : 

August, 1650, 3 (rd day). Elizabeth ux George Warburton de Arley, Esq. 

The obsequies were of a stately character, as befitted the social 
status of the deceased lady. Plumes and pennons floated in the 
breeze ; the hearse on which the body lay was covered with 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 237 

black, and the horses drawing it were resplendent with armorial 
escutcheons, on which the three cormorants and the ostrich-plumed 
Saracen's head of the Warburtons were conspicuous ; foot-boys 
walked by the side ; and a procession followed, arranged in cere- 
monious order according to seniority of birth, rank, and relation- 
ship ; and, to add to the effect, Randle Holmes, the Chester herald, 
was present, doubtless caparisoned in his surcoat and tabard, and 
rivalling in the splendour of his heraldic blazonry the king-of-arms 
himself. In the Harleian MSS. (2129) there is preserved a curious 
description of the funeral, of which the following is a copy : 

Order of Mrs. Worberton of Arley funerall from Sutton to great 
budworth church in August 1650 

Randle Holme Junr. 
Jo. Jones. Mr. Grouenors grome and \Vm. Robinson. 

Mr. Phillips. Mr. Couper. 

Mr. Midleton. Mr. Prichard. 

Mr. Arnold Drinkwater the penon of Armes. 

Mr. Walter Edwards. Mr. Robert Worberton. 

Mr. Iloyd, precher. Mr. Holme Herald. 
the body on a co(a)ch the horses coured (covered) wth black <S: escutions 

on them. 
a foote boy on eich side the body. 

Lady Midleton her mother alone. 

Mrs. Grosuenor. Mrs. Anne Midleton. 

Mrs. Sara Midleton. ould Mrs. Worberton. 

Mrs. Swanock (Swanwick). Mrs. Hainan. 

Mrs. Dauis. Mrs. Margaret Parry. 
Mrs. Euans (Evans). Ellen Sutton. 

Mr. Worberton alone. 

Sir Tho. Midleton. Mr. Rogr. Grosuenor. 

Mr. Tho. Midleton. Mr. Jo. Egerton her vnkell. 

Mr. Jo. Worberton. Mr. Tho. Worberton. 
Mr. Geo. Worberton. Mr. Tho. Worberton. 

of Hill cliffs. 
Gentrey of kindred not in black 

A year or two afterwards George Warburton took to himself a 
second wife in the person of Diana, second daughter of Sir Edward 
Bishop, of Parham, county Sussex, Bart., by whom he had issue 
five sons and eight daughters, making in all a family of nineteen 

238 County Families of 

children. In 1654 he was appointed by the Cromwellian Govern- 
ment to the shrievalty of the county ; though his sympathies had 
been with the popular party, like many other Presbyterians, he 
looked with disfavour on the excesses committed by the Indepen- 
dents when they gained the ascendancy, and was not unwilling to see 
the restoration of monarchy, though he took no active part in the 
movement which brought about that event. Shortly after the 
recall of the King he was (June 27th, 1660) raised to the dignity of 
a baronet, an honour that was bestowed more as a reward for 
moneys he had advanced to the Government than as an acknow- 
ledgment of political services rendered. The feeling of prejudice 
against some of his Royalist neighbours seems to have been cherished 
long years after, for when the sturdy cavalier, Sir Peter Leycester, 
was collecting materials for his History of Bucklmv Hundred, in 
which Arley is situate, Sir George refused his request for informa- 
tion, an act of discourtesy that the learned Cheshire antiquary thus 
puts on record : " Here should follow the descent of Warburton, of 
Arley ; but Sir George Warburton denied me the perusal of his 
evidences, so as it could not exactly be performed ; wherefore I have 
omitted the same." 

Before his decease Sir George Warburton arranged a marriage 
between the eldest son of his second marriage, Thomas Warburton, 
born in 1655, with Anne, second daughter of Sir Robert Williams, 
of Pcnrhyn, Bart., who eventually became co-heir to her brothers, 
and as a provision he settled upon him the Wynnington estate, 
which had been acquired by an ancestor on marriage with the 
heiress of that house in the reign of Henry VIII. The issue of the 
marriage was George, a general in the army, who inherited the 
Wynnington property ; Anne, maid of honour successively to Queen 
Anne and Caroline, Queen of George II., and afterwards wife of 
John, Uuke of Argyll and Greenwich, the distinguished soldier and 
statesman, whom Pope immortalised 

Argyll, the State's whole thunder born to wield, 
And shake alike the senate and the field ; 

Mary, who married Thomas Swettenham; and several other sons 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 239 

and daughters. Hugh, the eldest son, married Susanna, daughter 
and co-heir of Edward Norreys, of Speke, by whom he had an only 
daughter, Anne Susanna, who conveyed the Manor of Wynnington 
in marriage to Richard Pennant, of Penrhyn Castle, created Baron 
Penrhyn of the kingdom of Ireland, but there being no issue of the 
marriage the estate was after her death (January i, 1816) sold to 
Sir John Thomas Stanley, of Alderley, whose eldest son and 
successor, the late Lord Stanley of Alderley, in Ma}', 1839, sold 
the hall and park to Messrs. Brunner and others. 

Sir George Warburton died May i8th, 1676, in the fifty-first year 
of his age, and was buried by the side of his ancestors at Hudworth, 
where a mural monument was erected by his widow, with a long 
inscription, and a somewhat extravagant epitaph in verse. The 
lines, which are too lengthy for insertion here, having excited 
criticism on account of their warmth and singularity of expression, 
were in the latter half of the last century erased from the slab, but 
they have since been restored. Lady Diana survived her husband 
seventeen years, and remained unmarried during the whole of that 
period; she died March 151)1, 1693, and was buried at St. John's, 
Chester, where there is an altar-tomb to her memory with the 
figure of a skeleton holding a scroll on which her epitaph is inscribed, 
and where also three of her daughters, Frances, Elizabeth, and 
Christiania, who all died unmarried, are interred. 

Sir George Warburton was succeeded in the baronetcy by the 
eldest son of his first marriage, Peter Warburton, who also inherited 
the Warburton and Arley estates. He married Martha, daughter 
and heiress of Thomas Dockwra, of Putteridge, in Herefordshire, 
and at his decease left, with other issue, George, his heir, and 
Thomas. George, who succeeded as third baronet, represented 
Chester in Parliament in the reigns of Anne and George I. ; he 
married Diana, daughter of William, second Lord Allington, by 
whom he had a son, Dockwra, who died in infancy, and a daughter, 
named after her mother, who in 1724 became the wife of Sir 
Richard Grosvenor, of Eaton. Sir George died June 2gth (June 
3oth, according to the Gentleman's Magazine), 1743, and, having 

240 County Families of 

no surviving issue, he was succeeded in the honours and estates 
by his nephew Peter, the only son of his next brother, Thomas 
Warburton, by his second wife, Anne, daughter of William 
Dockwra, of London. This Sir Peter married, February 27th, 
1745, the Lady Elizabeth Stanley, eldest daughter of Edward, 
Earl of Derby, popularly known as " Lady Betty," and the lady to 
whom John Byrom addressed some pleasant verses on the occasion 
of her presenting him with the moiety of a lottery ticket. It may 
also be mentioned that it was to her Mrs. Raffald, the " great 
female lawgiver and benefactor " of Manchester, as Mr. Harland 
styled her, who taught our great grandmothers the art of cookery, 
and placed the town of her adoption under an obligation by the 
publication of its first directory in 1772, dedicated her Experienced 
English Housekeeper* Sir Peter, during his lifetime, made some 
important alterations in the house at Arley ; the old black and 
white halt-timbered building a quadrangular structure that had 
been at one time encircled by a moat was cased with brick, a new 
drawing-room was added, and other improvements made. As 
previously stated, this house was taken down in 1833 to make way 
for the present mansion ; during the work of demolition the founda- 
tion stones of Sir Peter's erection were dug up, when the date, 1758, 
was found inscribed with the following line from Virgil : 

Stet fortuna domus et avi numerentur avorum ! 
May fortune o'er this house uphold, 
And long ancestral lines be told. 

The wish thus expressed, as we shall see, was not fully realised. Sir 
Peter died November 27, 1776, at the age of sixty-seven, having 
had issue by his wife, who survived him four years, an only son 
bearing the same baptismal name, and four daughters, three of 
whom, Elizabeth, Anne, and Margaret, died unmarried; Harriet, 
the fourth, married, in 1773, John, son of John Rowlls, of Kingston, 
Surrey, who in 1781 took the additional name of Legh on 

* Mrs. Raffald, nie Elizabeth Whitaker, was for many years housekeeper 
at Warburton, where her husband, John Raffald, before their marriage in 
1763, was employed as head -gardener. 

Lancashire and Cheshire, 241 

succeeding as heir to the estates of Charles Legh, of Adlington, in 
Prestbury parish ; Emma, the youngest daughter, became the wife 
of James Croxton, of Norley, who died August 7, 1792, and 
re-married, in 1800, John Hunt. 

Peter Warburton, who succeeded as fifth baronet, was born 
October 27th 1754. He married Alice, daughter of the Rev. John 
Parker, of Astle, in Cheshire, and of Breightmet, in Lancashire, but 
had no issue; he died May i4th, 1813, and was buried at Bud- 
worth, thus terminating the male line of this ancient family, the 
baronetcy expiring with him. Under the will the Manor of War- 
burton-with-Arley and the other estates were vested in trustees for 
the use of his grand-nephew, Rowland-Eyles Egerton, son of the 
Rev. Rowland Egerton, of the Oulton stock, by his wife, Emma, 
sole daughter and heiress of James Croxton, of Norley, and of her 
mother, Emma, daughter of Sir Peter Warburton. Mr. Rowland- 
Eyles Egerton, who was born September 14, 1804, on succeeding 
to the estates of his great uncle, Sir Peter Warburton, assumed the 
additional surname and arms of Warburton by royal licence. He 
received his education at Eton and at Corpus-Christi, Oxford, 
and in the later years of his life has been distinguished by his 
literary ability and cultivated taste ; he is also favourably known as 
the author of the Cheshire Hunting Songs, a work that has gone 
through several editions: Arley in Idleness, Poems, Epigrams, and 
Sonnets, and other volumes of verse. In 1833 he served the office 
of sheriff of his county, and in the same year he began the erection 
of the present hall at Arley, completing it in 1842, when he placed 
over the doorway in the entrance porch the following inscription : 

This gate is free to all good men and true, 
Right welcome thou if worthy to pass through. 

Mr. Egerton-Warburton married May 7th, 1831, Mary, eldest 
daughter of Sir Richard Brooke, of Norton Priory, Bart., by whom 
he has, with other issue, Piers Egerton-Warburton, his heir, born 
May 22, 1839, who for several years represented Mid-Cheshire in 

3 1 



the western borders of rocky Cumberland, where 
the salt breezes sweep with invigorating fresh- 
ness from across the tumbling waves, and the 
sandstone cliffs are washed by the restless main, is 
the quaint little fishing port of Harrington, or 
Haverington, as it was written in bygone times; it lies nearly 
midway between Workington and Whitehaven, and within sight of 
the lofty headland that runs far out into the deep, and under the 
shadow of which, more than twelve centuries ago, the saintly Beza 
and her sisterhood established their little oratory 

When Beza sought of yore the Cumbrian Coast, 
Tempestuous winds her holy passage cross'd ; 
She knelt in prayer the waves their wrath appease ; 
And from her vow, well weigh'd in Heaven's decrees, 
Rose where she touch'd the strand the chantry of St. Bees. 

Though but a small place, Harrington possesses considerable 
historic interest, and long before the reign of the first Edward had 
given name to a race of sturdy warriors, who through several 
generations played a high game in the most important affairs of the 
nation as well as of the county, and bore themselves bravely on 
many a well-fought field the Harringtons of Harrington, in 
Cumberland, and of Aldingham, Gleaston Castle, Wraysholme 
Tower, Hornby Castle, Arnside Tower, Farleton, Witherslack, and 
other places in Lancashire. Allied by marriage with the most 
powerful houses in the land, and boasting the bluest blood in the 

County Families of Lancashire, &c. 243 

shire, it is worthy of note that there never was but one Lord 
Harrington of the stock, though, as Wright, in his History of 
Rutlandshire, observes, "there have been nearly allied to or 
descended from this great family of Harrington three dukes, three 
marquises, thirty-one earls, seven counts, twenty-nine viscounts, and 
thirty-seven barons, sixteen of these being Knights of the Garter." 

The first of the name who appears to have owned lands in Lanca- 
shire was Robert de Haverington, or Haryngton, of Harrington, 
who in the latter half of the thirteenth century married Agnes, 
daughter of Sir Richard 
Cancefield, lord of Cancefield, 
or Cantsfield with Farlton, in 
the parish of Tunstall, in 
Lonsdale Hundred, by his wife 
Alice, or Alina, daughter of 
William le Fleming, lord of 
Aldingham, an ancient Saxon 
manor in Furness, on the 
western shore of Morecambe 
Bay, and who in 1273 
acquired the lordship of 
Aldingham, which had come 
into his hands in right of his 

wife on the deaths of her two "Xs^/ W 

brothers, John and William Arms f f 11 a;,, K to,,, 

Cancefield, both of whom died in their minority, and while in 
ward of the abbot of Furness. 


The Flemings, from whom these Lancashire estates were 
inherited, had been in possession of Aldingham almost from the 
time of the Conquest. One of them, Michael Flandrensis, or le 
Fleming a military adventurer who came to England out of 
Flanders is said to have been in the retinue of Duke William of 
Normandy, and to have taken part in the struggle on the red field 

244 Cotmty Families of 

of Senlac, where the last of the Saxon kings fell, and Battle Abbey 
arose to tell the tale of the great victory which formed the turning 
point in England's history. When the Conqueror had established 
bis position, he rewarded his faithful follower with a grant of the 
Manor of Aldingham, of which the Saxon thegn, Ernulf, had 
previously been dispossessed. Some of the older historians repre- 
sent Michael le Fleming as being alive in 1153, but this is hardly 
likely, for if he was old enough to take an active part in the fight 
at Hastings, in 1066, we can scarcely suppose him to have been 
living so long afterwards, and the more reasonable conjecture is 
that there were two or three successive representatives of the stock 
who bore the same baptismal appellation. In 1126-7, when 
Stephen, Earl of Boulogne, afterwards King of England, founded 
the great Abbey of Furness, and bestowed upon its abbot almost 
regal privileges, the lands of Michael le Fleming, as we learn from 
the Black Book of the Exchequer, were specially exempted from the 
exercise of the privileges claimed by the head of that powerful 
ecclesiastical establishment. A part of his lands Ros and Crim- 
leton lay in the midst of the abbey estates, and these he subse- 
quently exchanged with the fraternity for Bardsea and Urswick, 
which adjoined his own property. He was a benefactor to the 
foundation, and in 1153, when John de Cancefield was abbot, 
bestowed upon it the estate of Fordeboc, or Fordebotle, a place that 
is supposed to mark the spot at which one of the over-sands routes 
crossed the freshwater channel running down into Morecambe Bay. 
Michael le Fleming had three sons William, who inherited 
Aldingham ; Richard, who married Elizabeth, daughter and 
eventually heiress of Adam de Urswick, by which union he acquired, 
with other possessions, the Manor of Coniston, Coniston Hall thence- 
forward becoming the principal residence of this branch of the 
family, and so continuing until the reign of Henry IV., when a 
descendant, Thomas le Fleming, married Isabel, one of the four 
daughters and co-heirs of Sir John de Lancaster, with whom he 
acquired the Manor of Rydal ; from this marriage the Flemings of 
Rydal deduce their descent, and until recent times Rydal and 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 245 

Coniston have vied with each other to fix the family in Westmore- 
land or Lancashire. Daniel, the third son of Michael Fleming, 
was a cleric, and is stated in Dr. Keurden's MSS., in the Chatham 
Library, to have been presented to the rectory of Urswick by John 
(Cancefield), abbot of Furness, in whom the advowson was then 
vested. A daughter, Goditha le Fleming, became the wife of 
William, son of Edward (de Scales ?), and had lands in Adgarley 
and Urswick given with her in dower. 

William, the eldest son of Michael le Fleming, married Alice, 
daughter of Thomas, son of Gospatric of Galloway, by whom he 
had a son, Michael, who had to wife Agatha, daughter of Henry, 
Lord Ravensworth, and who succeeded his father as lord of 
Aldingham. He does not appear to have got on very comfortably 
with his religious neighbours, who looked with longing eyes upon 
his possessions, and coveted mastery of the whole peninsula of 
Furness. Shortly after the accession of Henry III. we find the 
abbot paying a fine of 400 marks to the King to have the confir- 
mation of Stephen's charters, " and to have the homage and service 
of Michael le Fleming for all the land which he held of the King 
for ten pounds yearly." Precepts were sent to Michael to give the 
abbot seisin of the said homage and service ; and, moreover, the 
King granted to the abbot to demand aids from his vassals and 
freemen to pay the fine in question. Michael le Fleming naturally 
objected to the lowering of his social status from a tenant in capitc 
to that of a vassal of the abbot of Furness, and in the following year 
petitioned the King, who issued a writ to the sheriff to make 
inquiry into the circumstances, " because," as the document set 
forth, " we have been given to understand by our faithful, that we 
have been deceived in the concession which we made to the abbot 
of Furness, of the homage and service of Michael Flandrensis." The 
sheriff, after investigation, reported to the King the loss that would 
accrue to him through the transfer. But the abbot was not to be 
thwarted in his aims. Ater some delay he succeeded in obtaining 
a confirmation of the transfer, though, as the Chartulary of Furness 
states, the acquisition cost him .1,500 altogether, and he had, 

246 County Families of 

moreover, to consent to considerable immunities to his powerful 

Michael le Fleming was succeeded by his son William, who was 
in turn followed by another Michael, who appears to have died 
young, having unfortunately been drowned in the Leven about the 
year 1269, leaving a widow, Alina, but no issue. Among the rights 
of manorial lordship in those days was the disposal of the hand and 
fortune of the widows of vassals, and consequently Alina Fleming 
found herself a chattel at the disposal of the abbot of Furness, who 
in 1277 had a writ issued to him by the King for the marriage of 
" Alina, who was the wife of Michael de Furneys " * to Laurence 
de St. Mor. The manor, however, passed to the next heir of the 
blood, Alice, sister of Michael le Fleming, who conveyed it in 
marriage to Sir Richard Cancefield, Knight, lord of Cancefield and 
Farlton. She survived her husband, and her name occurs during 
her widowhood as confirming a grant of lands to the Abbey of 
Cockersand. The issue of the marriage was two sons, John and 
William, and a daughter, Agnes. John, the eldest son, who 
succeeded, married, but died childless, when the inheritance fell to 
his brother William, who was a minor at the time, and a ward of 
ihe abbot of Furness, who 'in right of his wardship entered into 
possession of the manor. The feeling of hostility entertained by the 
lords of Aldingham towards the fraternity at Furness, though it had 
slumbered for a time, was manifested with renewed vigour by the 
youthful heir to the estates, and it is recorded that William Cance- 
field, with the aid of several of his friends, summarily ejected the 
representative of the abbot from the possession of his lands, for 
which offence the sheriff was directed to seize the manor and deliver 
it into the custody of the abbot until the offender should be of age, 
which was accordingly done. He appears to have attained his 
majority in 1292, in which year he made proof of his title to the 
various manorial rights. He married, but, like his elder brother, 
he had no issue, and at his death the estates passed to his sister, 

* The Flemings were not unfrequently known by the name of Furneys, 
or Furness, from the district in which their lordship was situated. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 


then married to Robert de Haryngton, who, in his wife's right, 
became lord of Aldingham, and in this way the Haryngtons first 
connected themselves with Lancashire. 


Robert de Haryngton, who married the sister and heiress of 
William Cancefield, and in her right became possessed of the Manor 


of Aldingham and the other lands in Lancashire which had been 
held by the Flemings from the time of their first settlement in this 
country in the Conqueror's reign, had issue two sons John, who 
ultimately succeeded as heir, and Michael, who, in 8 Edward II. 
(1314-15), had a grant of freewarren in Alinthwaite the present 

248 County Families of 

Allithwaite in Cartmel parish, which included Wraysholme and 
the tower of that name, an embattled keep or peel, still existing, 
though in a ruinous state, which guarded the estuary of the Kent 
and the northern shore of Morecambe Bay, and which, according 
to tradition, was erected in the twelfth century by William Mare- 
schall, Earl of Pembroke, on the site of a Danish stronghold. 
Whether this Michael married and founded a line is not clear, but 
if he did it must have soon become extinct, for the Tower of Wrays- 
holme eventually passed to the descendants of his elder brother. 
In addition to these sons, Robert Haryngton had a daughter, 
Elizabeth, who married William, son and heir of Edward Neville, 
of Liversedge. 

John Haryngton, who succeeded as heir to his father, Robert, was 
a minor in 1291 ; he had summons to Parliament as a baron from 
the 1 8th Edward II. (1324-5) to his death, and in 1340 obtained a 
licence to make a park within his Manor of Aldingham. He died 
21 Edward II. (1347), leaving issue by his wife, Juliana, daughter 
of Richard Berlingham, two sons Robert, his heir, and Sir John 
Haryngton, who settled at Farleton, in Melling parish, and married 
Katharine, sole daughter and heir of her father, Sir Adam Bannister, 
Knight, who was beheaded in 1315, and fourth daughter and co-heir 
of her mother, Margaret, sister of Sir Robert de Holland, father of 
the first Lord Holland, founder of the Priory of Up-Holland, in 
Lancashire, which Katharine was nurse to Philippa, Queen of 
Edward III. Of the descendants of Sir John Haryngton and his 
wife Katharine* we shall have occasion to speak hereafter ; mean- 
while we may turn to the elder brother, Sir Robert. He married 
Isabel Loring, and by her had two sons, John and William. John, 
the eldest, married, but died without surviving issue February nth, 
1418. In the year following his death an inquisition was taken, 
when he was found to have died seised of the Manor of Aldingham, 
with the advowson of the Church of Aldingham, which he held 

* In some of the pedigrees Sir John Haryngton is said to have married 
Katharine, daughter of Sir Robert Sherburne, of the Stonyhurst stock. It 
is not improbable that he was twice married. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 249 

subject to certain services under the Abbot and Convent of the 
Blessed Mary of Furness. His wife Elizabeth survived him, and, 
as appears by an entry on the Chancery Rolls of the Duchy of 
Lancaster, the assignment of dower grants to her, with other 
premises, the meadow called the Calfecar and Bradyng, towards the 
rectory of Aldingham, the motegarth described as " quoddam p'm 
clausum vocat' le motegarth infra situm man'ii de Aldynham," and 
a third part of the Church of Aldingham. Sir William Haryngton, 
his brother, who was then twenty-six years of age and upwards, 
was found to be the next heir. He is believed to have been the 
builder of the Castle of Gleaston, now a picturesque ivy-mantled 
ruin, charmingly situated in a valley running seawards, about a 
mile and a half from the Church of Aldyngham, and which is 
traditionally said to have been erected after the destruction of the 
older residence of the family by the encroachment of the sea. 
Preserved among the Duchy of Lancaster charters is a deed, from 
Robert, abbot of St. Mary and the Convent of Furness, granting to 
him and his wife, Margaret, a right of way from and to (lleaston 
Castle and the Manor of Aldingham over the abbey lands up to 
Barray, &c. A memento of the two is preserved in the matin bell 
still hanging in the tower of the neighbouring Parish Church of 
Urswick, which bears the following inscription in decorated 
characters : 


i" SElilchnus be |)arjingtou bomhras be gjbjmcjljam 
et Jflargareia uvor rjus, 

which must, consequently, be about 450 years old. Sir William 
Haryngton must have died some time before the year 1460, for an 
entry on the Close Roll, under date sth February, 38 Henry VI. 
(1459-60), shows that Thomas Nicoll, rector of Aldingham, John 
Haryngton, clerk, Roger Bethum, Esq., and John Forton, were 
executors of the will of William de Haryngton, " Nup. D'ni de 
Aldingham al's diet. nup. d'ni de Haryngton." Lcland, writing in 
the time of Henry VIII., says (Itinerary, v. viii., p. 94) he "was 

250 County Families of 

slayne bello civili betwixt Kynge Henry the VI. and Edwarde the 
4, whos wife the Lord Hastinges that was behedid by Richard 
Duke of Gloscester in the Tour of London did marie." 

The only issue was a daughter, Elizabeth, who conveyed the 
ancestral lands in marriage to William, Lord Bonville, of Chuton, 
by whom she had a son, named after his father, who succeeded as 
next heir, and took the title of Lord Haryngton, but did not long 
enjoy possession of his estates, being numbered among those who 
fell fighting under the standard of the White Rose at Wakefield 
Green on that memorable 315! of December, 1460, a day fatal to 
the House of York, and scarcely less fatal to the victorious Lancas- 
trians, for the barbarities there perpetrated by the Black-faced 
Clifford were repaid with tenfold vengeance at Towton, a few 
months later. 


Lord Haryngton left an only daughter and heiress, Cecilia, wife 
of Thomas Grey, first Marquis of Dorset, son of John, Lord Grey, 
of Groby, and Elizabeth Wydville, afterwards Queen of Edward IV. 
She appears to have been his second wife, and was by him the 
mother of fourteen children. To him passed the Manors of Alding- 
ham and Mychelland, or Muchland as it is now called, with the 
other territorial estates of the Haryngtons, and at his death, April 
loth, 1501, they descended to the eldest surviving son, Thomas 
Grey, the second marquis, Knight of the Garter, who had the 
honour of carrying the Sword of State on the occasion of the meeting 
of Henry VIII. and Francis I. at Andren " The Field of the 
Cloth of Gold" in 1520, with a display of magnificence on the 
part of the English Court that might challenge any rivalry 

To-day the French 

All clinquant, all in gold, like heathen gods, 
Shone down the English ; and, to-morrow, they 
Made Britain, India : every man that stood 
Show'd like a mine.* 

* Henry VIII., Act I, Scene i. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 251 

He married Margaret, daughter of Sir Robert Wotton, Knight, and 
by her had four sons Henry, who inherited the honours and 
estates; Thomas, who was beheaded in 1555 for his participation in 
the rising of Sir Thomas Wyat, and died childless ; Leonard, 
beheaded in 1521, who was also issueles;; and John, who married 
Mary, daughter of Sir Anthony Brown, K.G., from whom descended 
the Lords Grey, of Groby, Barons Delamere, of Dunham Massey, 
and Earls of Stamford and Warrington. 

Henry Grey, the eldest son, who succeeded as third Marquis of 
Dorset on the death of his father, October loth, 1530, was twice 
married, his second wife being the Lady Frances, eldest daughter 
and co-heir of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, by Mary, Queen- 
dowager of France, sister of Henry VIII., in recognition of which 
alliance he was, by the favour of Edward VI., created Duke of 
Suffolk. The issue of the marriage was three daughters, the eldest 
of whom was the unfortunate Lady Jane Grey, wife of the equally 
unfortunate Lord Guilford Dudley, who, by the intrigues of her 
father-in-law, the Duke of Northumberland, was proclaimed Queen 
on the death of Edward VI. the most charming of all usurpers, the 
unwilling instrument for the ambition of a few. Both she and her 
husband were beheaded February i2th, 1554 "the Black Mon- 
day," as Strype calls the day the one on the green against the 
White Tower, and the other on Tower Hill ; and eleven days after 
the tragedy had been completed Lady Jane's father, the Duke of 
Suffolk, was brought to the block. Of the two other daughters, the 
elder, Lady Catharine Grey, was married on the same day as her 
sister Jane, to Lord Herbert, eldest son of the time-serving Earl of 
Pembroke, who afterwards, to suit his political purposes, repudiated 
her, and obtained a divorce. After this short-lived and perhaps 
uncompleted union was dissolved, the high-born but unhappy lady 
remained in neglect and obscurity until 1560, when she was secretly 
united in marriage with Edward Seymour, son of the " Protector "' 
Somerset, who Elizabeth had created Baron Beauchamp and Earl 
of Hertford. Her degree of relationship to the Queen was not so 
near as to render her marriage without the royal consent illegal, 

252 County Families of 

but, by a stretch of authority familiar to the Tudors, she was, when 
her pregnancy was discovered, sent prisoner to the Tower, and her 
husband committed there also as the seducer of a maiden of the 
royal blood, and the child of which she was delivered, which died 
in infancy, was declared to be illegitimate. The birth of a second 
child, the fruit of stolen meetings between the captive pair, which 
Warner, the lieutenant of the Tower, had connived at, aggravated 
in the jealous eyes of Elizabeth their common guilt. The ill-starred 
lady died a prisoner in the Tower, January, 1567, and her husband 
remained in confinement there for nine years, and was sentenced in 
the Star Chamber to a fine of ,15,000. The second child, named 
after his father, survived and had a son, Sir William Seymour, who 
succeeded his grandfather as Earl of Hertford and Baron Beau- 
champ. With the titles he seems also to have inherited the weak- 
nesses of his progenitor, for in the reign of James I. he incurred 
the royal displeasure by marrying without the sovereign's consent 
the Lady Arabella Stuart, first cousin to the King, and was in 
consequence obliged to fly the kingdom, while the unfortunate 
lady was committed prisoner to the Tower, where she died 
September 27, 1615. In the succeeding reign the earl returned to 
England, and, distinguishing himself in the Civil Wars on the Royalist 
side, was received into the favour of Charles, and restored to the 
Dukedom of Somerset. He married for his second wife the Lady 
Erances Devereux, eldest daughter of the accomplished but ill-fated 
Earl of Essex, and from this union descends the present Duke of 
Somerset. The youngest daughter of Henry, third Marquis of 
Dorset, was the Lady Mary Grey. She married Martin Keys, a 
Kentish squire, who held the office of sergeant-porter to Queen 
Elizabeth, but died childless in 1578. 

By the attainder of the Marquis of Dorset, in 1554, the estates in 
Lancashire, which he had inherited from the senior line of the 
Haryngtons, became forfeited to the Crown, and parts were 
dismembered by James I. and Charles I. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 253 


As previously stated, the senior line of the Haryngtons failed in 
the male descent on the death of Sir William (circa 1460), whose 
only daughter and heiress married Lord Bonville, of Chuton, the 
name being thenceforward continued by the descendants of Sir John 
Haryngton, who settled at Farleton, in Melling, and married 
Katharine, daughter of Sir Adam Bannister, the issue of the marriage 
being a son, Nicholas Haryngton, who, by his wife, Isabella, 
daughter of Sir William English, Knight, had three sons William, 
who succeeded as heir ; James, who married Ellen, daughter of 
Thomas de Urswick, and founded the lines of Haryngton, of Wol- 
fage and Brixworth, in Northamptonshire, of whom anon ; anil 
Nicholas, who married Margaret, daughter and heir of Thomas 
Lathom, lord of Huyton, near 1'rescot, and in her right became 
lord of Huyton. In addition to the three sons, Nicholas Haryng- 
ton had a daughter, Elizabeth, who became the wife of the second 
Sir John Stanley, of the great House of Lathom, and was grand- 
mother of the famous Lord Stanley who placed the crown upon the 
head of the victorious Henry of Richmond, on the field of Bosworth. 

William Haryngton, who succeeded to the Farleton estates on 
the death of his father, early distinguished himself in arms ; he 
became a Knight of the Garter, and shared in the glories of Agin- 
court on that ever-memorable St. Crispin's Day, 1415, when he 
served as standard-bearer. Dr. Whitaker says that he fell mortally 
wounded in the battle, but in this the learned historian is in error, 
for in 1419 he was with the English army before Rouen, taking 
part in the siege, during which he was severely wounded, and was 
doubtless present at the surrender of the city, when, as the bard 

The viii day the trouthe to telle 

In the fest of Sir Wolstan that day befelle, 

And this was upon a Thorisday, 

Oure Kynge thanne in good aray, 

Full rialliche in his estate, 

As a conqueror there he sate, 


County Families of 

With ynne an hous of charite, 

To resseyve the keye of that cite, 

Mounsr. Guy the Botillere, 

And burgesses of that cite in fere, 

To the Kynge the keyes they brought, 

And of legeance hym besought. 

In a pane of glass in one of the windows at Wraysholme Tower 
the initials of this William Harrington are represented Q (the 
equivalent of \V) H with the frets or knots of the Harringtons 
above and below. 

Sir William married Margaret, daughter of Sir William Neville, 
K.(l., lord of the Manor and Castle of Hornby, the head of a 
younger branch of the Nevilles of Raby, afterwards Earls of West- 
moreland. This lady became co-heir and was next in succession 
to her niece, Margaret Neville, wife of 
Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter ; the Honor 
of Hornby, on the death of the duke, who out- 
lived his wife, becoming vested in Sir William 
Haryngton in right of his wife, and Sir John 
l.angton, cousin of Lady Haryngton. Sub- 
sequently (1433) a deed of partition was 
executed whereby Hornby became the property 
of the Haryngtons. Sir William Haryngton 
died in 1450, and his wife Margaret appears 
to have deceased about the same time. They left issue one son, Sir 
Thomas Haryngton, and fourdaughters, of whom Margaret, theeldest, 
was, on the i2th November, 13 Henry IV. (1411), and while yet an 
infant, contracted in marriage by her father to John, son and heir 
apparent of Sir William Fitz John le Boteler, eleventh baron of 
Warrington, then a child of nine years, the young couple having 
certain estates of the Botelers in Wiltshire, Essex, and Bedfordshire 
bestowed upon them as a marriage portion. Agnes, the second 
daughter, became the wife of Alexander Radcliffe, of Ordsall ; she 
was ancestress of the long and knightly line of Radcliffe of Ordsall, 
now represented by Charles James Radclyffe, of Foxdenton and 
Hyde, Esquire, and, surviving her husband, died in 1490. Margaret, 

Initials ofll'illiam 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 255 

another daughter, married Richard Bradhull, or Braddyll, of Brad- 
hull and Brockholes, in Lancashire ; and Ellen, the youngest 
became the wife of Sir Richard Molyneux, of Sefton. 


From the time of the partition of the Neville estates, in 1433, the 
fortified stronghold of Hornby, which from its rocky aerie com- 
mands the whole valley of the Lune, became the principal residence 
of the Haryngtons, who kept up a state and dignity worthy of its 
former owners, the Montbegons, the Lungvillers, and the Nevilles. 
In the long and bloody struggle between the rival Houses of York 
and Lancaster, which destroyed the flower of the English nobility 
and impoverished and well-nigh exhausted the country, the Haryng- 
tons of Hornby and Farleton plucked the maiden blossom and cast 
in their lot on the side of the White Rose. Sir William Haryngton, 
the hero of Agincourt and Rouen, was then sleeping his last sleep, 
and his son, Sir Thomas, had succeeded to the lordship of Hornby 
as well as of Farleton. He had married in his father's lifetime 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas, son of Edmunde de Dacre, of 
Halton, near Lancaster, lord of Dacre, in Cumberland, and he had 
then a son, Sir John Haryngton, who had arrived at man's estate 
and had married Matilda, a daughter of Thomas, Lord Clifford. 
In 1460, when Margaret of Anjou, Henry's Queen, refused to 
abide by the compromise the " meek usurper " had made, which 
set aside the claim of her son to the Crown, she took up arms, 
summoned the supporters of the Lancastrian cause, and marched 
northwards. On hearing of the movement, Sir Thomas Haryngton 
called out his retainers and dependents, and he and his son, Sir 
John, with their kinsman, Lord Haryngton, of Aldingham, at the 
head of the gallant Lancashire lads, set out to join the Yorkist 
forces. The rival factions met on Wakefield Green on the 3ist 
December, when the army of the White Rose was suddenly attacked 
by a force greatly exceeding it in numbers, and completely routed. 
In the struggle Sir Thomas Haryngton was mortally wounded, and 
died next day ; his son, Sir John, fell gallantly fighting by his side ; 

256 County Families of 

and his relative, William, Lord Haryngton, shared the same fate. 
Drayton, in his Queen Margaref, and Shakespeare as well, have 
told of thi butcher-work that was done on that fatal day, and how 
the " victorious queene," the haughty Margaret of Anjou, in the 
insolence of her short-lived triumph, gave the order to strike off the 
head of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, and place it on the 
highest turret of the Micklegate Bar- 
Off with his head, and set it on York gates, 
So York may overlook the town of York. 

Dr. Whitaker records that when the sad news reached Hornby 
that Sir Thomas Haryngton and his son, Sir John, had both fallen 
in that bloody encounter, the widow of Sir Thomas withdrew to her 
daughter for consolation; but her son's widow a sister of the Black- 
faced Clifford, who, according to tradition, in the madness of party 
rage had committed such horrible barbarities upon the battlefield 
partaking, as it would seem, her brother's callous nature, remained 
at home, and expressed herself as "at leisure to attend to business." 

The other sons of Sir Thomas Haryngton the younger brothers 
of Sir John were Sir James Haryngton, of Brierley, in Yorkshire, 
who had Farlcton, Himsworth, and other properties settled upon 
him by his father. He was a staunch Yorkist, and was the means of 
discovering the ill-fated Henry VI. in his hiding place at Wadding- 
ton Hall, in Mitton-Magna, on the Yorkshire border. He fought on 
the side of King Richard at Bosworth, and immediately on the 
accession of Henry VII., when the attainders were reversed, his 
estates were confiscated; but his warlike spirit was not subdued, for 
two years later he was involved in the rising under the pretender, 
Lambert Simnel. He married Joan, daughter of John Neville, of 
Oversley, in Warwickshire, and by her had a son, John Haryngton, 
who, according to popular belief, was poisoned while a prisoner at 
Temple Bar, through the influence of Sir Edward Stanley, who had 
married his cousin, and in this way, as it was said, sought to 
prevent his succession to the Hornby estates. Dr. Whitaker 
concurs in the belief, but it must be confessed that there is a good 
deal in the documentary evidence extant to refute the idea. The 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 257 

other son, Sir Robert Haryngton, was also a Yorkist ; he fought at 
Bosvvorth, and, with his brother, was attainted. He married 
Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir of William Balderstone, and by her 
had, in addition to a daughter, Jane, who became the wife of 
Edmund Talbot, of Bashall, who, with his father, Thomas Talbot, 
and his brothers Thomas and William, assisted in the betrayal of 
Henry VI., and received grants of annuities for their perfidy, a son, 
James Haryngton, who took orders. He was Rector of Badsworth 
and Dean of York (January 29, 1508) ; in 1488 he is found holding 
half the Manor of Balderston, inherited from his mother, which he- 
sold to Edmund Dudley, who was attainted of high treason, April 
8th, 1510. He died December, 1512, and in him the younger line 

Sir John Haryngton, who fell at Wakefield, left two daughters, 
his co-heiresses, Anne and Elizabeth, who at the time of his death 
were aged respectively nine and eight years. In their minority 
their paternal uncle, Sir James Haryngton, took forcible possession 
of Hornby, and claimed to be the lawful owner, but on an appeal to 
the Court of Chancery he was dispossessed and committed to the 
Fleet, with an accomplice who had assisted in carrying out his 
designs, when the wardship of the two young heiresses, with the 
custody of their inheritance and their disposal in marriage, was 
granted to the King's favourite, Thomas, Lord Stanley, who, with 
considerate regard for the temporal interests of his own family, gave 
the hand of the eldest, Anne, in marriage to his third son, Sir 
Edward Stanley, who was afterwards ennobled by the title of Lord 
Monteagle for his deeds at Flodden Field, where he so gallantly led 
the Lancashire and Cheshire bowmen in the memorable charge 
which decided the fate of the battle a charge that Scott has 
enshrined in imperishable verse. The younger heiress, Elizabeth, 
Lord Stanley bestowed upon his nephew, John Stanley, of Melling,* 

* By a curious error, which has gained credence through frequent repeti- 
tion, this John Stanley has been represented as the base-born son of James 
Stanley, warden of Manchester, and afterwards Bishop of Ely. Bishop 
Stanley's illegitimate son was also one of the heroes of Flodden, but he was 
of Honford, in Cheadle, Cheshire. 


258 County Families of 

base son of Sir John Stanley, of Wever, and first of the name of 
Alderley, Sir Thomas's brother. The only issue of the first-named 
marriage was a child that is said to have been born dead. The 
issue of Sir John Stanley and Elizabeth, the younger of the two 
co-heiresses, was three daughters Anne, who married John Swyft, 
and released lands of her inheritance in Hornby to Lord Monteagle, 
22 Henry VIII. (1530-1) ; Margaret, who became the wife of 
Thomas Grimshaw, of Clayton ; and Joan, who married Thomas, 
son of Sir Henry Halsall, by whom she had a son, Thomas, and 
two daughters, Jane and Maude. 

The 3 ist of December, 1460, was a day fatal to the fortunes of 
the House of York, and one no less fatal to the Lancashire Haryng- 
tons. When the sun went down upon the scene of carnage on 
Wakefield Green, Sir Thomas Haryngton, of Hornby, and his son, 
Sir John, were in their death agonies, and with them terminated 
the Hornby line, the name being thenceforward continued by the 
descendants of Sir James and Nicholas Haryngton, two younger 
brothers of Sir William, who married the heiress of the Nevilles, the 
first-named being the founder of the line of Haryngton, of Wolfage 
and Brixworth, in Northamptonshire, and the latter the progenitor 
of the Haryngtons, lords of Huyton, in West Derby Hundred 

Sir lames Haryngton inherited the martial spirit of his ancestors, 
and had his full share of war and military service. In 1403 he 
shared in the great but dearly-bought victory at Hateley Field, 
which settled the usurper Henry firmly upon the throne, and where 
Falstaff, as he declared, "fought a long hour by Shrewsbury clock." 
When the impetuous Hotspur fell, pierced through the brain by an 
arrow, his followers became panic-stricken, and the straggling Welsh 
who had joined in the fight fled to their mountain fastnesses ; in 
the retreat the Earl of Douglas, who had led the Scottish contin- 
gent, fell from a hill, when he was captured by Sir James Haryngton, 
a service for which he received from Henry IV. a pension of 100 
marks a year. When not engaged in martial enterprises he appears 
to have taken an active part in the business of his county, and his 
name occasionally crops up in the capacity of a justice of the peace, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 259 

adjusting the differences and settling the quarrels which were then 
of by no means uncommon occurrence among acred gentlemen. It 
has been stated that Sir James was one of the loyal Lancashire 
knights who sailed with Henry V. in the expedition to obtain the 
crown of France, and that he shared in the victory at Agincourt on 
that memorable St. Crispin's Day, 1415 ; but this is an error. He 
engaged himself to join in the expedition, and Mr. Beamont states* 
that his original indenture of military service is still preserved among 
the muniments of Lord Lilford; but the same authority adds that 
just as the fleet was sailing from Southampton he and one of his 
men-at-arms received the King's commands to remain at home for 
the security of the northern parts of the kingdom. He married Ellen, 
daughter of Thomas de Urswick, descended from the Urswicks of 
Urswick, in Aldingham, a family which long retained considerable 
rank in the county, and in more than one generation held the 
shrievalty, the most distinguished of them being the Christopher 
Urswick whom Shakespeare has immortalised the " faithful, un- 
ambitious, and disinterested chaplain of Henry VII.," as he had 
been previously of his mother, Margaret, Countess of Richmond, 
and who was eleven times sent on embassies to foreign kings on 
behalf of his country. The issue of this union was a son, Sir Richard 
Haryngton, who added considerably to the territorial possessions of 
his house by a marriage he contracted with Elizabeth, the daughter 
and heiress of Sir William Bradshagh, of Blackrod and Westleigh. 
This lady was only twelve years of age at the time of her father's 
death in October, 1415, and her husband succeeded jure tixoris to 
the Blackrod and Westleigh estates. These possessions were con- 
siderably augmented when, after the death of her grandmother, 
Margaret, heiress of Sir John de Verdon, in 1437, she succeeded as 
remainder after her uncles in half-blood, John Edmund and Robert 
de Pilkington, to the Manors of Brixworth, in Northamptonshire, 
and Brissingham, in Norfolk. Sir. Richard Haryngton must have 
died about the year 1466 or 1467, his inquisition post-mortem 
having been taken 7 Edward IV. He left issue, in addition to a 

* Annals of the Lords of Warrington, pt. i, p. 233. 

260 County Families of 

son William, his heir, a daughter Margaret, who in 1422 married 
her second cousin, Sir Thomas Pilkington, a licence having been 
first obtained in consequence of the degree of relationship. Sir 
Thomas was Sheriff of Lancashire at various times between 1463 
and 1482 ; he fought on the side of Richard III. at Bosworth in 
1485, and two years later joined the insurgents and their foreign 
auxiliaries, who, led by the brave Martin Swartz, had landed on the 
Lancashire coast, near Ulverston, and with them marched into 
Lincolnshire, where, in the battle of Stoke Field, near Newark, he 
was slain. His Lancashire estates, including the Manors of 
Pilkington, Bury, and Cheetham, were forfeited and granted by the 
Crown to the Earl of Derby ; only the settled lands which had 
descended from the Yerdons passing to his son, Roger Pilkington, 
the last male representative of the Pilkingtons of Pilkington, who 
married Alice, daughter of Sir John Savage, and at his death, which 
occurred before 1539 (according to Vincent in 1502), left issue five 
daughters Margaret, wife of Thomas Pudsey; Katharine, wife of 
Thomas Arderne ; Alice, wife of Edward Saltmarsh ; Elizabeth, wife 
of Thomas Huntley ; Margery, wife of Henry Pudsey; and Joan, 
wife of ]ohn Daniel, of Daresbury. 

Sir William Haryngton, who succeeded as heir to his father, Sir 
Richard, married his kinswoman, Elizabeth, daughter of Edmund 
and sister of Sir Thomas Pilkington, the licence, on account of 
consanguinity, being dated in the same year as that granted to his 
sister, 1422. He died August 12, 3 Henry VII., and was 
succeeded by his only son, Sir James Haryngton, who died June 
26, 1497, leaving a widow, Isabella, daughter of Sir Alexander 
Radcliffe, of Ordsall, who survived him several years, her death 
occurring June 20, 1518, and ten daughters, all of whom, as 
appears by his inq. p.m., taken igth November, 14 Henry VII., 
were then of full age viz., Agnes, wife of Sir Thomas Assheton, of 
Ashton-under-Lyne ; Elizabeth, wife of John Lumley, of Ryssheton ; 
Alicia (miscalled Ellen in some of the pedigrees), wife of Ralph 
Standish, of Standish ; Alianora, wife of John Leycester, of Toft ; 
Margaret, wife of Christopher Hulton, of Farnworth ; Isabella, wife 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 261 

of John Tresham ; Johanna, wife of Edmund Assheton, of Chadder- 
ton ; Ann, second wife of Sir William Stanley, of Hooton, Knight ; 
Clemence, wife of Sir Henry Norreys, of Speke (marriage covenant 
dated July 8th, 1500), by whom she had a son, Sir William 
Norreys, who came in for a moiety of the Manor of Blackrod on 
the division of Sir James Haryngton's estates, and a daughter Ann, 
who married Percival Haryngton, of Huyton, of whom anon : and 
Katharine, wife (i) of Adam, eldest son and heir of Roger Huhon, 
of the Park, and (2) of William Mirfyld. In addition to these ten 
daughters, Sir James Haryngton had an only son, William, who 
pre-deceased him. He married a daughter of (Edmund ?) Trafford, 
of Trafford, and, as stated in our account of that family, was 
drowned, with his wife, on his marriage day, while attempting to 
cross the Mersey at Northenden ferry, March 4th, 1490. His body 
was recovered and buried at Mobberley, and thus, through failure 
of surviving male issue, terminated the line of Haryngton, of West- 
leigh, Wolfage, and Brixworth. 


For a continuation of the stock we must now turn to the descen- 
dants of Nicholas, younger brother of the Sir James Haryngton who 
captured Earl Douglas at Hateley Field. This Nicholas married 
Margaret, daughter and heiress of Thomas Lathom, lord of Huyton, 
and in her right became possessed of that manor ; the issue of 
the marriage being, in addition to a daughter, who became the wife 
of Nicholas Eltonhead, of Eltonhead, a son John, who succeeded, 
and was father of Nicholas Haryngton. This Nicholas had two 
sons, Hamo, or Hamond Haryngton, who married, 3 Henry VII. 
(1487-8), Margaret, daughter of Ralph Eccleston, and is probably 
identical with the Hamnet Haryngton named in the will of John Ogle, 
of Prescot, May 5, 1525 who succeeded, but died childless, and 
Richard, who inherited the Huyton estates as next heir to his brother. 
He married, and was in turn succeeded by Percival, his son and 
heir, who, sometime after i6th Henry VIIL, married his kinswoman 
Ann, only daughter of Henry Norris, of Speke, by his wife Clemence, 

262 County Families of 

one of the daughters and co-heirs of Sir James Haryngton, of Wol- 
fage, the issue being a son, John Haryngton, who had to wife Alice, 
daughter of Thomas Torbock, and by her was father of Percival, 
eldest son and heir, who married Ursula, daughter and co-heir of 
(Henry ?) Twyford, of Kenwick, in Shropshire. The issue of the 
union was three sons and two daughters John, who succeeded ; 
William, who married at Huyton, in 1599, Anna Amonnde, and 
died April, 1608; Henry, who was buried at Huyton, December 
29, 16 1 1, his widow, Alicia, being buried there also, on the 26th 
October in the succeeding year ; Mary ; and Ann, who became the 
wife of Roger Breres, of Walton. 

John Haryngton, who succeeded as heir, was living in 1613. He 
married Margaret, daughter of Robert Ireland,* of Halewood, in 
Childwall parish, and died in 1653, having had issue Robert, who 
married Ann, daughter of Thomas Woolfall, of Woolfall, in Huyton 
parish, but who pre-deceased him ; John and Percival, who both 
died unmarried ; Margaret, who became the wife of Robert Moly- 
neux, of The Wood ; Mary, who died unmarried ; and Elizabeth, 
wife of Cuthbert Ogle, of Whiston. Robert Haryngton, who married 
the daughter of Thomas Woolfall, died in the lifetime of his father, 
leaving, with other issue, a son, who succeeded to the Huyton 
property as next heir to his grandfather in 1653, he being then 
twenty-six years of age. The other children of Robert Haryngton 
were two sons, William and Robert, both of whom, as appears by 
the visitation, were living in 1664; Mary; Margaret, who was at 
the date named married to John Cooke, of Little Woolton, county 
Lancashire, probably identical with the John Cooke who in 1642 
was named as one of the appraisers of the goods of Hugh Rigby, of 
The Hutt ; and Elizabeth, who became the wife of Richard Moly- 
neux, of New Hall, of whom anon. 

* In the will of Robert Ireland, of Halewood, dated 26 March, 1591 
(33 Elizabeth), and proved April loth, in the same year, a bequest is made 
to " Margaret my doughter nowe wyffe to John Harrington gent.," and 
"Parsevall Haryngton" and "John Harringtone" are named among the 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 263 

John Haryngton, the eldest son, who succeeded to Huyton, 
married Ann, daughter of Edward Ireland, of Lidiate, and by her 
had a son, John Haryngton, born in 1656, the last of the family 
named in the Visitation of 1664. This John would seem to have 
died in the lifetime of his father, leaving a younger brother Charles as 
next heir, for in 1708 John Haryngton and Charles Haryngton, 
gentleman, his son, obtained an Act of Parliament to enable them to 
settle their estates, and to dispose of some of them for the payment 
of their debts. The Manor of Huyton was vested in Charles, Duke 
of Shrewsbury, the Hon. Richard Molyneux, son and heir of 
William, Viscount Molyneux, Henry Fleetwood, of Penwortham, 
and others, on the marriage of Charles Haryngton with Mary, 
daughter of John Arden, of Upton Warren, county Worcester. 
This lady, as would seem, having pre-deccased him, he again entered 
the marriage state, his second wife being Mary, the eldest of the 
eight daughters of Sir William Stanley, of Hooton and Storeton, 
the representative of the parent stock of the great House of Stanley ; 
but there does not appear to have been any surviving issue of either 
marriage, for on the death of Charles Haryngton the line terminated 
in the male descent, the Haryngton property passing to Elizabeth, 
the youngest sister of John Haryngton the elder, who, as before 
stated, married Richard Molyneux, of New Hall, and thus ended a 
family which for many generations had held high rank in the 
county, and which by descent or near alliance by collaterals could 
boast a connection with nearly half the nobility of the kingdom. 


It may not be out of place to trace the descent of the Manor of 
Huyton from the time when it passed into the possession of the 
Molyneuxs. Sir Richard Molyneux, of Sefton, who was knighted 
at the coronation of Queen Mary, and who served the office of 
sheriff in 1556 and 1558, had by his first wife, Eleanor, daughter 
of Sir Alexander Radcliffe, of Ordsall, Knight, with other issue, a 
son, John Molyneux, who married Ann, daughter of Richard 
Radcliffe, of Langley, and by her had two sons Richard, his heir, 

264 County Families of 

and Thomas, and four daughters Eleanor, Bridget, Elizabeth, and 
Frances. Richard Molyneux, the eldest son, who resided at New 
Hall, married (i) Jane, daughter of Sir Gilbert Ireland, of The Hutt, 
who bore him four sons John, Richard, Edward, William and 
two daughters Ann and Jane. He married (secondly) Elizabeth, 
daughter of Richard Molyneux, of Hawkley, widow of Lawrence 
Bryers, or Breres, of Walton, county Lancashire, by whom he had 
Frances, who tecame the wife of Thomas Walshe, of Aughton, and 
Catharine, wife of John Bolton, of West Derby. Richard Moly- 
neux died May 22, 1633, and was succeeded by the eldest son of 
his first marriage, John, who was buried at Sefton, March 3rd, 
1 648. He had to wife Margaret, daughter of John Whalley, who 
survived him for the long period of forty-five years. She was buried 
at Sefton, June 5, 1693 her will, which bears date June 14, 1690, 
and in which she is described as of Alt Grange, being proved at 
Chester, August 5th, 1693. The issue of the marriage was a son 
Richard, who inherited the New Hall estates, and, as already stated, 
married Elizabeth Haryngton, who eventually became heir to her 
brother John, thus uniting the New Hall and Huyton properties ; 
Edward, who died in 1704, his effects being administered to by his 
nephew Richard, nth of March in that year; Jane, who married 
John Johnson, of Crosby ; Mary, born in 1632, wife of Robert, son 
of Roger Breres, of Walton ; Margery, Margaret, and Katharine. 

Richard Molyneux, who married the heiress of the Haryngtons, 
was aged thirty-one at the Visitation in 1665. He died in 1686, 
and was buried at Sefton, May 7, his will, which bears date May 
1 6, 1685, being proved at Chester, July 13, 1686. His wife 
Eli/.abeth survived him, and was living in 1721. The children of 
the marriage were John, born in 1660, who, according to a note 
obligingly communicated to the writer by the present representative 
of the family, was baptised by Mr. Parr, a secular priest. He was at 
the English College at Rome from October 7th, 1679, to October 
8th, 1681, and was commonly known by his mother's name of 
Haryngton. He may not unlikely be identified with the "John 
Mollineux, of West Derby, gent.," who was buried at Sefton, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 265 

January 28th, 1692. Richard Molyneux, the second son, of Alt 
Grange, within Ince-Blundell, became heir to his brother John, 
and, as previously stated, administered to his uncle Edward's 
effects in 1704. The other issue of the marriage was a daughter, 

Richard Molyneux, who succeeded as heir, married Margery 
daughter of Richard Tickell, of Ince-Blundell, the marriage settle- 
ment bearing date August isth, 1696. He died in 1712, and 
was buried at Sefton, January 291)1 ; his will, which must have 
been made when he was in extremis, bearing date January 26th, 
1712-13 the day before his decease. His widow did not long 
survive him, her death occurring December 23, 1714, the register 
of Sefton recording her burial there December 25th. 

The son, Richard Molyneux, the third in direct succession of 
the same baptismal name, who succeeded, married (circa 1720) 
Margaret, sister of Bryan Hawarden, of Lee (Ireen, county Lan- 
caster, and by her had issue an only son, also named Richard, 
baptized at Sefton, January 27, 1731, and buried there March 3rd, 
1734; the remaining issue of the marriage being a daughter, 
Frances, sole heir, who on the 26th October, 1751, being then 
of the age of eighteen, conveyed the estates in marriage to Thomas 
Seel, of Liverpool, who died January 21, 1802, and was buried 
at Huyton, when they passed by his eldest daughter and co-heir, 
Frances, to her husband, Thomas Unsworth, of Maghull Hall, 
to whom she was married at Liverpool, August 25th, 1791. 
Thomas Unsworth died January 6th, 1815, and was buried at 
Maghull, but his widow survived him more than a quarter of a 
century. She was buried at Maghull, Septemter 3oth, 1841, at the 
advanced age of eighty-six, the property descending to her eldest 
son, Thomas Molyneux-Seel, of Maghull, and afterwards of Huyton 
Hey, who was born at Liverpool, July i, 1792. By royal licence, 
dated i2th January, 1815, he and his issue were authorised to take 
the surname of Molyneux-Seel, and to bear the arms of those two 
families, in accordance with the will of Thomas Seel, dated 3oth 
May, 1 80 1. He married at Ghent, October i, 1823, Agnes Mary, 

266 County Families of Lancashire, &c. 

third daughter of Sir Richard Bedingfeld, of Oxborough, in Norfolk, 
Baronet, who died at Leamington, September 7, 1870. He sur- 
vived her, and died at Huyton Hey, January 16, 1881, leaving, with 
other issue, a son, Edmund Richard Thomas Molyneux-Seel, born 
5th August, 1824, who succeeded, and married, November 16, 1847, 
the Countesse Anna Maria, fourth daughter of the late Duke of 
Lousada y Lousada. Mr. Molyneux-Seel, who has, with other 
issue, a son, Edmund Haryngton Molyneux-Seel, his heir, is the 
present Lord of the Manor of Huyton, and in himself represents the 
Seels, the Molyneuxs, and the great feudal House of Haryngton. 



MONG our " County Families " there are few the 
members of which can boast a more ancient or 
more honourable lineage than the Hultons of 
Hulton. Though the name is not to be found 
on the long roll of Norman nobles who accom- 
panied William the Bastard to the spoil of England, and, having 
conquered the land, stood forward as its defenders, the Hultons have 
for seven hundred years and more been gentlemen in character, in 
blood, and in social position If in their long career they have done 
few striking things, performed no remarkable feats of prowess either 
in the protracted struggles of the Roses or the equally sanguinary 
conflicts between Cavalier and Roundhead, achieved no great 
distinction either at Court or in the Cabinet, they have yet been 
steady, clear-headed, singularly efficient men, who have never 
shirked their responsibilities, but been ready to do battle in defence 
of their country, and, if need be, to risk their possessions in the 
interest of the State. Men of sound judgment and capacity, they 
have been useful rather than great; and though they have never 
been ennobled or attained to any exalted rank, they have inter- 
married with the best families in their shire, and may pride them- 
selves upon the fact that the best blood in the palatinate courses 
through their veins. 

Their original ancestry is hard to trace. As we have said, they 
are, genealogically speaking, seven hundred years old, but they 
claim, or rather the "peerage" claims for them a much higher 
antiquity. The authority which the English aristocracy is supposed 

268 County Families of 

to accept with unquestioning faith, and antiquaries receive with 
doubt and distrust " Burke," says they have been uninterrupted 
lords of the estate from which they derive their surname since the 
Conquest. The Ulster King of Arms may have ground for his 
belief, but the statement made is not supported by any ascertained 
facts. Avoiding the misty domain of the apocryphal pedigree- 
maker, we prefer to begin with a less mythical personage. Who 
the first Hulton was we have no means of knowing ; he may have 
been among the crowd who came over shortly after Hastings was 
won, but we find no habitat for the family until we reach the reign 
of Henry II., and the first distinct personage who steps out from 
the shadowy realm of conjecture, and who may therefore be 
regarded as the patriarch of the race, is a certain Blethyn de Hulton, 
who flourished in the latter half of the twelfth century, and was 
father of Jorwith, otherwise Marferth or Yarwitt de Hulton, to 
whom King John, by charter dated Mans., loth October, in the 
first year of his reign (1199), gave the town or ville of Pendleton, 
anciently called 1'en-hulton (i.e., the head hill town), in exchange for 
other lands the wood of Barton and the wood of Kcreshall (Kersal) 
as is supposed which he had granted him when Earl of Morteign. 
This jorwith or Yarwitt had a younger brother named Madoc, and, 
with other issue, a son named Meredith; and looking at the Welsh 
character of these and other of the earlier names in the genealogy, 
the late Mr. T.angton conceived the idea that the progenitors of the 
stock formed part of the immigration into Lancashire which took 
place in the time of Henry II., when Owen Gwynnedh succeeded 
n driving all the Norman and English settlers out of North Wales, 
as set forth in a petition of Robert Banaster, contained in the rolls 
of Parliament, whose castle at Prestatyn had been overthrown. 
This disaster occurred in 1157, when by stratagem the English 
army, under Henry, was decoyed into the defile of Coed Ewloe, 
near Holywell, where they were surprised by David and Conan, 
sons of Owen Gwynnedh, and vanquished with much slaughter. 
It does not appear, however, that the victors continued their pursuit 
beyond Henry's camp at Saltney, a fact that somewhat militates 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 269 

against Mr. Langton's supposition, while the charge on the heraldic 
coat, which the family is known to have borne at a very early date, 
rather suggests the idea that if they were not offshoots, they were 
probably sub-infeudatories of one of the two great feudal proprietors 
of this part of Lancashire the Lacies, Earls of Lincoln in which 
case Burke's assumption may not, after all, be very far wrong. 

The lands in Pen-hulton, the Pendleton of modern times the 
township with which the Hultons are first found connected com- 
prised four bovates or oxgangs, believed to be about sixty acres, 
and were held by the service of one-sixth part of a knight's fee, at 
first under the Earls of Ferrers, but subsequently, as appears by the 
Testa de Nevill, in chief of the King. These were not their only 
territorial possessions, for, as appears by deeds of a later date, they 
held lands in 1'endlebury, Lostock, Rumworth, Middlewood, and 
Hulton. Hulton, which is in the Parish of Dean, comprises three 
townships that adjoin each other Over or Great Hulton, Little 
Hulton, and Middle Hulton ; the last-named, which has been 
attached to the Worsley estates since 1311, when Richard de 
Hulton conveyed it to Geoffry de Worsley in exchange for other 
lands, being the only manor in which courts are now held. 

The little information that can be gleaned respecting the earlier 
members of the family is to be found for the most part in contem- 
porary charters and grants of land, either by themselves, or where 
their names occur as attesting witnesses of the gifts of others; but as 
those executed before the passing of the statute of Quia anptores 
terrarum in 18 Edwd. I. (1290) are invariably undated, difficulties 
not unfrequently arise in determining the exact relationship. Jor- 
with de Hulton, to whom the lands in Pen-hulton were granted, 
had almost as many variations of his Christian name as the Main- 
warings of Cheshire are said by Lower to have of their surname, for 
we find it written Jorveth, Jorverth, Jarnod, Marveth, Reinfridus, 
Yarfridus, Yarwitt, Yarwittus, &c. He had four sons and two 
daughters. Robert, his heir, who first occurs by name as witness 
to a grant of half an oxgang of land in Monton to the Church of 
Eccles, and which, from the fact that Richard de Vernon, another 

270 Coimty Families of 

of the witnesses, was then Sheriff of Lancashire, must have been in 
1201-3 ; he also appears about the same time as witness, with his 
younger brother Richard, to a deed by which Gilbert, son of 
William de Notion, with the consent of Edith, his wife, lady of the 
Manor of Barton, gave to William, the clerk or parson of Eccles, 
one-fourth part of the Church of Eccles to wit, that which had 
been her father's for life, in pure and perpetual alms, for the souls 
of his father and mother, of himself, his wife and children, and of all 
his ancestors. By a deed without date, but which was witnessed 
by Geoffry de Bury, Henry de Trafford, Richard de Moston, 
Robert de Radeclive, Roger de Middleton, and others, he gave to 
David, his brother Richard's son, all the lands in Hulton which 
had been his father's. He had issue Robert and Jordan de Hulton, 
and a daughter, Elena. Robert was witness with his father to a 
grant by Gilbert de Barton a grandson probably of the Gilbert de 
Notion previously named, who had assumed the name of Barton, 
the inheritance of his grandmolher of a moiely of Ihe wood in 
Weslwood lo Ihe Monastery of Stanlaw, in Cheshire, Ihe parcni 
house of Whalley. Al a laler dale he was seneschal lo William de 
Ferrers, Earl of Derby, inter Rible ct Mersec, and in a deed 
excculed in 1240, in which Adam de Gerslon confirmed Ihe granl 
of lands in Gerslon, or Garston, near Liverpool, made by William 
de Bacford to Ihe Abbey of Slanlaw, he is described as " Roberlo 
de Hullon lunc balliuo dni Comitis Derbe." The position was one 
of great Irust and responsibility, and his influence and social slatus 
was increased by his marriage with Alice, the only daughter of John 
Filz-Richard, of Ponlefract, Constable of Chester, and sixth Baron 
of Halton, whose son Roger, in consequence of his grandmolher's 
succession in 1193 to the vast inheritance of her cousin,* Roberl, 
the last of the old line of Lacie, assumed a name famous for genera- 
lions in Ihe annals of Ihe counlry the great name of Lacy. This 
John Fitz-Richard, who married Alice, sister of William de Mande- 

* Dugdale has erroneously described this lady, Albreda de Lizours, as 
half-sister of Robert de Lacie, and the mistake has been perpetuated by 
Baines, Burke, Courthope, and other genealogists : so pertinacious is error. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 271 

ville, and died at Tyre, while engaged with the half of Europe in the 
Crusade in 1190, founded in 1178 the Cistercian Abbey of Stanlaw, 
near Halton Castle, which thenceforward became the great burial 
place of his family. The founder of Stanlaw is commonly described 
as John de Lacy ; he had no pretensions to the name, and it was 
not until after his death that it was assumed by his son, though, 
curiously enough, the mistake is made in a charter of Whalley 
Abbey itself, in which his descendant, Henry de Lacy, Earl of 
Cornwall and Lincoln, the last and greatest man of his line, 
expressly styles the first founder quidam antecessorum nostronun, 
Johannes de Lascy nomine, constab. Ccstrie. By his marriage with 
the daughter of the Baron of Halton, Robert de Hulton had a son 
Robert, who succeeded as heir. A younger brother of Robert, 
the seneschal of Earl Ferrers, Jordan de Hulton (though not 
enumerated in the list given by Baines, probably from the fact that 
the Lichfield episcopal registers do not commence until 1296), was 
rector of the Church in Warrington. He occurs as "Jordano 
rectore ecclesie de Weryngton" in a grant by Michael de Spotland 
to Robert, son of William de Eccles, of land in Grimesley, in Spot- 
land, and which from the names attached must have been made 
near the close of the reign of Henry III., or the beginning of that 
of Edward I. ; and there is in the chartulary of Whalley Abbey a 
deed in which the same " Jordanus dc Hulton, rector ecclesie de 
Weryngton," releases to the Abbey of Stanlaw lands in the Hope 
in Swinton, which Robert, his brother (the seneschal), had of the 
gift of Gilbert de Barton. The second son of Jorwith ds Hulton 
was Richard, of whom anon ; the third son, Meurice, appears as 
witness to a deed of gift without date, made by Thomas de Perpunt, 
to the Abbey of Stanlaw, of all his lands adjoining the chapel and 
cemetery of St. Maryden (St. Mary's Dean), which gift was con- 
firmed by Robert de Grelle, lord of Manchester, in 12 Edward I. 
(1284), and in the same deed occur the names of John, the son, 
and Richard, the grandson of Meurice. Meredith, the youngest of 
the four sons of Jorwith, had issue William de Hulton, whose son 
and heir, Thomas, married Dionesia, or Diana, one of the daughters 

272 County Families of 

and co-heirs of Hugh, son of Ranulph de Salebury, and the names 
of this Thomas and Dionesia, his wife, occur in fines made at 
Lancaster, York, and Westminster, running between the years 1292 
and 1303. In addition to the four sons, Jorwith de Hulton had 
two daughters, Catherine and Cecilia, the first of whom became 
the wife of Philip Goch, or Gough, second son of Sir David de 
Malpns, grandson of Hugh Kyveliok, Earl of Chester. Philip Goch 
acquired the lordship of Egerton, and in accordance with the custom 
assumed it as his surname, and from his marriage with Catherine 
Hulton descend the Egertons of Oulton, the Egertons, Earls of 
Wilton and Ellesmcre, and the Lords Egerton of Tatton. Cecilia, 
the younger daughter, though she must have lived to a mature age, 
does not appear to have married. In the Whalley Coucher Book 
there is recorded a grant from Paulinus de Halghton to " Cecilie 
filie Yarwerith de Hulton," of lands in Halghton (Haughton, a 
township adjoining Denton, in Manchester parish, and not West- 
houghton in 1 )eanc, as sometimes supposed), and as William de 
Vernon, one of the witnesses, is described as " then Justiciary of 
Chester," it must have been made between the years 1230 and 


We now return to Richard, the second son of Jorwith de Hulton. 

A pedigree of the family sets forth that he " had a grant of lands 
(two oxgangs) in Barton of Edith de Barton, by the consent of 
Gilbert de Notion (county York), her husband, which Jorwerth, the 
father of this Richard, had sometimes held of her." In the chivalrous 
age in which he lived, under its mixed form of piety and super- 
stition, a good deal of religious zeal was manifested ; the great feudal 
chiefs, acknowledging the value of religion and owning its power, 
gave material portions of their substance to the Church, and their 
sub-infeudatories were not slow in following their example. Many 
of these gifts of lay owners are copied into the Whalley Coucher 
Book, and among them is one from this Richard de Hulton, which 
is especially interesting from the fact that it mentions, inter alia, that 
he had built himself a house in Pen-hulton, and had acquired the 
right of presenting a priest to minister in the chantry chapel 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 273 

adjacent thereto. The deed sets forth that he gave to God, the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, and the Church of Eccles and its successive 
rectors, a small plot of land, sixty feet square, in Pendleton, near 
the road to Pendlebury, on which to build a tithe barn for that 
part of the wide-spread Parish of Eccles. There is an acknowledg- 
ment that the rectors of Eccles had, by charter, conveyed to him a 
chantry in their chapel of Pen-hulton, near the house built by him- 
self, and had given him the right of presentation of a chantry priest, 
under stringent regulations for preserving the rights of the Mother 
Church of Eccles, in regard to obventions, offerings, and accustomed 
dues, especially on the occasions of the great festivals of the Church. 
The charter furnishes a curious illustration of the jealousy with 
which the clerical prerogatives were in those days guarded, and of 
the care taken to prevent any infringement of the rights of the 
mother Church. The subordination is duly acknowledged, Richard 
de Hulton binding himself by oath to observe the conditions set forth, 
and promising for himself and his heirs for all time to observe feudal 
obedience to the Church of Eccles and its rectors. 

In that ancient compilation of Inquisitions, the Liber Fcodoruin 
or Testa de Neri/l, as it is commonly called, which sets forth the 
tenures on which all the landed property of England was held, 
Richard de Hulton is described as holding the wapentake of Salt'ord- 
shire in Serjeant)-. Jfics de Hilton tenet M'apn' de Salforsir' 1 in 
serjantia ad vohinlate dni Reg'. The office, which involved the 
charge of the Hundred or Wapentake of Salford, was one of 
importance and responsibility ; the serjeanty was a civil service of a 
free and honourable character, resembling in some respects knight- 
service, and one that could not be due from a tenant to an)- lord, but 
to the King only, and its being confided to Richard de Hulton is 
an indication of the social status of the family at that early 
date. They were stirring times, the barons' wars were being 
waged, and many parts of Lancashire were made the scenes of 
violence and confusion. The churches even were not safe from the 
intrusion of marauders, and the clergy, finding themselves too weak 
to repel the attacks, were not unfrequently compelled to invoke the 

274 County Families of 

aid of the civil power. Of the part played by the Hultons the 
contemporary notices are few and scant. The Earls of Ferrers, who 
were likewise Earls of Derby, held all the lands lying between the 
Ribble and Mersey as chief lords under the King ; they had 
bestowed many favours upon the family, and we may be sure that 
when the last of them, the unfortunate Robert, Earl Ferrers, joined 
the party of Simon de Montford, at the siege of Worcester, his 
liegeman, Richard de Hulton, influenced more by personal regard 
than affection for the cause, would follow his banner. There is no 
reason, however, to believe that either of them took part in the 
sanguinary struggle on the fatal field at Evesham, where, when the 
storm was over and the sun had gone down, the pale moon on that 
warm summer's night glittered on the corslet of De Montford, while 
his body lay stiffening on the gory sward. If in those distractions 
Richard de Hulton had in any way compromised himself and 
imperilled his estates, he must have quickly regained the King's 
favour, and it is certain that his death must have occurred shortly 
afterwards, though the date of that event is not known. In the 
pedigree of the family this Richard is commonly styled eldest son 
and heir of Jorwith, but as his brother Robert succeeded to the 
Hulton lands, and he settled at Pen-hulton and there built himself 
a house, it is evident he was a younger son ; a certain interest 
attaches to him, however, from the circumstance that the patri- 
monial lands eventually devolved upon his son, and his descendants 
perpetuated the name after failure of the main line. He had four 
sons, of whom David, the eldest, succeeded. William, the second 
son, married Beatrice, one of the daughters and co-heirs of Adam 
de Blackburn, but died childless ; of Roger, the third son, nothing 
is known, except that he was living 8 Edward I. (1279-80) ; John, 
the youngest, took orders, and is mentioned in a contemporary 
record as parsona ecdesie de Radedif. 

David, who inherited his father's estates, had a grant from his 
uncle Robert of all the lands which he possessed in Hulton. He 
thus considerably extended his territorial possessions, and was 
thenceforward styled " Senior Lord of Hulton." These properties 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 275 

were further augmented by a grant from William de Ferrers, Earl of 
Derby (July 7, 1251), of his lands in Flixton, and the Manor of 
Hordeshall (Ordsall) for homage and the service of two marks 
(,\ 6s. 8d.), payable at the four yearly terms, and for the sixth 
part of a knight's fee. He married Agnes, the other daughter and 
co-heir of Adam de Blackburn, who bore him four children, the 
youngest of whom, John, married Joan, daughter of Richard de 
Mamecestre, settled at Farnworth, and founded the line of Hulton 
of Farnworth, which we shall have occasion to speak of hereafter. 
The family of Mamecestre, or Manchester, with which John de 
Hulton became allied, was a busy one during the reigns of the first 
three Edwards energy and activity have ever been associated with 
their name-place though little information of a connected character 
has been preserved to us respecting them. The name is of frequent 
occurrence in the writings of their day, and some particulars may be 
gleaned from the "Birch Evidences" and other deeds in the 
possession of Sir William Reynell Anson, Bart. Roger de Mame- 
cestre is named as prior of Norton, Cheshire, in the time of Roger 
Venables, Baron of Kinderton (1249-1261); another of the stock, 
Hugh de Mamecestre, born in Manchester in the reign of Henry 
III., was a preaching friar, and with a brother friar was sent in 1294 
on the somewhat perilous mission of renouncing the King of 
England's allegiance to the King of France. In 1305 he received 
a commission to attend the Parliament, and was named one of the 
commissioners to treat with the Scots. Hollingworth says he was 
"a Dominican Frier, provinciall of the preachers in England, 
emmassadour to Phillip King of the Franks; deane to Edward the 
ist and Eleanor ; he writt against a most impudent imposter, 
conjuror, and deceiver, which, by many enchantments, had brought 
his mother to madnesse ; his books left behind him were Phanati- 
corum Delecta, Compendium Theologix, and many others." A John 
de Mamecestre, chaplain, was at one time lessee of the rectory of 
Warrington, and we have another ecclesiastic, Geoffrey or Galfridus 
de Mamecestre, who was chaplain or parson of the old rectorial 
Church of Manchester.. 

276 County Families of 

Agnes, the wife of David de Hulton, appears to have died young, 
for as early as 1230 we find her eldest son, Richard, disposing of 
his moiety of the advowson of the Church of Blackburn, which had 
descended to him from his mother, to John de Lacy, Constable of 
Chester, and afterwards Earl of Lincoln, who in turn gave it to the 
Abbey of Stanlaw, in Cheshire, which an earlier Lacy had founded. 

I )avid de Hulton must have died some time before 1 304, for in 
that year we find his son Richard in possession of the estates, and 
receiving a charter of free-warren in his demesne lands of Hulton, 
Ordeshall (Ordsall), Flixton, and Heaton. He married Margery, 
one of the daughters of Robert de Radcliffe, of Radcliffe Tower, 
and it was probably through the connection with this once powerful 
family thus formed that the lands in Ordsall ultimately became 
vested in the Radcliffes, though a good deal of obscurity, not to 
speak of apparent contradiction, overhangs the transfer. As 
previously stated, these lands were granted by Earl Ferrers to David 
de Hulton in 1251. In a MS. copied from an original tenant-roll 
of the duchy, dated 1311, Ranulph or Randle de Hulton is said 
to have formerly held Ordsall and Flixton, which were then in the 
possession of Richard, son of John Radcliffe. This Ranulph is not 
named in any of the Hulton pedigrees, and it is consequently 
difficult to say what relationship he bore to the head of the house, 
unless he was a younger son of David, the first grantee, and 
exchanged his inheritance for other lands, or died off early. In any 
case he could not have held the property for any long period, for 
David's son, Richard de Hulton, was, as already stated, in posses- 
sion in 1304, and his grandson, also named Richard, held the lord- 
ship in 1330-1, and in a deed, dated February 7th, 1333, is styled 
"Doininus de Ordissale." By his wife, who pre-deceased him, 
Richard de Hulton had four sons, Richard, his heir, Adam, John, 
and Roger. 

Richard, who succeeded, held, with his other estates, a tenth 
part of a knight's fee in Halliwell, and in 1325-6 gave lands 
in Halliwell to his brother John, who was thenceforward 
styled as of Halliwell, but after his decease these lands were 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 277 

released by his successor to Roger Hulton, of The Park, and so 
reverted to the main line of the family. Richard's son, also named 
Richard, does not appear to have married, and, having no issue, he, 
by deed dated February 7, 1333, granted his lands in Westhalghton 
to his father's younger brother, Adam de Hulton. The charter, 
which was written at Hulton, has a seal appended, with a shield 
thereon charged with a lion rampant, the earliest known example 
of the Hulton arms, the whole being encircled with the legend, 
" si : RICARDI : DE : HILTVN." There seems to have been a good 
deal of change going on in regard to the possession of the ancestral 
estates about this time, for two years later (April 15, 1335) we 
find William, son of Robert de Radcliffe a nephew of Margaret, 
wife of Richard de Hulton, before named granting to Adam de 
Hulton for life " my park of Hulton," with successive remainders to 
his son Roger and Hugh ; and it must have been about this time 
or shortly before that the complete severance of the Ordsall 
property was effected, for almost contemporaneously mention is 
made of Robert, a base-born son of Richard de Radcliffe, taking 
the local appellative and describing himself as Robert Radcliffe 
"de Ordsall," and he may be regarded as the progenitor of the 
knightly line which held Ordsall for so many generations. 

For some years after this time there is little in the history of the 
Hultons to call for special notice. They pursued the even tenor 
of their way, and if there were few incidents in their lives to 
chronicle, we may he assured the fortunes of the family were well 
sustained ; though, unlike the Stanleys and others of their neigh- 
bours, who in those turbulent times contrived to enrich themselves 
by the imprudence or ill-luck of their contemporaries, they never 
attained to the position of a great feudal house. The long reign of 
Edward the Third was the golden age of chivalry, and the spirit it 
engendered had much to do in shaping the character of the 
English nation ; it was in that reign that, as Barante confesses, 
France was twice conquered by a handful of English yeomen. Lanca- 
shire contributed its quota to swell the hosts which fought at Crescy 
and Poictiers, but we do not find the name of a Hulton among 

278 County Families of 

those who shared in the victories, though, as we shall see, one of 
them at least followed the fortunes of the Black Prince, and was with 
him in Gascony and in his last warlike enterprise the siege of 

Roger Hulton, a grandson of the Adam last-named, married 
Agnes, daughter of Robert Legh, the head of the chivalrous House 
of Adlington, in Cheshire, and by her had, with other issue, a son 
William, who married Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Radcliffe, of 
The Tower, and held tenements in Ince and Wigan. He held the 
office of escheator for Henry IV., in the county of Oxford, and was 
named collector of the dowry of Blanche, the King's eldest daughter. 
Though little is known of him, we are able to get a side glance of 
his martial character in the evidence submitted in the court of the 
Lord Marshal of England in that mighty contest that agitated the 
kingdom in the reign of Richard II., and which was waged with as 
much bitterness as the contest between the princely Scaligers of 
Verona the Scrope and Grosvenor case. 

In the month of August, 1385, the suit was commenced, and it 
lasted four years or more, the issue being whether Sir Robert 
Grosvenor was entitled to bear as his arms, " azure a bend 
or" i.e., a diagonal golden bar across a field of cerulean 
hue, which Sir Richard Scrope charged him with having 
usurped. It was a weighty matter ; the whole country 
awaited the decision with intense anxiety, and, as befitted 
so grave an inquiry, there was a tremendous array of evidence, 
oral as well as documentary ; John o'Gaunt appeared as a witness, 
with Owen Glendower, Geoffrey Chaucer, and a host of others of 
greater or lesser fame in all one prince, one duke, three earls, three 
barons, three mitred abbots, two priors, eleven bannerets, and 
more than one hundred and fifty knights, esquires, and gentlemen, 
many of them the surviving veterans from the French wars of 
Edward III. and Edward the Black Prince. In the list of this 
chivalric throng of witnesses we find the name of William Hulton, 
who affirmed that he had beheld the blazonry of the Grosvenors 
borne upon the plains of Gascony, at Limoges, and on other fields 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 279 

of fame. The information is but scant, but it is sufficient to show 
that this scion of a Lancashire house was a companion in arms of 
the first English prince who showed what it was to be a true 
gentleman, and who was the first great English captain who 
showed what English soldiers were, and what they could do against 
Frenchmen, and against all the world. 

Adam Hulton, the elder and only brother of William, who 
followed the fortunes of the Black Prince and fought in the wars in 
France, succeeded, at his father's death, to the ancestral lands. 
He had an only son, Roger, who married his kinswoman, Elena, 
one of the daughters of John Hulton, the head of the Farnworth 
stock, by his wife Elizabeth (or Isabel as she is incorrectly called in 
some of the pedigrees), daughter of Sir William Atherton, of Ather- 
ton, Knight. This John Hulton was a man of considerable mark 
in his day. In addition to the Farnworth property he held lands in 
Denton and elsewhere in Manchester, and he claims especial 
mention at our hands from the circumstance that on the morning 
of that memorable i4th of June, 1421, memorable at least so far 
as the ecclesiastical affairs of Manchester are concerned when 
Thomas de la Warre called the parishioners of Manchester together 
"at the sound of the bell," and pleading for the greater honour of 
the town and the better edification of its people, generously offered 
his ancestral home for the purposes of a college the building which 
still retains that name and proposed the collegiation of the old 
rectorial church he was present, and, with his younger brother, 
Geoffrey, gave his free consent, the two being included among the 
twenty " influential knights, esquires, and gentlemen" who signed or 
affixed their seals to the petition to the Bishop of I.ichfield. The 
great local magnates who assembled on that occasion were the 
progenitors of men whose names continued for two or three 
centuries to grace the history of the county, though not always 
acting in concert or in so good a cause. That " vestry meeting " 
must have been wonderfully unanimous, and it requires little 
stretch of the imagination to picture the assembled throng and hear 
the clank of sword and spur as knight and squire, and yeoman stout 

280 County Families of 

retired from the scene applauding the pious zeal of the old priest- 
lord, whose bounty had made Manchester in its ecclesiastical, as it 
had previously been in its industrial, character, the most important 
town in the shire. At the time of that meeting John Hulton was 
in the prime of manhood, having just reached his fiftieth year, but 
the part he took must have been almost his last official act, for 
before the year had closed he had passed to his rest. 

Roger Hulton seems to have shared the martial spirit of his 
uncle, and in recognition of the "good and faithful services "he had 
rendered had an annuity for life granted him by the Crown. When 
Henry V., longing to quarter the golden lilies with the English lion, 
asserted his claim to the Crown of France, and resolved upon an 
invasion of that kingdom, a very large portion of his army was 
mustered from Lancaster ; Roger Hulton was then old enough to 
bear arms. The enterprise was popular, and when so many of his 
kinsmen and neighbours were preparing enthusiastically to engage 
in the cause, it is more than likely that he would contract with 
Robert Urswick, the Sheriff of Lancashire, to follow in the King's 
retinue, and he may have been a unit in that valorous host that, 
amid the blare of trumpets, assembled under the shadow of South- 
ampton Castle, floated down the Solent, and after landing at Har- 
fleur gained a victory that for heroic daring will be remembered as 
long as England's history endures. A few years later (1436) we 
find him more peacefully employed, for he is then busy negotiating 
the terms of a marriage between his youngest daughter and a son 
of his neighbour, Thomas Tyldesley. The contract, which bears 
date 1 4th July, 15 Henry VI., sets forth that "the said Thorns 
grntes be yis indenture ye maryage of James his son and heir 
apparant to be wedded and to bedde Alice ye doght to ye said 
Rog. for the quich maryage hadde ye said Rog. grntes be this inden- 
ture to pay to ye said Thorns four score marke of the queche sume 
ye said Thos has receyvet ten poundes before hond," the residue is 
agreed to be paid in half-yearly instalments of ten marks " at ye 
festes of Midsummer and Yule;" it covenants that "ye said Thorns 
grntes to fynd and susten copetentlie in mete drynke and hostyll 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 281 

ye said James and Alice duryng ye first yere aft ye sponsailles 
betwen hem yf so be yt yai wyll be at hys fynding. And ye said 
Rog grntes to ye said Thorns yt he shall fynd copetent in lykewyse 
ye said James and Alice in meet drynke and hostyll yf yai will be at 
hys fynding ye yere next suyng ye said yere ; " and it further pro- 
vides that any reform or amendment shall be with the advice of 
" Cristofor of Hulton." This Christopher was of the Farnworth 
branch, and at the time in the commission of the peace, and 
sergeant-at-law and attorney for the duchy, offices to which he was 
afterwards (20 Henry VI.) appointed for life instead of pleasure. 

The younger daughter of Roger Hulton, Ellen, became the wife 
of John Bradshawe, of Bradshawe, the head of a family that claimed 
to have continued an uninterrupted male succession from the 
ancient family seated at Bradshaw, near Bolton, generations before 
the Conquest one of the few that can claim a root in the 
Heptarchy ; and, in addition, he had an only son, Roger, whose 
name occurs as being present with a number of local gentry to 
witness a curious ceremony that took place in the Parish Church 
of Leigh on Sunday, December 4th, 1474, when William, son of 
Nicholas Ryland, having, as it would seem, forged a deed of 
feoffment of his father's lands, was by the vicar, under authority 
from the Dean of Lichfield, cursed by " bell, book, and candle." 
This Roger died about the year 1485, leaving, with other issue, 
Roger, his heir, who married Katharine, one of the ten daughters 
and co-heirs of Sir James Harrington, of Wolfage, and thus 
became allied with one of the most powerful houses connected with 
Lancashire, and one the members of which through many genera- 
tions had played a high game in the most important affairs of the 

Roger Hulton, of Hulton, by his marriage with Katharine, one of 
the daughters and co-heirs of Sir James Harrington, had four 
children Adam, his heir; Hugh, of Stapleford, Cheshire; Alex- 

* Wright, in his History of Rutlandshire, says : " There have been nearly 
allied to, or descended from, this great family of Harrington three dukes, 
three marquises, thirty-one earls, seven counts, twenty-nine viscounts, and 
thirty-seven barons, sixteen of these being Knights of the Garter." 


282 County Families of 

ander ; and a daughter Emma, who became the wife of Richard 
Parr, of Kempnaugh. Adam, the eldest, eventually succeeded as 
heir. John Hulton, who was then the head of the Farnworth 
branch, had an only daughter, Alicia, his heir ; and Roger, of The 
Park, in accordance with a custom then prevalent of marrying 
children at an early age, looked round for a suitable wife for his 
son, and his choice fell on his kinsman's daughter and presumptive 
heir. The match was doubtless dictated by policy, and with a 
desire on the part of both the fathers to bar the claim of the feudal 
superior to sell the marriage of an unmarried heir. The agree- 
ment, which throws a good deal of light on the usages of the age, 
and shows how young people's hands were disposed of without a 
thought being given to the likes or dislikes of those most directly 
concerned, is worth giving in extenso : 

This indent* made the aoth daie of October in the first yer of the reigne 
of King Henrie the 7 (1485) Betwen Jno. Hulton of Farnewrth esquier opon 
the on ptie and Rog. Hulton the yong of Holton Parke opon the other ptie. 
\Yitness that the said Rog. grantes to these psentes that Adm son and heier 
of the Rog. shall be redie by the grce of God to wedde and take to wyfe 
Alice doghtr of the said John within ten yer next suyng the date of these 
pscnts at the resonble request of said John or his asseyns. And also the 
said Rog. grants unto the said John that he shal make a sur estat of londes 
to the yrlie value of x mke ov all chergis in the counte of Loncastr unto 
the said Alice during the terme of lyve of the said Alice within quarte of yer 
next afte the decesse of Rog. Hulton the eldr fadr of the said Rog. Hulton 
the youngr. For the qhech mariag and estat trulie to be holden and kepit 
the said John grantes to paie to the said Rog. the yongr i xx mke and x 
mke to Katine wyfe of the said Rog. and modr under the said Adm of the 
qhech sume of the said Rog. hath resaived x mke at the daie of dat of 
these psents and the residew to be paiet in manner as folows to witt on the 
yer next folowing the decesse of the said Rog. Hulton the eldr and the estat 
above said leofullie made x lib at four reasonable daies unto the t3'me that 
the foresaid sume be paiet Forthmor if the said John or his conseill think 
this bargen not accding for him and refuse itt wtin a quart of a yer aft the 
decesse of the said Rog. the eldr then the foresaid Rog. the yongr grantes to 
repaie unto the said John or his assein x mke In the witness, &c. These 
witnes Thorns Tildesley of Wordley Thorns Tildisley of the Pele and othirs. 

* An " indenture " was so named from being written m two parts on the 
same piece of parchment, which was afterwards cut through in a tooth-like 
or indented form, a part being given to each contracting party. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 283 

It is evident from the wording of this agreement that Adam and 
Alice were both at the time in their infancy, and as they were 
related in blood and within the prohibited degrees, it was necessary 
to obtain a Papal dispensation before the marriage could be 
solemnised. The dispensation bears date 22nd May, 1489, the 
fifth year of the Pontificate of Innocent VIII., and was granted by 
John de Giglis, the Pope's Nuncio. John Hulton died two years 
before the granting of this decree, and the disposition of his estates 
led to many contentions and much heartburning among the 
members of the family. His younger brother, Richard, took the 
Manor of Farnworth and other properties as heir male ; he died 
childless, 24 Henry VII. (1508). In an inquisition taken the 
same year and preserved among the Duchy Records he is described 
as ideota et fatuus, and found to have died seised of lands in Farn- 
worth, Nether Hulton, Denton, and Harpurhey in Manchester. 
Christopher, the next brother, succeeded the sergeant- at-law and 
attorney for the duchy before referred to who had married 
another of the daughters of Sir James Harrington, but the transfer 
did not staunch the old feud, for litigation ensued, and the dispute 
dragged its slow length through many long weary years to the 
material benefit of the lawyers, no doubt, but to the pecuniary 
disadvantage of those more directly concerned. Adam Hulton, 
taking up the words of Hotspur, might justly complain that his 
wife's uncle had cut 

A huge half-moon, a monstrous cantle out 
Of her expected fortune. 

Interest republican ut sit finis litium is doubtless an excellent law 
maxim, but it is one that aggrieved litigants are not always disposed 
to regard. The feeling of animosity continued to smoulder and burn 
until 1521, thirty-four years after the death of John Hulton, when 
both parties wearied, it may be presumed, of the quarrel listened 
to reason and agreed to refer their differences to arbitration. The 
award, which bears date July nth, 1310 Henry VIII., witnesseth 
" that where afore this tyme dyvrs strifes have bene had betwene 

284 County Families of 

the seyd pties (Adam of the Parke and William of Farn worth, 
nephew of Christopher) of certen londs called Snythill in VVest- 
halghton and in Harpoureschay Denton Openscha and Gorton in 
the pisshe of Manchester and certen londs at Barton Lever and 
Bolton," and decrees that the lands in Snythill, Harpurhey, Denton, 
Openshaw, and Gorton shall be assigned to Adam Hulton, Alice 
his wife, and the heirs male of Alice, and in default of such heirs 
then to remain with William Hulton and the heirs male of his 
body'; and further that in accordance with the will of John Hulton, 
the father of Alice, the lands in Barton Lever, which he had pur- 
chased from Geoffrey Shakerley, should continue in the possession 
of William Hulton and descend to his heirs male. The award did 
not finally end the dispute, for, as we shall hereafter see, a good 
deal of litigation followed upon the death of William Hulton, the 
title to the estates being contested by several claimants. 

In 1523, when Henry VIII. renewed his quarrel with Scotland, 
repeating his demand for the removal of the Regent Albany from 
power, and backing up his demand by sending an army of invasion 
under the Earl of Surrey. While the Earl of Shrewsbury busied 
himself in ravaging the borders of the Tweed, he addressed a letter 
to his "Trustye and well-beloved" Adam Hulton, requiring him to 
bring a force of forty able men, to support the army intended to 
operate against the Scotch. 

A family of six children was born of the marriage with the 
heiress of Farnworth, of whom the eldest son, William Hulton, 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Legh, of Adlington, in 
Cheshire, by his wife Katharine, daughter of Sir John Savage, of 
Clifton, and sister of Thomas Savage, Archbishop of York, a 
marriage that brought him in close relationship with the powerful 
Cheshire House of Savage, and the still more powerful Lancashire 
family the Stanleys of Lathom. He had a numerous issue, and 
at his death, which occurred in 1555, his eldest son, Adam, who 
was then thirty-six years of age, succeeded. This Adam appears to 
have inherited some of the litigious spirit of his grandfather and 
namesake, for a year after we find him disputing with his widowed 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 285 

mother as to her right of dower. The cause of their " variaunces 
and debats '' was referred to the lady's kinsmen, Thomas Stanley, 
Lord Monteagle the hero of Fiodden and his son Thomas, for 
adjustment, and they made their award on the I3th of August, 3rd 
and 4th Philip and Mary. The document is interesting from the 
mention in it of a colliery on the Hulton estate being worked at 
that comparatively early date.* It provides that Elizabeth, the 
widow of William Hulton, shall during her lifetime be entitled to 
the rentals of certain specified tenements in Hulton, with one-half 
of all the hens and capons belonging to the said tenements, in full 
recompense of her dowry, and further that Adam, her son, and his 
heirs " shall cause syxtene quartirs of colics yerelie to be layd opon 
the banke of the same collepytt at his ownc prop costs to the use 
of the said Elizabethe for hir natural! lyfe. And yt shal lie lawfull 
for the said Elizabethe to comaunde hir said tenauntis to leade 
yerelie four quarters of colles to hir house yf she be residente 
wythynne tenne myles of Hulton parke." 

Adam Hulton had been contracted in marriage in the lifetime of 
his grandfather, and while yet in infancy, with Clemenre, one of the 
daughters of Sir William Norreys, of Speke. The marriage covenant 
bears date zoth January, 21 Henry VIII. (1529), but as they were 
related in blood, and within the prohibited degrees, the grand- 
mother of Clemence having been a daughter of Sir James Harring- 
ton, a dispensation was necessary, and this was granted November 

3. 1534. 

If the territorial possessions of the older line of the Hultons were 
not augmented to the extent they had anticipated by the marriage 
with the heiress of Farnworth, there was one right acquired tlint the 
lawyers did not dispute or attempt to deprive them of that of 
quartering the crowned lion of the Hultons of Farnworth with their 
own insignia, though upon this question of heraldry the heralds have 
not always been agreed. We have seen that the earliest known 

Coal was first used as fuel in England in the reign of Henry III., but it 
was not until the middle of the last century that the capacity and utility of 
the great Lancashire coalfield was made manifest. 

286 County Families of 

device of the family was a red lion upon a silver shield, as shown on 
the seal of Richard de Hulton, circa 1333. As the family of Farn- 
worth and that of The Park descended from a common ancestor, 
the arms should have been the same, differenced only with a mark 
of cadency, to indicate that the Farmvorth Hultons were a younger 
line, and this mark was doubtless the crown which they had added 
to the lion originally borne ; but when the " Heraulde " made his 
visitation in 1533 he depicted the lion of the parent house with two 
tails, or, to use his own phrase, it was " double queued," and 
assigned a single " queue " only to the Farnworth lion. Heralds 
are not always infallible, and there is little doubt that under the 
influence of the hospitalities of The Park, or from some other cause, 
the old gentleman whether Tonge or 
Fellow, Norroy or Clarenceux, who made 
the inquiry, blundered, and the mistake 
has been repeated in later days, and been 
the cause of some confusion ; though the 
matter should have been set at rest when, 
in 1561, Laurence Dalton, Norroy King 
of Arms, " consyderyng that Adam 
Hylton, of Hylton, in the countie of 
ArinsffiiuitiiHofi-'anr-Mirtii. I.oncastre, escuyer and hys auncestres 
have long continued in noblcnes bearyng armes," but " wantyng 
a crest, badge, or coygnoyssaunce," granted him the one which his 
descendants have borne to the present day, and at the same time 
expressed particularly the arms then entitled to be used " Syluer 
a Lyon rampaunt gewles armed and hnged asure quartered with 
Syluer a Lyon rampaunt gewles crowned golde armed and langed 
asure whych he beareth for Alyce daughter and sole heire to John 
Hylton of Farnworth." 

As previously stated, the disputes respecting the disposition of 
the Farnworth property were not finally composed by the award of 
1521-2. On the death of William Hulton, one of the parties to 
that settlement, litigation was renewed, and the Calendar of Plead- 
ings in the Duchy Court of Lancaster gives an enumeration of the 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 


names of several suitors. In 1556-7 Adam Hulton and Alan 
Hulton, the representatives of a younger line, who claimed, as heir 
male, had a dispute with Christiana, the widow of William Hulton, 
who had died in the preceding year, respecting the title to certain 
messuages and lands, including those at Harpurhey. In the first 
year of Elizabeth's reign James Hulton, a younger brother of 
William, who also 
described himself 
as heir male, had a 
suit against another 
of the blood, John 
Hulton, vicar of 
Blackburn Sir 
John as he is called, 
the prefix being a 
dignity then com- 
monly accorded to 
ecclesiastics res- 
pecting the same ; 
and two years later 
(1560) Christiana 
Hulton, the widow, 
is found issuing a 
prosecution against 
Adam Hulton, who 
claimed, under a 
conveyance from 
John the cleric, 
lands in Harpurhey 

and elsewhere, con- -'"'" ""'' Cm/ " J '""""" ' 
cerning which there had been a decree. This was, no doubt, a 
decree of the Court of Chancery, which was subsequently alleged 
to have been cor am nonjudice, because of the Queen's writ under 
the great seal not running in the county palatine. 

Adam Hulton died September 20, 1572. His decease is thus 

288 County Families of 

recorded in the proceedings of the Court I^eet at Manchester, 
Wednesday, October i, i4th Elizabeth (1572): 

Adam Hilton, of The Park, Esq., departed ; William Hilton is his son and 
heir and of lawful age, &c. 

His inquisition was taken at Lancaster on the I3th March 
following, when William Hulton, his son, who was then of the age 
of thirty-two, was found to be next heir. At this time England was 
in a state of agitation by religious feuds and the unceasing efforts of 
the [esuits and other emissary priests sent into the country for the 
purpose of fomenting sedition and alluring the people from their 
allegiance to the Queen. To guard against the recurrence of 
rebellion, and the more speedily to suppress any attempt to disturb 
the public tranquillity, levies of troops, armour, and money were 
made, and the military strength of the kingdom fully ascertained. 
In 1574, almost immediately after entering upon his patrimony, we 
find from the Muster Roll, or order of the Government of soldiers 
and arms " putt in Readynes wthin the County of Lane, as well by 
force of this Statute as graunted of Good Will by p'swacon of the 
Comyssoners of the general! mustir for her Maties Srvice," that 
William Hulton was required to furnish " Light horse j ; caliver j ; 
morriane j." 

After the accession of Elizabeth the county became the scene of 
much religious contention. While the Reformation progressed 
rapidly in other parts of the kingdom, in Lancashire Romanism 
held its own, and many of the gentry openly defied the Act of 
Uniformity, or complied with it only to such an extent as would save 
them from trouble. Many plots were conceived by the more active 
recusants to subvert the established faith and substitute their own 
in its stead, and the country became involved in a kind of religious 
warfare that was carried on with much bitterness on both sides. 
The Hultons were staunch in their adherence to the old religion, 
but, like many others of their faith, they were true to their country, 
and, when menaced by dangers from without, unswerving in their 
fidelity and attachment to the person of Elizabeth. This was a 

Lancashire and Cheshire, 289 

special feature of that eventful period, and should not be overlooked 
in considering the forces which then disturbed the kingdom, nor 
should it be forgotten that the best of the old Catholic peers and 
gentry were out in the Armada year. There were in fact at the 
time two parties in the Roman Church, both of them the objects of 
popular distrust, though each had very different aims. There was 
the English Catholic, who, while bent upon destroying the Govern- 
ment of the Queen, was yet loyal to the Queen herself, though his 
loyalty was often sorely tempted by intriguing ecclesiastics ; and 
there was the Roman Catholic, whose disloyalty was encouraged 
and stimulated by Jesuits and other foreign emissaries, who, resolved 
upon subverting the religion and liberty of England, had prevailed 
with their disciples to accept a foreign purpose and a foreign prince. 
The former reverenced Rome as the oldest of the Latin sees ; but lie 
was proud of his English birth, and, loving his country as other 
men loved it, was prompt to march when a foreign enemy 
threatened to profane its soil ; he clung to ancient forms, ami was 
desirous of seeing them restored, but he was in every other sense 
an Englishman, and imbued with the grand old spirit of patriotism 
which recoiled with aversion from any act that would imperil the 
greatness or welfare of his fatherland. Whilst the latter was English 
only in name, Spain was his only country, and Philip his only king, 
and the Roman Church, if the Pope was its head and his cardinals 
its officers, was undoubtedly with him in abetting the Spaniard in 
his projected invasion. It was to the former class that William 
Hulton belonged, for though, in 1576, he had been returned to the 
Privy Council by Downham, Bishop of Chester, as "obstinate" and 
refusing to go to church, " and other godlic exercises of religion/' he 
was faithful in his allegiance to his sovereign, and in 1585 joined the 
association of Lancashire magistrates to defend the Queen and 
Church against the attacks of Rome. He died in 1624, at the 
advanced age of eighty-four, having lived in the reigns of six 
successive sovereigns four of the Tudor dynasty, and two of that of 
the Stuarts. He was buried in the Hulton Chapel, in Dean Church, 
as was also his wife, Margaret, daughter and co-heir of Henry 

290 County Families of 

Inskip, of Kighley, by whom he had a family of five sons and three 
daughters. Having outlived both his eldest son, Adam, and his 
grandson, William, he was succeeded in the inheritance by his 
great-grandson, then a youth of seventeen summers. 

The lapse of years had wrought great changes in the religious 
beliefs of the Hulton family. If William Hulton was a loyal and 
patriotic Catholic in the stirring times of Queen Elizabeth, his 
successor was a no less earnest Protestant in the eventful reign of 
the ill-starred Charles the First. The cause of this revolution in 
religious thought is not far to seek. The preaching of George 
Marsh, the martyr a native of Deanc, in which parish Hulton is 
situate long illumined Bolton and the surrounding villages, and 
produced deep and solemn impressions on the minds of the local 
gentry and hardy yeomen, who were ever ready to resist oppression, 
and more especially when it took the form of an attempt to coerce 
conscience ; and to Marsh's influence, his teaching, and example 
may be attributed the strong Protestant feeling which at the time 
spread over so large a portion of South-East Lancashire. These 
Reformers were the progenitors of later Nonconformists, their 
descendants in the next generation becoming the earnest upholders 
of Puritanism. The Hultons were of the number, and being 
connected by marriage with several of the founders of Puritanical 
Protestantism, for which the neighbourhood was long distinguished, 
were at one with them in cherishing and defending the faith which 
had been ratified by the blood of the Bolton martyr. A repre- 
sentative of the younger line, John Hulton, who had settled at 
Chester, married a sister of Matthew Henry, the eminent Noncon- 
formist divine and Bible commentator, and another member of the 
family was the grandmother of Oliver Heywood, a no less notable 
Nonconformist preacher. The mother of Adam Hulton Katha- 
rine, daughter of Robert Hyde, of Hyde and Norbury, in Cheshire, 
and the widow of Roger Nowell, of Reade was a lady of strong 
Puritanical sympathies, and doubtless had much to do in shaping 
the religious opinions of her fatherless boy. The Hydes of Norbury 
were kinsmen of the Hydes of Hyde, in Denton, the head of which 

Lancasliire and Cheshire. 291 

house was an active supporter of the same religious interests, and 
the one who, on the outbreak of the Civil War, armed his tenants, 
and with his neighbour, Colonel Holland, of Uenton, marched to 
the defence of Manchester against the Royalists under the Earl of 
Derby, and, when the surrender of the town was advised, declared, 
with indignant remonstrance, that if forsaken he would stand alone 
in his resistance to the soldiers of the King. Adam Hulton would, 
consequently, be brought into close intercourse with the Hydes, 
Hollands, Dukinfields, Bradshaws, Booths, and other leaders of 
the Puritan and anti-Royalist party ; but though he must have 
watched with much anxiety the widening breach between King and 
people, and doubtless shared in the consultations and conferences of 
his stern enthusiastic kinsmen men of iron will who, when stirred 
by the trumpet blast of discontent that swept over the country, and 
roused by the beacon fires that told the issue of the fight at Edge- 
hill, were ready to put on " the athletic habit of liberty " and " fight 
as in a cockpit" against the tide of unlawful prerogative lu does 
not appear to have drawn the sword or to have taken any part in 
that protracted struggle which steeped the country in the best and 
bravest blood of England a circumstance that is the more remark- 
able when we remember that he was closely connected with the most 
distinguished and energetic Parliamentarian leader in the county 
Colonel Alexander Rigby, the " insolent rebel," as Charlotte Tre- 
moille, Countess of Derby, called him who was the head and 
heart and hand, and almost everything else of importance on the 
Cromwellian cause, his sister Beatrice being the wife of the colonel's 
brother, George Rigby, of The Peele, in Hulton. 

Adam Hulton died in 1652, at the comparatively early age of 
forty-five. His will, which bears date September 16, 1651, and in 
which he describes himself as being "sick in bodye, but in good 
and perfect memory," was proved at London on the loth June, in 
the following year. By his wife Grace, daughter of Edmund 
Haworth, of Haworth, he had, in addition to five daughters, an 
only son, William Hulton, born September 9, 1625, who succeeded. 
He married Ann, the Only child and heir of William Jessop, of 

292 County Families of 

Warwick House, Holborn, who represented Staffordshire in Parlia- 
ment in the closing years of Cromwell's rule. Though inheriting 
the religious spirit of his immediate forefathers, his Puritanism was 
not characterised by that rigid narrowness that manifested itself 
in others of his politico-religious party, whose frigid philosophy 
oftentimes indisposed them to recognise the heralds or to satisfy the 
requirements necessary to establish their claim to the use of heraldic 
blazonry and the honours of family descent ; for when Sir William 
Dugdale, Norroy King-of-Arms, issued his summons to "divers 
persons residing within the Hundred of Salford " to api>ear before 
him at "ye Sign of the King's Head in Salford on ye Qth day of ye 
month of September," 1664, William Hulton attended, justified his 
right to bear arms, and registered his pedigree, thus repairing the 
omission of his ancestors, who had entered only at the Visitation of 
1533, and had neglected to do so at those which intervened. Of 
this William frequent mention is made in the "Diary" of Henry 
Newcome, the founder of Nonconformity in Manchester, and an 
intimate friendship appears to have existed between them. He died 
March 271!:, 1694, and was buried in the chancel of Dean Church, 
being succeeded in the Hulton and Farnworth estates by his eldest 
surviving son, Henry, born in 1665, and then aged twenty-nine 
years. At the trial of the Lancashire gentlemen at Manchester, in 
October, 1694, on the charge, fabricated by a professional informer 
and whilom alehouse keeper, John Lunt, of being implicated in a 
treasonable enterprise against the person and crown of the " Dutch 
usurper," as William the Third was styled, this Henry, who had 
then been in possession of the estates only a few months, was called 
and sworn on the grand jury. He appears to have been a personage 
of eccentric and somewhat parsimonious habits, as evidenced by a 
story related of him by Dr. Halley, in his Lancashire Puritanism 
and Nonconformity. When James Woods, the Presbyterian pastor 
of Chowbcnt Chapel "the old general," as he was commonly 
styled, from the circumstance that he had, when the Pretender 
advanced upon Preston in 1715, convened all the able-bodied men 
of his congregation, and having armed them with swords, scythes, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 293 

pitchforks, and other implements of destruction, marched at their 
head to join the King's forces a divine who was not more timid in 
begging than in fighting, was about to re-build his meeting-house, 
he called upon Mr. Hulton at The Park, who, being the repre- 
sentative of a Puritan family, could not easily refuse him, although, 
being very penurious, he would contribute as little as he could 
without giving offence. Woods asked the Presbyterian squire for 
twenty oaks for his meeting-house. Mr. Hulton could not spare 
twenty, but would give him ten. "Thank you," said the "general," 
"just the number I want; I knew you would give me only half as 
many as I asked for." Mr. Hulton married, at Thornhill, 
September 29, 1735, Eleanor, eldest daughter and co-heir of the 
Rev. John Copley, of Batley, and Rector of Thornhill, in Yorkshire. 
He must then have been over seventy years of age. He died child- 
less two years afterwards, and his widow, who was many years his 
junior, married, in 1739, Sir Ralph Assheton, Dart., the last of the 
male line of the ancient house of Middleton, by whom, in addition 
to a son, who died in his minority, she was mother of two daughters, 
one of whom became the wife of the first Lord Suffield, and the 
other of Sir Thomas Egerton, Bart., afterwards Lord (Irey de 
Wilton, great grandfather of the present Earl of Wilton. 

On the death of Henry Hulton without issue the estates reverted 
to his nephew William, son of Jessop Hulton. He did not, however, 
long enjoy possession, his death occurring in April, 1741. By his 
wife, Mary, daughter and co-heir of William Leigh, of Wcsthaugh- 
ton (who married secondly Edward Clowes, of Broughton Hall, 
Manchester), he had an only son, his heir, who was under two 
years of age at the time of his decease. He succeeded, and married, 
25th April, 1759, Anne, daughter and heir of John Hall, of Droyls- 
den, by whom he had, with other issue, William Hulton, his heir, 
and Henry Hulton, who married 251!! August, 1798, Louisa 
Caroline, fourth daughter of John Hooke Campbell, Lord I, yon, 
King of Arms of Scotland, and was, by her, father of, with other 
children, William Adam Hulton, Judge of the County Court at 
Preston ; the late Rev. Campbell Basset Arthur Grey Hulton, 

294 County Families of Lancashire, &c. 

formerly of Manchester, and sometime Rector of Emberton, county 
of Bucks ; and Frederick Blethyn Copley Hulton, Registrar of the 
Salford County Court. 

William Hulton, who succeeded as heir on the death of his father, 
January ist, 1773, married, August 23rd, 1785, Jane, third 
daughter of Peter Brooke, of Mere, county Chester. He served 
the office of Sheriff in 1789, and died 24th June, 1800, leaving, 
in addition to William, his heir, a daughter, Frances Anne, who 
married, May 4th, 1810, the Rev. John Rowlls Brown, M.A., Vicar 
of Prestbury, Cheshire. William Hulton, on whom the inheritance 
devolved, was born 23rd October, 1787, and married, 25th October, 
1808, Maria, youngest daughter and co-heir of Randle Ford, of 
Wexham, in Buckinghamshire. He held the shrievalty of his 
county in 1809, was Constable of Lancaster Castle, and died, at 
Leamington, March, 1864, leaving, with other issue, William 
Ford Hulton, his heir, born igth September, iSn, who died in 
1879, leaving by his wife, Georgiana, daughter of Sir John Lister 
Kaye, Bart., to whom he was married October J5th, 1839, in 
addition to a son, Edward Grey Hulton, Commander R.N., and 
two daughters, Frances Amelia Jessie and Georgiana Maria, 
William Wilbraham Blethyn Hulton, J.P., D.L., born 3ist July, 
1844, the present manorial lord of Hulton and Deane. 



HE Grosvenors are one of the few territorial families 
in this country who can, with some show of 
authority, carry their pedigree back to the earlier 
feudal period. Some imaginative heralds, not 
content with this measure of antiquity, seek their 
origin in the Icelandic sagas, and, running into the shadowy 
abysm of time, tell us that the founder of the stock was an uncle 
of that fierce fighting Norwegian chief whom Harold Harfinger 
banished from his country on account of his piratical practices the 
great Rollo, or Rolf the Ganger, who became Duke of Normandy ; 
but the acceptance of this statement involves large demands upon 
our credulity. There is a widespread belief, that has come to be 
accepted as an article of genealogical faith, that the first who bore 
the name was chief huntsman to the Duke of Normandy, and that 
it was from the office he held, which was hereditary, he received the 
cognomen of h gros vcriour, afterwards corrupted into Grosvenor. 
The old pedigree-makers affirm that a descendant of his, a certain 
Gilbert le Grosvenor, came to England with his uncle, Hugh 
d'Avranches, better known as Hugh Lupus, from the wolfs head 
he bore upon his shield. For his services in helping to establish 
Duke William of Normandy upon the throne, this pious profligate . 
was rewarded with the Earldom of Chester and the whole of the 
broad acres in that fair county ; and he in turn gave to Robert, his 
nephew Gilbert le Grosvenor's son, the lands in Over Lostock, or 
Allostock, in the Northwich Hundred. The statements that have 

298 County Families of 

come down to us respecting these early Grosvenors and the origin 
of their name, rest, it must be confessed, on very slender testimony. 
In the first place, it is by no means clear that there was such an 
office as that of chief huntsman attached to the court of the Duke 
of Normandy, but if there was, it is much more likely the holder 
would be in the retinue of the Norman duke at Hastings than in 
that of Hugh Lupus on the Welsh marches ; and we may there- 
fore not unreasonably look in some other direction for the true 

Hugh Lupus had the earldom conferred upon him, " to hold of 
the King as freely by the sword as the King himself held the 
realm of England by the Crown" " tarn libere ad gladinm sicut ipse 
Rex tenebat Angliam ad Coronam." 

1'ruL-ly to govern it as by conquest right, 
Made a sure chirtrc to him and his succession, 
By the sworde of dignity to hold it with might. 

The earl was in fact a Count-Palatine ; and thoroughly appreciating 
the condition of his tenure, and the more effectually to secure it, 
he divided his palatinate into eight or more baronies, which he 
distributed among his warlike followers upon the condition of their 
supporting him with the sword, as he was in turn to support the 
King. One of the barons thus created was Gilbert, a younger son 
of Eudo, Earl of Elois, and a first cousin of the Conqueror. He 
was one of the combatants at Hastings, and afterwards assisted in 
the subjugation of the Welsh, in recompense for which services he 
received considerable gifts of land in the newly-acquired county, 
and chose Kinderton as the seat of his barony. Like his 
patron, Earl Hugh, he was devoted to the pleasures of the 
chase, and from his skill received the name of Venables ( Venator 
abilis) a variation of the Gros Venor which his descendants have 
retained to the present day. The fact that both names have the 
same derivation, and that the coat armour of the earlier represen- 
tatives of the Grosvenors and the Venables was not very dissimilar, 
points to the conclusion that Gilbert le Gros-venor who came to 

Lancashire and Cheshire, 299 

England with Hugh Lupus and Gilbert Venator-abilis, whom the 
same Hugh made Baron of Kinderton, was one and the same 
person, and the common ancestor of both families.* 

Passing from the region of speculative theory to that of historic 
fact, the earliest evidence of a trustworthy character we can gather 
is the testimony of the witnesses at the great Scrope and Grosvenor 
suit of arms in the fourteenth century. One of the witnesses, John 
de Holford, in his examination (October i, 1386), affirmed that 
Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, divided the vill of Lostock (in 
Northwich Hundred), which had belonged to one Hame, who 
was slain in the battle of Nantwich, and that he gave Over Lostock, 
or Allostock, to Robert Grosvenor. This testimony was supple- 
mented by the Abbot of Vale Royal, who deposed to the relation- 
ship existing between Earl Hugh and Gilbert Grosvenor, the father 
of Robert, and also to the lineal descent from the first grantee of 
Lostock. It is interesting to recall the incidents connected with 
some of the personages named in the evidence of the abbot. 
Ralph, the great-grandson of Gilbert, the nephew of Earl Hugh, 
was a staunch supporter of the Empress Maud, and was in the 
retinue of his cousin, Randle Gernons, in the decisive battle at 
Lincoln, February 2, 1141, a battle in which Stephen performed 
feats of valour that might well recall Homeric days. The Earl of 
Chester, envious of the glory the King was gaining, threw himself 
upon him with the whole weight of his men-at-arms ; but the King's 
courage never wavered, and his battle-axe gleamed like lightning 

* At the time of the Domesday Survey (1080-86) a certain Norman Venator 
held the Manor of Cantilope, in the adjoining county of Salop, of Roger 
Montgomery, Earl of Arundel, Shrewsbury, and Montgomery, and kinsman 
of the Conqueror and of Hugh Lupus. He filled the office of Chief Forester 
of Shropshire, as did also his son (or brother), Roger Venator, and his 
descendants. As Roger Venator was, in 1102, entrusted by Robert, the son 
and successor of Roger Montgomery, with the custody of the Castle of 
Bridgenorth, it is evident he must have been a person of high position. Mr. 
Eyton, in his History of Shropshire, expresses the belief that he was a 
relation of the powerful Montgomeries ; and Mr. Yeatman, in his History 
of the House of Arundel, says that he was probably ancestor of the Gros- 
venors, though, he adds, the proof of the fact is still wanting. 

3<x> County Families of 

as it fell with deadly effect upon the foes who pressed upon him. 
Fortune, however, proved adverse ; and at last, after both battle- 
axe and sword had been broken in his hand, he was knocked down 
by a stone and carried captive to Bristol. 

Another Grosvenor, Robert, presumably a son of this Ralph, was 
one of the adventurous spirits who accompanied the lion-hearted 
Richard in his expedition to recover Palestine from the Turks in 
1190 an expedition that left England four years without a ruler 
He was with him at Messina during all the delays and difficulties 
that arose out of Richard's changed matrimonial projects, and also 
when that monarch, having quarrelled with and dethroned the 
Greek King, Isaac, took possession of Cyprus. At Lymasal, on 
that island, Richard, on the i2th May, 1191, was married to 
Berengaria, daughter of Sancho IV., of Navarre. It was a brief 
honeymoon, and as soon as it was ended he set sail for Acre, 
Robert Grosvenor being in his retinue. When the Crusader King 
had vindicated the Christian religion by hanging 2,700 of his 
Turkish hostages outside the walls of Acre, he turned his steps in 
the direction of the Holy City. Robert Grosvenor shared in the 
glories of the victory gained over Saladin at Jaffa, and it may be 
presumed that he was in the fruitless march to Jerusalem which 
followed, as well as in the retreat to Ascalon when that perilous 
enterprise was abandoned. 

Further down the genealogical roll we come to another Robert, 
who helped to sustain the martial reputation of his progenitors by 
the services he rendered at the invasion of Scotland, when, after 
lialliol's contemptuous refusal to acknowledge the overlordship of 
the English King, Edward, in 1296, marched an army northwards, 
crossed the Tweed, and stormed and " took the town of Berwick- 
upon-Tweed without tarrying," subjecting nearly eight thousand of 
its citizens to ruthless carnage, and burning alive the Flemish 
traders who had sought safety in the Town Hall. Berwick never 
recovered from the blow, and thus the great merchant city of the 
north the second Alexandria was reduced to the level of a petty 
seaport. The news of the slaughter of Berwick spread ; Edinburgh, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 301 

Stirling, and Perth successively opened their gates to the visitors, 
when Balliol surrendered his crown and sceptre, and with them 
" the stone of destiny,'' on which the earlier Scottish kings had 
been installed.* In the reign of Edward III. another Grosvenor, 
again a Robert, but a second son of the parent stock, distinguished 
himself in the French wars, and was with Edward III. when, after 
ravaging Normandy and reaching the very gates of Paris, he 
deemed it prudent to retreat towards Flanders, and crossed the 
Somme to encounter, the next day (August 28, 1346), the countless 
hosts of France, fighting under the sacred Oriflamme with its 
broidered golden lilies, on the ever memorable field of Crescy, 

Edward, the Black Prince, 
On the French ground play'd a tragedy, 
Making defeat on the full power of France, 
Whiles his most mighty father on a hill 
Stood smiKng to behold his lion's whelp 
Forage in blood of French nobility. 

The victory at Crescy was followed by the siege of Vanncs and 
Calais the latter the scene of the story of Queen Philippa and the 
burgesses, that Froissart has told with such dramatic power and 
the capture of which saved English commerce by securing the 
mastery of the Channel. Thus the Grosvenors in successive 
generations bore themselves bravely and served their country well, 
justifying the claim of their house to be recognised as of the fierce 
fighting early Norman stock. 

Unlike the witty, but cynical Frenchman, Voltaire, who pro- 
nounced heraldry to be " the science of fools with long memories," 
the Cheshire Grosvenors boasted their blue blood, venerated their 
good ancestral name, and prided themselves upon the armorial 
insignia which they held to be the exclusive property of their 

* The sacred stone, or stone of destiny an oblong block of limestone 
which legend affirms to have been the pillow of Jacob as angels ascended 
and descended upon him, was removed from Scone, and placed in a "stately 
seat " by the shrine of Edward the Confessor at Westminster, a seat that 
has ever since been the coronation chair of the English sovereigns. 


County Families of 

house. But if it was a chivalrous age, it was also a litigious one, 
and the claim of the Grosvenors was disputed by the powerful 

Ralph Grosvenor, the elder brother of the hero of Crescy, at his 
death in 1356, left a son, Robert, his heir, who, being then under 
age, was made a ward of Sir John Daniell, who, seeing that he had 
a fair estate, and was, in modern parlance, an eligible person, 
exercised his right of wardship by marrying him to his own 
daughter Joan. While yet a minor, this Robert, who possessed 
the chivalrous spirit of his race, accompanied Edward III. in his 
last expedition into France, and while there, of course, displayed 
the heraldic blazonry of his house a diagonal bar or cross-belt of 

gold upon a background of light blue, 
or, as the heralds briefly express it, 
azure a bend or. Among the com- 
batants was a Cornish squire named 
Carminow, who, by a curious coinci- 
dence, bore the same coat. Heraldry, 
in its expressive symbolism, was then 
supposed to shadow forth the distin- 
guishing qualities and personal virtues 
of the individual it had a meaning 
Anns of c.roK<ent>r (Ancient). and a value, and was the recognised 
evidence of hereditary rank and honourable distinction. Hence 
the use of this particular coat by the Cornish Carminow was 
not to be tolerated, and accordingly Sir John Daniell, the 
father-in-law of the youthful head of the House of Grosvenor, 
challenged, on behalf of his ward, the right of Carminow 
to lx;ar the coat. The matter was referred to the Earl of North- 
ampton, who was then with the army in France, and he gave a 
decision adverse to the exclusive claim set up. But the difficulty 
did not end here, for a few years later the right of the Grosvenors 
to bear the coat was disputed by Richard, Lord Scrope, the head 
of the powerful family of that name, of Bolton Castle, in Yorkshire, 
who charged his brother knight with having usurped and worn his 

Lancashire and Clieshire. 303 

arms, and challenged him to prove his title to them. A suit was 
instituted in the court of the Lord Marshal of England, which has 
hardly a parallel in regard to the length to which it extended or 
the general interest it evoked. It lasted four years, and while sub 
judice the progress was watched with the keenest anxiety. The 
hearing began in the month of August, 1385, or, if we arc to accept 
the humorous version of the author of the Ingoldsby Lfgcnds, some 
ten years earlier : 

Look at "the Roll," 

Which records the dispute, 

And the subsequent suit, 

Commenced in " thirteen seventy-five " which took root 
In Le Grosvenor's assuming the arms Le Scroope swore 
That none but his ancestors ever before, 
In foray, joust, battle, or tournament wore, 
To wit " On a Prussian-blue Field a Bend Or ;" 
While the Grosvenor averr'd that his ancestor bore 
The same, and Scroope lied. 

There was a tremendous array of evidence, as well oral as 
documentary, on both sides. John of Gaunt, Owen (ilcndower, 
Geoffrey Chaucer, the Duke of York, John King, of Castile 
and Leon, and scores of carls, knights, and esquires, the 
surviving veterans from the French wars of Edward III. ; deeds 
and charters, with appendant seals, painted windows, flags, 
banners, and standards, and monastic records and chronicles 
some running back to the time of the mythical King Arthur 
were either brought into court, examined by commission, or in 
some way or other adduced as evidence. Witnesses were called 
who had beheld the blazonry of the Grosvenors at Lincoln, 
among the crusaders before the walls of Acre, in the Scotch wars 
under Edward II., at Crescy, and other battles fought in the 
time of the third Edward ; and by the claimant himself at 
the tower of Brose, at the siege of Rochsirion in Poictou, 
in Guienne, at Viers in Normandy, at the battle of Poictiers, 
at the battle of Najara in Spain in 1367, and lastly, at the 
battle of Limoges in 1370, in the service of the Black Prince. 


County Families of 

The commissioners sat first in the Church of the Hermitage at 
Warrington, when Sir Robert attended in person to support his 
claim, his adversary appearing only by his proctor. From Warring- 
ton the commission adjourned to Lancaster Castle, where, before 
Sir John Boteler, baron of Warrington, and Sir Thomas Gerard, 
the evidence of a large number of witnesses was heard. Depositions 
were also taken at Coventry, Sandbach, Chester, and London, and 
it may be said that in support of the Grosvenor claim nearly the 
whole of the chivalry of Cheshire appeared. With such a mass of 
contradictory evidence, it is no wonder the court had difficulty in 
determining between the conflicting claims of the two parties to the 
suit. When the award was made the sentence went to authorise 

Sir Robert Grosvenor to bear the arms 
" within a bordure argent" the con- 
cession being made in consideration of 
the good presumptive evidence that had 
been adduced in support of the claim. 
But the decision was by no means 
satisfactory to Sir Robert. He claimed 
the older coat without addition or 
diminution, and would not be put off 
with the new one. He carried his 
. i run fj ' Civnvnnr. appeal to the King the fountain of 

honour in person, and his Majesty appointed a special com- 
mission to re-hear the case, and report to him, with the result 
that Sir Robert was worse off than before, for the King finally 
decided that the arms were exclusively those of Scrope, and that 
they could not be borne simply differenced with a bordure 
by Grosvenor, considering that " a bordure is not a sufficient 
difference between two strangers in the same kingdom, but only 
between cousin and cousin related in blood ; " whereupon, as Sir 
Peter Leycester, a representative and descendant of Sir Robert, 
affirms, " he took unto him the coate of azure une garbe d'Or ; which 
coate his heyres and successoares have ever since borne to this 
present, scorninge to beare the other coate with a difference." The 

Lancashire ana Cheshire. 305 

recollection of this controversy was revived a few years ago by the 
successes of a famous horse owned by the Duke of Westminster, 
which bore the name " Bend Or," and, amongst other races, won 
the Derby in 1880. 

Sir Robert seems to have allowed himself but little rest, for he no 
sooner discharged one duty than we find him entering upon another. 
The evidence given in the Earl Marshal's court showed that his 
sword had never been permitted to remain long idle. In the year 
in which the Scrope and Grosvenor trial commenced, when the 
country was much disturbed by rioters, who went about to the 
" terror of the peaceable inhabitants," as we learn from an entry on 
the Recognisance Rolls, he was joined in a commission with Sir 
William de Brereton, and others, to arrest all disturbers of the 
peace in Northwich Hundred. In the following year (1386), on 
the threatening of a French invasion, he, with several of his neigh- 
bours, had protection granted " on his departure for the coast, 
there to stay for the defence of the realm." In 1388 he had the 
shrievalty of the county conferred upon him, and in the succeeding 
year was appointed as the deputy of Roger de Crophall, Constable 
of the Castle of Chester, an office he resigned in 1392. In 1395, 
while Richard II. was away in Ireland quelling the revolt which 
had broken out among the native chiefs, he was joined with others 
of the county to levy a subsidy of 3,000 marks granted by the 
commonalty to the King for a confirmation of their charters, and 
also to arrest certain insurgents who had impeded the sheriff from 
levying the subsidy, " and had taken from him by force so much ot 
it as he had levied." In the next year Hugh de Colon and he 
were commissioned to arrest all disturbers of the peace in the 
Hundred, complaints having been made to the King of the lawless 
practices prevailing. Two years after this (October 31, 1395) he 
was again nominated to the shrievalty, but it was his last public 
office, his death occurring in the succeeding year at the compara- 
tively early age of fifty-five. His wife, Margaret Daniell, to whom 
he was married in his childhood, died young, without having borne 
him any issue, and he married for his second wife Joan, widow of 

306 County Families of 

Thomas Belgreave and daughter of Sir Robert Pulford, and sister 
and eventually heir of John Pulford a marriage that added 
considerably to the territorial possessions of the Grosvenors, and 
greatly enhanced their status in the county. This lady having pre- 
deceased him, he again entered the marriage state, his third wife, 
Ann, as appears by the Recognisance Rolls, surviving him. 

By his second wife Sir Robert Grosvenor had, in addition to a 
daughter Cicely, a son Thomas, who succeeded as heir, and was 
eighteen and a half years of age at the time of his father's death. 
He made proof of age December 16, 22 Richard II. (1398), and 
did his fealty on the i8th April following, almost immediately after 
which he began his military experiences, he being one of the 
Cheshire men who accompanied Richard II. when he set out from 
Milford Haven, June 4th, 1399, upon the expedition to reduce 
Ireland to more perfect subjection, and to avenge the murder of 
Roger Mortimer, Earl of March, the presumptive heir to his crown. 
The expedition was, in its results, a disastrous one for the King, 
for, while he was leading his Cheshire bowmen among the bogs and 
thickets of Ireland, Henry Bolingbrokc, the son of the old 
Lancastrian duke, John o'Gaunt, who had been banished the 
kingdom, landed at Ravenspur, in Yorkshire, and before Richard 
could receive intelligence of his designs had made himself master of 
half the kingdom. No sooner did the news reach him than he 
returned, but it was only to find himself made captive, deprived of 
his crown, and sent prisoner to the Tower. The distance between 
the throne and the grave of a deposed monarch is but short. 
Richard was made prisoner in the autumn of 1399, and before the 
snow of the then approaching winter had passed away he had fallen 
a lifeless mass beneath the battleaxe of Piers Exton, at Pontefract 

Thomas Grosvenor could hardly say with Old Adam in As You 
Like It 

Master, go on, and I will follow thee 
To the last gasp with love and loyalty, 

for he quickly accommodated himself to the changed circumstances 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 307 

of the times, made his obeisance to the rising sun, and was received 
into favour by Henry, who had appropriated to himself the crown 
of the unfortunate Richard, and ascended the throne as " King 
Henry of that name the Fourth." A year or two after he was 
appointed one of the collectors of a subsidy, and his name occurs 
on several commissions about the same time. The bed of an 
usurper is seldom a bed of roses ; Henry's was no exception, and 
it was not long ere he had to direct his arms against the Welsh, 
who had renounced their allegiance and risen in revolt. To meet 
this new danger the King's son, Henry, Earl of Chester Falstaff's 
Prince Hal joined his force of Cheshire archers with those of his 
father, and accordingly directed his writs to Thomas Grosvenor, or 
Sir Thomas as he is styled in the Recognisance Rolls, for he had 
then been knighted, requiring him " to hasten to his possessions at 
Pulford to make defence against the coming of Glyndwr," the order 
in council which had been made on the outbreak directing that " all 
those holding possessions on the (Welsh) marches should reside on the 
same for the defence of the realm." Harry Percy, or Hotspur, son 
of the Earl of Northumberland, marched with a body of men to aid 
Glendower, who was advancing with his contingent from Wales, 
his route lying through Eastern Cheshire and Stafford. The 
Royalist army, headed by the Earl of Chester, then a youth of 
fifteen, hastened through 15urton-on-Trent and Lichfield, and 
reached Shrewsbury on the igth July, 1403, a few hours before 
Hotspur appeared at the Castle fore-gate. On the following day 
the two armies came face to ace on the gently shelving plain where 
Battlefield Church now stands. The battle of Shrewsbury was 
fought, Hotspur was among the slain, and Glyndwr sought safety 
among the mountain fastnesses of Wales. Among those of the 
Cheshire contingent who were made prisoners on that day was 
Sir Richard Venables, the Baron of Kinderton, who, with the Earl 
of Worcester and Sir Richard Vernon, was executed in the Market 
Place of Shrewsbury on the morning of the following Monday. 
Sir Richard Venables left an only daughter, who, as we shall see, in 
later years became Sir Thomas Grosvenor's wife. In opposing 

308 County Families of 

the Welsh rebel, Owen Glyndwr, Sir Thomas Grosvenor acquitted 
himself well and received high commendation for his loyal service : 
" Princeps mandavit Thomcf le Grosveiwr chivaler quod properaret 
cum potestate et fa HI ilia ad terrain suam apud Pulford, Church en 
Heath, et alibi in Marchia Wallitz et ibidem resideret ad resistend : 
rebelli Owino de Glyndour." 

Sir Thomas appears to have led a life of great personal activity ; 
besides the military services he rendered, his name is frequently found 
in the commissions and recognisances of the period. These services 
did not, however, tend to make him richer ; the crown in those 
days was an indifferent paymaster, and, as he was not importunate, 
he found that he oftentimes served at his own costs and charges ; 
hut Sir Thomas had received his knighthood almost as soon as he 
came of age, and he was never unmindful of his spurs. If his public 
offices did not add to his wealth, so also his private affairs did not 
always leave him free from care. His father, as we have seen, married 
the youthful widow of Thomas de Belgrave, the heiress of Pulford, and 
Sir Thomas succeeded in consequence to the estates of Pulford and 
Belgrave, which belonged to his mother, as well as to the hereditary- 
lands of the Grosvenors, a circumstance that led to much heart- 
burning with the Leghs of Adlington, who claimed the inheritance 
under a settlement made by Robert Legh's maternal grandfather, 
Thomas de Belgrave, the first husband of Sir Thomas Grosvenor's 
mother. Eventually an understanding was come to, when the two 
disputants, with their relations and friends, on the I4th April, 1412, 
repaired to the " Chapel " at Macclesfield the old church of St. 
Michael's when a very remarkable ceremony took place, which 
is thus recorded in the pages of Ormerod : 

A series of deeds relating to these lands having been publicly read in the 
chapel, it was stated that Sir Robert de Legh, Isabel, his wife, and Robert de 
Legh, their son and heir, having claimed them (the lands at Pulford and else- 
where), it had been agreed, in order to settle their differences, that Sir 
Thomas Grosvenor should take a solemn oath, on the body of Christ, in the 
presence of twenty-four gentlemen, or as many as he wished. Accordingly, 
Robert del Birches, the chaplain, whom Robert de Legh had brought with 
him, celebrated a mass of the Holy Trinity, and consecrated the Host, and 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 309 

after the mass, having arrayed himself in his alb, with the amice, the stole, 
and the maniple, held forth the Host before the altar, whereupon Sir 
Thomas Grcsvenor knelt down before him whilst the settlements were again 
read by James Holt, counsel of Robert de Legh, and then he swore upon 
the body of Christ that he believed in the truth of these charters. Imme- 
diately after this Sir Lawrence de Merbury, sheriff of the county, and 57 
other principal knights and gentlemen of Cheshire, affirmed themselves 
singly to be witnesses of this oath, all elevating their hands at the same 
time towards the Host. This part of the ceremony concluded with Sir 
Thomas Grosvenor receiving the Sacrament and Robert Legh and Sir 
Thomas kissing each other, in confirmation of the aforesaid agreement. 
Immediately after this, Sir Robert publicly acknowledged the right to all 
the said lands was vested in Sir Thomas Grosvenor and his heirs, and an 
instrument to that effect was accordingly drawn up by the notary, Roger 
Salghall, in the presence of the clergy then present, and attested by the 
seals and signatures of the 58 knights and gentlemen. 

The historian of Cheshire, in commenting upon the pomp and 
circumstance attending the settlement of this family dispute, 
remarks : " Seldom will the reader find a more goodly group 
collected together, nor will he easily devise a ceremony which will 
assort better with the romantic spirit of the time, and which thus 
turned a dry legal conveyance into an exhibition of chivalrous 

Sir Thomas Grosvenor appears to have been twice married. 1 lis 
first wife, according to the Visitation of 1580, was Joan, daughter 
and heir of Sir William Phesaunt, an alliance that brought to the 
Grosvenors the Manor of Hulme, with the old hall, a moated 
mansion still remaining, though shorn of its ancient glories, and 
situate about two miles south-west of the chapel of Nether Peover. 
Appended to the descent of the Grosvenors in the Visitation of 1580 
is the following note : 

This S r ' Tho- Gravenor was heire to Holme, as it shall appeare by the 
marriage of the d. & heire to S r W m - ffeasant k. which S r W 1 "- did entaile 
the Manor of Holme to Tho- Grosvenor Knight for terme of his life : And 
for the lacke of issue of his bodie, to Rafe Grosvenor his brother & to the 
heirs of his body lawfully begotten. 

On the death of this lady Sir Thomas married Ws second wife, 
Joan, daughter of Sir Richard Venables, Baron of Kinderton, who, 

3io County Families of 

as previously stated, was beheaded in the Market Place at Shrews- 
bury a day or two after the battle outside that town. This lady, who 
survived him, and re-married in 1432 Thomas Boothe, of Barton, 
in Lancashire, had assigned her as dower by the Escheator "the 
lesser chamber of the manor (house) of Hulme, with le Pantre and 
Buttre, le Malthous, le-berne, le Hayberne, le Vyne Yorde, le 
Night gale Erber, with le Lytell Erber, with free entry and exit 
across the bridge," &c. ; also certain fields, one called le Parke (in 
the neighbourhood of Budvvorth Hall), a third of the manor (house) 
of Buyrton, viz., the larger chamber, &c., and a fishery, and also 
lands there, and lands in Woodhull, Claverton, and Pulford, with 
a third of the advowson of Pulford Church. 

Sir Thomas Grosvenor died in 1429, his inquisition p.m. bearing 
date 8 Henry VI. By his first wife he had, in addition to Robert, 
who succeeded, and who was then twenty-three years of age, three 
sons Ralph, Thomas, and Randle and two daughters : Margery, 
who married Hugh, son of Hugh Calveley, of Lea; and Joan, who 
became the wife of Randle Poole, the representative of a Derbyshire 
family. Robert Grosvenor, who succeeded as next heir, had 
married, during the lifetime of his father, Joan, the third daughter 
of Sir Lawrence Fitton, of Gawsworth, by his first wife, Agnes 
Hesketh, of Rufford, the marriage covenant bearing date July 5, 
3 Henry V. (1415). Like his father, he took an active part in 
public affairs, but from one cause or another he had the misfortune 
to be in frequent conflict with his friends and neighbours. Quarrels 
were then by no means confined to the lower classes of society, but 
were common among acred gentlemen, some of whom, to settle 
their disputes, had recourse to methods more summary than the 
tedious processes of the law, and of this number was Robert 
Grosvenor. His stepmother, as we have seen, re-married a 
Lancashire knight, Sir Thomas del Bothe, and it was not long 
before he and his stepmother's husband had a feud, arising probably 
out of the occupation of the manor-house at Hulme, which had 
come into the family through his mother, the heiress of William 
1'heasaunt. The quarrel would seem to have led to an assault, for 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 3 1 1 

in the 13 Henry VI. (1434-5) he had to enter into a recognisance 
in 200 to keep the peace towards Sir Thomas del Bothe, his 
sureties being Sir Lawrence Fitton (his father-in-law), Thomas de 
Croxton, Hugh Fitton, and John de Wevre. This recognisance 
was subsequently renewed. Seven years later he was bound over in 
a penalty of ^100 to keep the peace towards Thomas de Beston, 
his younger brother, Ralph, and Sir (ieoffry de Warburton; and still 
later his name is frequently found on the Recognisance Rolls in 
relation to some feud or other in which he became involved. His 
will bears date January 8, 1464, and he must have been in extremis 
when it was made, for the writ for his inquisition was issued on the 
1 4th of the same month, and his widow, Joan, had livery of her 
dower on the 2yth February following. He had no male issue, but 
his wife bore him six daughters, all of whom were living at the time 
of his decease, viz. : Elizabeth, then aged thirty-four, and married to 
Peter Button, of Hatton ; Emma, aged thirty-two, and married to 
John Legh, of Booths (she afterwards became the wife of Ralph 
Egerton) ; Agnes, aged twenty nine, who afterwards married 
William Stanley, of Hooton ; Margery, aged twenty-seven, who 
died unmarried ; Katherine, aged twenty-four, then wife of Richard 
Wynnington, of Wynnington ; and Margaret, aged twenty-two, then 
wife of Thomas Leycester, of Tabley. The ample patrimony of the 
Grosvenors was divided among these six daughters. The succession 
of the co-heiresses was, however, opposed by their uncle, Ralph 
Grosvenor, who claimed as heir male ; but upon an inquiry an 
award was made in favour of Robert Grosvenor's daughters as 
" heyres general! " by William Stanley, William Bothe, and Thomas 
Manley, knights, June 29, 9 Edward IV. (1469). The award 
makes mention of " the greate unkindness that hath beene betweene 
the sayd partyes," and directs " for the establishment of faithfull love 
and alliance betweene them " that certain sums shall be paid yearly 
during his life to Ralph Grosvenor "on the high altar in the Church 
of St. Mary-upon-the-Hill, in Chester, at the feasts of the translation 
of St. Thomas the Martyr and St. Martin in Winter, by even 

3i2 County Families of 

With the death of Robert Grosvenor terminated the direct male 
line of Grosvenor of Over Lostock and Hulme, the present possessor 
of those estates being Sir Charles Watkin Shakerley, of Somerford 
Park, baronet, who inherits by descent from Peter Shakerley, of 
Shakerley, who married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of John 
I-egh, of Booths, who married one of the daughters and co-heirs of 
Robert Grosvenor, and who succeeded to the Manor of Hulme and 
her grandmother's share of the Grosvenor lands. 

When the patrimonial lands which Robert Grosvenor inherited 
were split up and parcelled out among his half-dozen co-heiresses, 
the House of Grosvenor would have passed into oblivion had there 
not been a brother of Robert Ralph Grosvenor, a younger son of 
Sir Thomas who continued the name of the old stock, and by a 

ortunatc marriage was enabled to again build up the fortunes of the 

According to the old pedigree-makers, this Ralph, Radulf, or 
Raulyn for the name is thus indifferently written married Joan, or 
Johanna, the daughter and sole heiress of John de Eton, and with 
her acquired for himself and his descendants the Manor of Eton 
(now written Eaton), near Chester, with lands in Burwardsley, 
Hargreave, Huxley, Doddleston, Tushingham, Brindley Stockton, 
Hampton, Wigland, and Oldcastle, together with the ferry and 
fishery on the river Dee an extensive property round which has 
since gradually accreted the marvellous wealth for which the House 
of Grosvenor is noted. The genealogists of bygone days were, it is 
to be feared, oftentimes confiding, and accepted, not unfrequently, as 
evidence what was placed before them, without due inquiry as to its 
trustworthiness, and as a consequence were not always as exact as 
they might have been. Thus the statement so often repeated, and 
as often accepted without inquiry, that Ralph Grosvenor acquired 
the Eaton estates by a marriage with the daughter of John de Eton, 

s open to grave doubt, for the very sufficient reason that there is 
no evidence or anything to justify the belief that John de Eton had 
a daughter, or in fact any children at all. He married, it is true, 
and had two wives, but he does not appear to have had issue 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 313 

by either. The second wife was Beatrice, daughter of John de 
Arderne, a lady who had been married twice previously, being 
successively the widow of Matthew de Weverham and Richard de 
Marleigh. On the 25th July, 3 Henry V. (1415), as appears by 
the family evidences, John de Eton, being then well stricken in 
years, made a settlement of his estates, vesting them in certain 
trustees for the purposes named in the deed. From this settlement 
it is clear that there were then no children of either marriage, for 
the first remainder named is " Ellen, wife of John de Manley ; " she 
is nowhere named as the daughter of the settlor, and it may there- 
fore be presumed that she was a sister or niece who had married a 
kinsman of John de Eton's second wife. John de Manley and his 
wife Ellen had an only daughter, Joan, who was aged thirteen and 
unmarried at the time of John de Eton's death, 7 Henry VI. 
(1428-9). This lady, who eventually became heiress to her father, 
succeeded by virtue of the settlement of 1415 to the Manor of Eton, 
and the lands, ferry, and fishery which had descended with it. 

Ralph Grosvenor, who was a younger son with a lengthy pedigree 
and a limited patrimony, was at the time in search of a wife. The 
young and wealthy heiress found favour in his sight, and a marriage 
was contracted which enabled him to repair the fortunes of his 
family, and lay the foundations of its future greatness. The house 
that came with his wife's heritage was called Eaton Boat, the 
proprietor of the estate having, with other privileges, the Grand 
Sergeancy of the Dee (custodia riparice aqua de Dee) " from Eton 
Weir to Arnoldsheyre (a rock opposite Chester Castle, now called 
Arnold's Eye), by the service of clearing the river from all nets 
improperly placed there, and to have a moiety of all nets forfeited, 
and of the fish therein, as far as stall nets are placed, viz., from Dee 
Bridge to Blakene, and from thence to Arnoldsheyre to have one 
out of all the nets taken, and all the fish therein, and to have a 
ferry boat at Eton over the water, for which he shall be paid by 
the neighbours according to their pleasure, but shall receive from 
every stranger, if he has a horse and is a merchant, one halfpenny ; 
if not a merchant, the payment to be at his option." He was also 

314 County Families of 

to have toll from every " flote " at Eton passing through his weir 
"de prima knycke imam denarium qui vocatur hachepeny, et de 
qualibet knycke seque.nte, nnum quadrentum" as well as waifs and 
wrecks on his Manor of Eton, and two stall nets and two free boats 
on the Dee. The Dee was famed for the quality of its salmon ; the 
fishery at the pond named was very valuable, and the privileges 
which the owners of Eaton Boat enjoyed not only gave them 
considerable power over the district, but brought in a very con- 
siderable revenue to the estate. The exclusive rights pertaining to 
the " sergeancy " were claimed by successive representatives of the 
House of Grosvenor until the early part of the last century, when 
the rival claims of the Chester "Company of Drawers in the Dee" 
led to their abandonment one of the few sources of profit, it is 
said, that the family ever lost. 

Though he does not appear to have engaged in any' military 
operations, Ralph Grosvenor took an active part in the manage- 
ment of the affairs of his county. In 15 Henry VI. (1436-7) he was 
appointed with Richard de Clyve and others collector of a subsidy 
in the Broxton Hundred, and his name occurs as rendering a like 
service on several subsequent occasions. He seems, however, to 
have inherited with his father's energy of spirit his father's 
pugnacity of disposition, for he is oftentimes found involved in 
quarrels with his neighbours and kinsmen, and not unfrequently 
called upon to find sureties for his peaceful behaviour. In 1432 
he was required to enter into recognisances, with four sureties in 
,100 each, to keep the peace towards George de Wevre and 
Richard de Whclok. Two years later his name occurs in a feud 
with a certain Hamon de Eton, probably arising out of some claim 
set up in regard to his wife's inheritance, for the matter in dispute 
was referred to arbitration, the two parties being bound in their 
separate recognisances to abide the award. Three years after this 
he is found entering into a mutual recognisance of ,200 with his 
brother, Robert Grosvenor, of Hulme, and others, which was 
renewed several times. In 1459 he entered into a recognisance in 
100 marks, and afterwards in ^20, to Edward, Earl of Chester, for 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 315 

his own appearance. Shortly after this he was involved in a dispute 
with Peter Button, of Hatton, and others ; and from the 6th to Qth 
Edward IV. (1466-7 to 1469-70) his name occurs in no less than nine 
separate recognisances in 500 marks each. He died on the Monday 
after the Feast of St. Valentine, 1475, having had issue by his wife, 
who pre-deceased him, in addition to a son Robert, who succeeded, 
Ralph and James, and two daughters, Alice and Jonett. 

Robert Grosvenor was thirty years of age when, by his father's 
death, he succeeded to the Eton inheritance, and had then been 
united in marriage with Katharine, one of the daughters of Sir 
Thomas Fitton, of Gawsworth the "fighting Fitton," who, with 
his kinsmen and adherents, rendered such distinguished service in 
the sanguinary encounter at Bloreheath on St. Tech's Day, July 
23rd, 1459, when Lord Audley and the Lancastrians were defeated. 
They were troublous times in which he lived, but, though so closely 
connected with the warlike Fittons, Robert Grosvenor does not 
appear to have taken any very active part in the protracted struggle 
between the rival Houses of York and Lancaster, which brought 
death and destruction to so many English homes. The Fittons 
had plucked "the pale and maiden blossom," and given their 
verdict "on the White Rose side," and it may be assumed that 
Robert Grosvenor's sympathies were with the Yorkist party, but 
beyond occasionally serving as collector of subsidies and responding 
to the call of his sovereign (Richard III.) to assist in arraying the 
fencible men of the Hundred, his name seldom occurs in connection 
with any public movement. Possibly, having witnessed the misfor- 
tunes that had fallen upon so many of his neighbours, he may have 
thought that discretion was the better part of valour, and if so he 
must have had the comforting reflection that his prudence had left 
him with unimpaired estates and undiminished power. He died in 
1502, having had by his wife a family of four sons and two daughters. 
Thomas, the eldest, who succeeded, was at the time twenty-seven 
years of age, and had married ten years previously Elizabeth, one of 
the daughters of Sir Hugh Calveley, of Lea. He did not long 
enjoy possession of the estates, his death occurring in 1509, when, 

316 County Families of 

having no issue, the broad lands of Eton, with the fishery and other 
rights descending with them, passed to the next brother, Richard 

It has been the luck of the Grosvenors to make prudent marriages. 
Ralph Grosvenor built up anew the fortunes of his house by his 
marriage with the heiress of the Eton estates, and his grandson 
Richard, who succeeded as next heir to his brother Thomas, 
followed in his steps and further enriched the estate by his marriage 
with Katharine, one of the four daughters and co-heiresses of 
Richard Colon, or Cotton, of Ridware-Hampstall, a wealthy land- 
owner in Staffordshire and the neighbouring counties of Cheshire, 
Derbyshire, and Leicestershire, and by which Oscroft and other 
places came into the possession of the Grosvenors. He further 
strengthened the position of his family by considerable purchases of 
lands, including estates in Hargrave and Fulk Stapleford. His 
marriage with the co-heiress of Cotton brought him in close relation- 
ship with the Baron of Kinderton, Sir William Venables, who had 
married one of the other co-heiresses. Sir Thomas Venables, Sir 
William's father, was slain at P'lodden in 1513, and when his 
inquisition p.m. was taken Richard Grosvenor became one of the 
sureties for the amount due to the King for the relief of the heir 
his young brother-in-law, William Venables and about the same 
time he was appointed Seneschal of Kinderton. Though Richard 
Grosvenor, like his more immediate progenitors, was not distin- 
guished by any brilliant achievements on the field or in public life, 
he possessed a good deal of shrewdness and tact. Prudence and 
her handmaid discretion were his attendants, and he was ever 
willing to profit by their counsel. In 1517 or thereabouts the 
widowed mother of the Cotton co-heiresses died, when Richard 
Grosvenor, jointly with his three brothers-in-law for the co-heiresses 
had all found husbands had livery of the Manor of Cotton and 
the other estates accompanying it. A few years after this (1523) 
he seems to have had a belief that his end was approaching, though 
he was then only forty-three years of age, and, like a prudent man, 
he began to put his house in order, made his will a rare thing in 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 317 

old times for a man in full health to do and effected a settlement 
of all his estates in Cheshire and Flintshire But he had still many 
years before him, and in August, 1528, we find him busy arranging 
a marriage between his eldest son, Thomas, and Maud, the daughter 
of Sir William Pole, or Poole, of Nether Poole, Sheriff of Cheshire, 
and yeoman of the guard to Henry VIII., the representative of a 
family allied to the great House of Stanley of Hooton a marriage 
that, if it did not add much material wealth, added materially to the 
social influence of the Grosvenors. The marriage articles were 
followed by a deed of jointure to the bride elect, dated 2ist 
September, and in due course the young people were united, the 
bridegroom being then of the age of thirteen. Probably he was 
married while yet an infant, as a matter of prudence, it being 
considered expedient in that age for a landed man to marry his heir 
in his lifetime, lest this feudal superior in the exercise of his ward- 
ship should claim the right to sell the marriage of the unmarried 
heir to whom he chose. 

Shortly before the dissolution of religious houses he obtained from 
the Abbot and Convent of Dieulacres a grant of the seneschalship of 
Pulton, a house that had been occupied by a body of Cistercian 
monks before their removal to Dieulacres, and which then remained 
a dependency of that abbey. In 1541, three years after the fall of 
Dieulacres, Henry VIII. renewed the grant, and when, three years 
later, the Defender of the Faith enriched his courtier and favourite, 
Sir George Cotton, out of the spoils of the dissolved abbey, he gave 
him, as the Eaton charters testify, license to grant Pulton to Thomas 
Grosvenor, Richard's son, who had then just succeeded to his 
father's inheritance. Though connected by marriage with the 
Cottons, Richard Grosvenor does not appear to have shared their 
acquisitive instincts in regard to ecclesiastical property, or to have 
taken any active part in the ruthless suppression of monasticism 
that was taking place in the closing years of his life; but when 
destruction had come, and the broad acres of the abbots were being 
sequestrated, he was not unwilling to enlarge the bounds of his 
domain when the lands could be acquired on favourable terms. He 

3i 8 County Families of 

died on the 2yth July, 1542, and was buried at Eccleston, having 
had by his wife a family of fifteen children five sons and ten 

His eldest son, Thomas, who had married the daughter of Sir 
William Poole, succeeded, and shortly after received the honour of 
knighthood, but did not long enjoy possession of the estates, his 
death occurring in 1550, at the early age of thirty-five. His eldest 
son, who was named after himself, was under age at the time, and 
the wardship of his lands was in consequence granted by the King 
to Sir William Paget, who assigned it to Robert Fletcher, by whom 
it was in turn granted to John Hopkins, fishmonger, of London. 
He attained his majority in 1559, the year after Elizabeth's 
accession, when he sued out a general pardon under the Great 
Seal, not because he had committed any particular offence, but 
because in those days the hand of prerogative was heavy, and a 
man might, by the unconscious breach of some forgotten statute, 
incur the penalty of outlawry and forfeiture of his estate; hence it 
was a common practice to apply for and obtain from the Crown 
letters of general pardon, that might be used as a shield if accused, 
and which went to the extent of condoning or blotting out every 
crime or offence of whatever nature or kind, great or small, known 
or unknown, that might have been committed. He married about 
this time, or shortly after, Anne, eldest daughter of Roger Brads- 
haigh, of The Haigh, near Wigan, the ancestor of the present 
Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, for a daughter was born to him 
on the i8th December, 1561. In the following year a son was 
born, who was named after his great-grandfather, who had acquired 
the Cotton estates, Richard, and in October, 1568, when this 
Richard could only have been about six years of age, or less, we find 
the father arranging a marriage between his young son and 
Christian, the infant daughter of Sir Richard Brooke, a knight of 
Rhodes the first of the name seated at Norton Priory, and who 
held the office of Vice-Admiral of England, a sort of Deputy- 
Lieutenancy of the Cheshire Coast. The other issue of the marriage 
with Anne Bradshaigh was a son Thomas, born in 1565, who 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 319 

died unmarried, and seven daughters. Thomas Grosvenor died 
November izth, 1579, and his inquisition was taken in the follow- 
ing year. His wife, who survived him, re-married William Radcliffe, 
and died October 22, 1599, her body being taken to Eccleston for 

If, as has been said, it was the tendency of the Grosvenors to 
multiply, so also was it their habit to accumulate, and the extent to 
which the fortunes of the house had been built up by care and thrift 
and prudent marriages from the time when Ralph Grosvenor, a 
younger son, saved it from extinction by his marriage with the 
heiress of Eton, may be gathered from the inquisition taken after 
this Thomas's decease, which sets forth that at the time of his 
death he held the Manor of Eaton, with four messuages, 200 acres 
of land, 100 of meadow, 200 of pasture, 40 of wood, and a 2s. 
rental in Eaton ; a free fishery, a free ferry, and the sergeancy of 
the Dee "by services unknown" from the Queen, as of her Earldom 
of Chester ; and also the Manors of Tushingham, lielgrave, and 
Thurcaston (county Leicester), with lands in Keyme ; half the 
Manor of Doddleston, and lands in Stockton, Droitwich, Wigland, 
Shocklach, Hampton, Edge Orton, Kiddington, Oldcastle, Har- 
greave, Burwardsley, Greenwall, Pulton, Pulford, Gorstelow, 
Rowton, Oscroft, Kynerton, Brombowe, Gresford, and Barton (the 
three last named in Denbighshire), right of common in Burton, 
county Denbigh, and a coal mine (HIM minera Carbon it' roc' a 
Coole Myne) in Wrexham. 

Richard Grosvenor, the eldest son, and the husband of Christian 
Brooke, who was found heir, was then in his seventeenth year. In 
due time he had livery of his lands, and settled down upon his 
estates a wealthy country squire. In 1602 the shrievalty of the 
county was conferred upon him, but it was about the only public 
office he undertook. In 1610 he had the misfortune to lose his 
wife, who had then made him the father of seventeen children 
three sons and fourteen daughters. Two of the sons died young, 
but most of the daughters married, and, with the Grosvenor instinct, 
married well, so that the connections of the family were widely and 

3 20 

County Families of 

influentially extended. Richard Grosvenor remained a widower for 
four years, when he again married, his second wife being Jane, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Vernon, of Haslington, a descendant, like 
himself, of a companion-in-arms of the first Norman Earl of Chester, 
and then widow of John Bostock, of Morton Say; but by this lady 
he had no issue. He died at Eaton, and was buried by the side of 
his father, at Eccleston, September 22, 1619. 

The eldest son, Richard Grosvenor, who was born January Qth, 
1584, and had then completed his thirty-fifth year, succeeded. In 
the year in which he entered upon his patrimony he had the honour 
of knighthood conferred upon him, and on the 23rd February in 
the one following he was created a baronet. From the days of 

Hugh Lupus to that 
of Poictiers, the chiefs 
of the House of Gros- 
venor bore themselves 
bravely, and were 

Autograph of Richard c,rom,u,r. counted among the 

flower of the Cheshire chivalry ; but after the great Scrope and 
Grosvenor trial they seem to have sheathed their swords and to 
have turned their spears into pruning hooks. They did little or 
nothing of note, avoided those internicine struggles which desolated 
the country and swept away the heads of so many of the principal 
families, and scarcely concerned themselves with military affairs, 
neither " plotting nor dissembling," but settling down quietly among 
their neighbours, identifying themselves with the interests of their 
own shire, and performing in a creditable but unostentatious manner 
the multifarious duties in connection therewith that their social 
station imposed upon them. Meanwhile they prospered in their 
affairs, were lucky beyond measure in their marriages, laid house 
to house, added field to field, and estate to estate ; in short, we might 
almost sum up their career in the text of Scripture "They did 
eat, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they builded." 
Richard Grosvenor, whom James the First knighted and then 
made a baronet, was the first of his race for many generations to 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 321 

awake from this state of lethargy and take his proper position in the 
affairs of his country. In the year following that in which a 
baronetcy was conferred upon him he served the office of sheriff of 
his county, and in the following year he held the shrievalty of 
Flintshire, a county in which he had considerable possessions. He 
sat, too, as a Knight of the Shire for Cheshire in the Parliament 
which met at Westminster on the 3Oth of January, 1621 that which 
witnessed the fall of Lord Bacon, and which, after listening to the 
" unusually gracious speeches " of the King, in which he told the 
members he " had often piped unto them, but they had not danced," 
voted him a small subsidy. He also sat for the same constituency 
in the third Parliament of Charles I. (1627-8), notable as that in 
which Cromwell was first returned for Huntingdon, and in which 
he made a speech that so greatly disturbed the complacency of the 
courtly gentlemen assembled, by denouncing the Bishop of Win- 
chester for encouraging the preaching of " flat Popery at Paul's 
Cross," and bestowing preferment on ecclesiastics who had been 
condemned for proclaiming Arminian doctrines and the divine 
right of kings. The House was in a controversial mood. There 
were then two distinct parties in the Church the Arminian or 
High Church party, among whom were the more intemperate 
assertors of the doctrine of " divine right," and the Calvinistic or 
Puritan party, whose opinions were supposed to be allied with the 
cause of constitutional freedom ; and questions of civil liberty were 
in consequence greatly embittered by their religious differences. 
Cromwell spoke with " unadorned eloquence." Sir Richard took 
part in the debate, and, as evident by his speech, which is still 
extant, proved himself an able auxiliary of the Puritan faction. 
When the quarrel between the King and Parliament had deepened, 
and the issuing of the writ for the levying of "ship-money" lit the 
fires of revolution, Sir Richard Grosvenor ranged himself on the 
side of the Puritan party, and gave earnest of his sincerity by 
becoming surety for his brother-in-law, Peter Daniel, of Over 
Tabley, a staunch Parliamentarian who had represented Cheshire 
in the Commons in 1625. Sir Richard had the misfortune to find 

322 County Families of 

himself involved in a number of law suits, probably arising out of 
the Cheshire elections, which were contested with much bitterness 
and determination. In 1633 he was out-lawed in the extraordinary 
number of thirty-four actions, when he applied for a writ of certiorari 
to remove them. At the suit of one Bennett he was cast into the 
Fleet, and, despite the " protection " of the King's Council, dis- 
appeared from the political stage. 

Sir Richard Grosvenor was thrice married. His first wife was 
Lattice, daughter of Sir Hugh Cholmondeley, of Cholmondeley, 
knight, by whom he had a son, Richard, born in 1604, who 
succeeded, and two daughters. This lady died in 1611, and was 
buried at Eccleston, after which he married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Wilbraham, of Woodhey, a cousin of his first wife and 
the sister of Dorothy Wilbraham, who became the Lady Done, of 
Utkinton, of proverbial excellence.* Several children were born 
of this marriage, but they all died in infancy. The Lady Elizabeth, 
having pre-deceased her husband, Sir Richard again entered the 
married state, his third wife being Elizabeth, the youthful widow of 
Sir Thomas Stanley, of Aldcrley, the daughter and heiress of Sir 
Peter Warburton, of Grafton, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, 
and the direct ancestors of the present Lord Stanley of Alderley. 
He had the misfortune to lose this wife also (she bore him no issue), 
her death occurring, according to her inquisition p.m., March 12, 
3 Charles I., and, as appears by the Eccleston register, she was 
buried there June 26. Though he survived her many years, he 
did not again marry. 

Sir Richard appears to have been touched with the religious 
fervour of the age, and doubtless his successive domestic bereave- 
ments at a comparatively early age turned his mind towards 
seriousness, if not to sadness. About the time he succeeded to his 
patrimony he erected in the Church at Eccleston, where so many 

* " As fair as Lady Done " is a well-known Cheshire proverb. Pennant 
(Tour from Chester to London, 4th ed., p. 8), referring to this lady, says 
that "when a Cheshire man would express super-eminent excellency in one 
of the fair sex, he will say, ' There is a Lady Done for you.' " 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 323 

of his kindred were interred, an altar tomb, with two recumbent 
effigies upon it. This monument was much defaced during the 
time of the Civil Wars, but in the collection of Cheshire Church 
Notes there is preserved a rude drawing of it, in which the male 
figure is represented as habited in plate armour, with spurs, and 
the arms of the Grosvenors upon his breast ; his wife, who is placed 
by his side, wears the ruff, so characteristic of the Elizabethan and 
early Stuart period. The sides of the tomb are ornamented with 
four niches, filled with kneeling figures, over which is inscribed 
" One sone and 2 dau'rs of sir Richard and Elizabeth his wife ; 2 
sones and 2 dau'rs of Richard and Christian ; three sones of Richard 
and Christian." At a later date, apparently, he caused a mural 
monument to be added, on which are displayed the arms and 
quarterings of the Grosvenor family, with the following inscription: 

D. O. M. 















As already stated, the legal difficulties in which Sir Richard 
involved himself during the disturbed reign of Charles the First 
necessitated his withdrawal from public life, and he continued in 
retirement until his death, which occurred September 14, 1695, 

324 County Families of 

the year in which the disastrous battle of Naseby was fought, and 
four days after the storming and surrender of Bristol, which extin- 
guished the last hopes of the ill-fated Charles. Sir Richard was 
buried at Eccleston, his only son, who bore the same baptismal 
name, and who for some years previously had taken the lead of the 
family, succeeding to the honours and estates. In early life he had 
married into the family of the Mostyns, one of the oldest and most 
honourable in North Wales, and deducing its descent from the early 
kings of Powys, his wife being Sydney, daughter of Sir Roger 
Mostyn, of Mostyn, the builder of the stately mansion of Gloddaeth, 
near Conway, now one of the seats of Lord Mostyn. This marriage 
brought him into close relationship with many of the most distin- 
guished Royalists in Cheshire and North Wales, and doubtless had 
much to do in shaping his political opinions, which were directly 
antagonistic to those of his father. In the year preceding the first 
Sir Richard's death he was nominated to the shrievalty of the 
county, and while holding that office he showed his loyalty to his 
sovereign by calling out the posse comitatus to oppose the forces 
led by Ferdinand, Lord Fairfax, the Parliamentarian general, an 
act that brought upon him the displeasure of the Parliament, and 
led to his being removed from his office, Henry Brooke, of Norton, 
being appointed by an ordinance of the two Houses in his place. 
The affront only intensified his loyalty, and made him more 
hostile to the dominant party. During the whole of that trouble- 
some period he remained steadfast in his adherence to the cause of 
Charles, despite severe losses and great hardships. When the 
Parliament found itself sufficiently powerful, it began to sequestrate 
the estates of such " malignants " as had in any way assisted the 
Royalist cause or continued to hold Royalist opinions, and Sir 
Richard Grosvcnor was one of the first to engage the attention of 
the Committee of Sequestration. He was turned out of his home at 
Eaton, and compelled to seek shelter in a cottage on the confines 
of his own estate ; and after that, Cromwell, having some suspicions 
in regard to his conduct, caused him to be imprisoned for a time in 
Chester Castle. Lady Grosvenor also fell under the observation of 

Lancashire and Cheshire, 325 

the lynx-eyed supporters of the party in power, for in the Journals 
of Parliament we find (v. iv., p. 529) that on the ist May, 1646, 
Colonel Alexander Rigby, the versatile and somewhat notorious 
Parliamentary commander, and others were appointed to examine 
information given concerning words spoken in Lady Grosvenor's 
chamber ; and her ladyship, with Eleanor Windell and Elizabeth 
Cotton, two waiting-maids, and Dr. Biron were arrested for the 
purpose. In the "Order Book" (Domestic Interregnum, No. 286) 
there is an entry: "i2th August, 1646. Memorandum that the 
Committee for Plundered Ministers have assigned 50 a year out 
of y impropriation of Farndon, sequestrated from Sir Richard 
Grosvenor, Bart., to y e minister of Farndon. And 40 a year 
more to y* minister of Harthill out of y" said impropriation of 
Farndon sequestrated from y" said Richard Grosvenor." Sir 
Richard was the owner of the great tithes of Farndon, and this, with 
his other properties, had fallen into the hands of the Commissioners. 
In the same year the rectory of Farndon was dealt with, as appears 
by the following minute of the Commissioners for Compounding 
Deeds and Settlements for Augmentation of Livings : 

Chester. Sir Richard Grosvenor of Eaton in y c ' said county by deed 
dated y e 15"' December 1646 hath settled y c rectorie of Fame als Farndon 
of y e value of 130 per annum upon George Booth, Esq., in trust for 
y e ministers of such places as y c Committee of Goldsmith's Hall shall 
appoint for ever. Consideration ,1,300. 

Sir Richard Grosvenor's eldest son, Roger, though but a youth 
of fourteen at the time of the outbreak of the Civil War, was as 
ardent a Royalist as his father, and in consequence shared in his 
sequestration, though it is recorded that his income during his 
father's lifetime was equal to ,3,000 a year. Turbulent as 
the times were, there was yet marrying and giving in marriage, 
and on the 23rd of January, 1649 the year before Roger 
Grosvenor came of age, and while the people of England, in mental 
prostration and bewilderment, were awaiting the terrible issue then 
being tried before Bradshaw at Westminster Hall articles of 
marriage were signed between the young Cavalier and Christian, 


County Families of 

the daughter of Sir Thomas Myddleton, of Chirk Castle, in 
Denbighshire,* the son of the munificent Lord Mayor of London of 
the same name, and brother of the celebrated Sir Hugh Myddleton, 
the projector of the New River from Hertfordshire to London. The 
father of the bride had been an active Presbyterian, but, alarmed at 
the excesses of his party, he in 1648 abandoned their cause and 
became a zealous Royalist, a procedure that provoked the anger 
of his former friends. His princely home at Chirk was besieged 
by the Parliamentary forces, and so much battered by Cromwell's 
cannon, that the repairs, it is said, occasioned an expenditure of 

On the death of Cromwell, and when the symbol of power which 
proved too heavy for the grasp of his son Richard had been laid 
aside, the Protectorate came to an end, and a determined effort 
was made to restore the exiled King. In that year occurred the 
" Cheshire Rising " under Sir George Booth, afterwards Lord Dela- 
mcre, to be followed by that of North Wales under Sir Thomas 
Myddleton. The first rising of the Cheshire forces was August i, 
1659. Through the influence of Mr. Cook, a Presbyterian minister, 
they gained possession of Chester, but on the igth of the same 
month they were attacked and dispersed by Lambert's forces at 
VVinnington Bridge, near Northwich, " a strange spirit of fear 
being upon them, which quite took off their chariot wheels," the 
country people calling it, not the " Cheshire Rising," but the 
Cheshire Race. Roger Grosvenor was at the time holding himself 
in readiness to act under his Majesty's orders with Sir Richard 

* It was an ancestor of this lady, David Myddleton, of Gwaenynog, in 
Denbighshire, Receiver of North Wales in the time of Henry IV., of whom 
we are told by the historian of Denbigh that he "paid his addresses to 
lilyn, daughter of Sir John Done, of Utkinton, in Cheshire, and gained the 
lady's affections. But the parents preferred their relative, Richard Done, of 
Croton. The marriage was accordingly celebrated ; but David Myddleton 
watched the bridegroom leading his bride out of church, killed him on the 
spot, carried away his widow, and married her forthwith. So that she was 
maid, widow, and twice a wife in one day." After David Myddleton's death 
she again married (i) Piers Holland, of Conway ; and (2) Urian Brereton, 
of Honford. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 327 

Wynne, of Gwydir, his brother-in-law, Lord Herbert, of Cherbury, 
and his father-in-law, Sir Thomas Myddleton, to raise the King's 
standard on the Welsh marches. Sir Richard Grosvenor survived 
the troubles of the usurpation, and with his sons lived to see the 
restoration of monarchy in the person of Charles II., and at the 
same time the restoration of the broad lands of the Grosvenors. 
When the King proposed to institute a new order, into which only 
those were to be admitted who were eminently distinguished for 
their loyalty, and who were to be styled " Knights of the Royal 
Oak," the name of Roger Grosvenor was 'included in the list of 
thirteen gentlemen of Cheshire on whom the dignity was to be 
conferred, his estate being then said to be worth ,3,000 a year. 
The project was, however, abandoned, " it being wisely judged," as 
Noble says in his Memoirs of the Cromwell Family, "that the order 
was calculated only to keep awake animosities which it was the 
part of wisdom to lull to sleep." 

The year which followed the restoration of Charles to the throne 
was a mournful one for the head of the House of Grosvenor, for on 
the 22nd August in that year Roger, the heir to the family honours 
and estates, fell in a duel by the hand of one of his family connec- 
tions. Philip Henry, the father of the eminent Nonconformist 
divine, Matthew Henry, thus records the event in his " Diary : "- 

1661. Aug. 21 (? 22) Mr. Roger Grosvenor was kild by Major Robert's 
son of Wrexham, his Cosin German upon a quarrel about a Foot-race. 

He was buried at Eccleston on the 28th of the same month. 
The father did not long survive the son, his death occurring in 
January, 1664, at the age of sixty, having had, in addition to 
Roger, four sons and four daughters. His remains were laid in the 
family vault at Eccleston, his grandson, Thomas, the eldest son of 
Roger, who was then a child of eight years, succeeding to the 
baronetcy and the family estates. On attaining his majority, in 
1677, he contracted a marriage with a young heiress, Mary, the only 
child of Alexander Davies, of Ebury Manor, the most fortunate in a 
pecuniary sense of all the Grosvenor marriages, for it brought to 

328 County Families of Lancashire, &c. 

him an inheritance that was then valuable, and to his descendants 
one that has become, from its enormous revenue, princely, viz., that 
large slice of the west end of London which embraces the fashionable 
region of Belgravia, Tyburnia, and Pimlico. Indeed, the terri- 
torial history of the House of Grosvenor might almost be written 
from the names of the streets and squares within the limits of their 
Metropolitan property. Thus, Grosvenor Square and Grosvenor 
Place bear their patronymic ; Eaton Square and Eaton Place call 
to mind their ancestral home on the banks of the Dee ; Halkin 
Street repeats the name of their Flintshire residence Halkin 
Castle ; Chester, Belgrave, and Eccleston Squares are named after 
the several estates in Cheshire so designated ; Davies Street 
perpetuates the name of the heiress who brought such untold wealth 
to the family, as Ebury Street does of the home in which her child- 
hood was passed ; Motcombe Street derives its name from the 
Dorsetshire home of the dowager marchioness ; whilst Wilton 
Crescent reminds us of the title of Grey de Wilton, that another 
heiress brought to a younger son of the House of Grosvenor. 

A curious story is told of the way in which the father of Mary 
Davies acquired his wealth. The story is that during the genera 
panic and social disorganisation consequent upon the great Plague 
of London, in 1665, a large amount of valuable property money 
and title deeds was left in his charge by neighbouring families that 
was never reclaimed by the owners, and that with this property he 
was enabled to make large purchases of land in the west of London, 
with which his daughter eventually enriched the Grosvenors. 
Though no imputation has ever been cast upon Davies's integrity, 
it must be confessed that there is a good deal of improbability about 
the story, and it is certainly in conflict with the statement made by 
the Rev. Mackenzie Walcott, in his Annals of Westminster, that on 
July 2, 1665, a few days only after the first appearance of the 
Plague, Alexander Ebury (Davies), of Ebury, county Middlesex, was - 
buried in the yard to the north of St. Margaret's Church, adding, 
" through his daughter and heir, Mary, all his extensive property 
round London devolved upon his grandson, Sir Robert Grosvenor, 


County Families of Lancashire, &c. 331 

who lived at Peterborough House, Millbank." This Peterborough 
House, which had originally belonged to the Mordaunts, Earls of 
Peterborough, was purchased by the Grosvenors from the last 
holder of that title the eccentric nobleman who distinguished 
himself by his romantic daring in Spain. It was re-built in 1735, 
and taken down again in 1809. 

Sir Thomas Grosvenor was chosen as representative of Chester 
in the Parliament (31 Charles II.) which assembled on the 6th 
March, 1678-9 ; he also sat for the same constituency in the new 
Parliament which met on the 7th October, 1679, as well as in 
those of James II. (1685) and the i, 7, and 10 of William 
and Mary. Ormerod says that " he was at first supposed to 
be a warm supporter of the measures of the Crown, having 
been singled out by Jeffries as the foreman of a jury who pre- 
sented the necessity of requiring sureties of the peace from the 
principal Cheshire noblemen and gentlemen who paid attention to 
the Duke of Monmouth in his progress through Cheshire ; and for 
that presentment Sir Thomas Grosvenor had afterwards an action 
of libel brought against him by the Earl of Macclesfield. On the 
bill for repealing the Penal Laws and Test Acts being subsequently 
brought into the House, he was closeted by the King on the 
subject, and his support of the measure was solicited, the royal 
request being accompanied with the offer of a peerage and of the 
Earl of Shrewsbury's regiment of horse, in which he then com- 
manded a troop, in the camp at Hounslow. On this occasion the 
constitutional principles of Sir Thomas Grosvenor were honourably 
developed. The offers were rejected ; he resigned the commission 
which he already held, and, proceeding to the House, gave his 
negative to the measure." 

In 1684 Sir Thomas Grosvenor was chosen Mayor of the city of 
Chester, to which office that of Escheator was annexed, the Sheriffs 
that year being Richard Harrison and John Johnson, and in the 
first year of the reign of William and Mary (1689) he was entrusted 
with the shrievalty of the county, he having been a firm supporter 
of the " bloodless revolution," necessitated by the insane passion of 

332 Cotmty Families of 

James II., which, without any fierce desire, as on a previous 
occasion, to overthrow the Crown and the Mitre, or to raze to 
their foundations the institutions of the country, marked the 
commencement of a new era in English history. He died in June. 
1700, at the age of forty-four, and was buried at Eccleston on the 
and July. His wife, who survived him, died in January, 1729, 
at the age of sixty-five, and was buried at Eccleston on the isth of 
that month. In the ante dining-room at Eaton there is a portrait 
(three-quarter length) of Sir Thomas, painted by Lely, in which he 
is represented as wearing his body-armour, but with the full, flowing 
wig characteristic of the late Stuart period. Among the Eaton 
papers there is an Inq. de lunatico, dated March 15, 1705, which 
returns "dame Mary widow of Sir Thomas Grosvenor, bart." as 
having been " non compos for six years past," so that her mind must 
have given way before her husband's death. The issue of the 
marriage were Thomas and Roger, who both died in infancy ; 
Richard, who succeeded as heir, but died childless ; Thomas and 
Robert, who successively succeeded to the baronetcy ; and three 
daughters Elizabeth and Mary, who both died in infancy; and 
Anne, born at Eaton a few weeks after her father's death, who 
married, May 25111, 1730, William Leveson-Gower, M.P. for 
Staffordshire, second son of Sir John Leveson-Gower, of Trentham, 
created Baron Gower, and from whom descends the Dukes of 
Sutherland, by whom she had an only daughter, Catherine. She 
died December 13, 1731. 

Richard Grosvenor, who succeeded as fourth baronet, sat for 
the city of Chester in the Parliaments of the ist and 8th George I. 
(1714-15 and 1722), and the ist of George II. (1727), in the latter 
of which he was associated with his younger brother, Thomas 
Grosvenor. In 1715 he served the office of Mayor of Chester, and 
at the coronation of George II. (October nth, 1727) he officiated as 
Grand Cupbearer of England in right of his Manor of Wymondley, 
in Hertfordshire, presenting to his Majesty the first cup of wine after 
he had been crowned. He died July 12, 1732, at the comparatively 
early age of forty-three, and was buried at Eccleston on the iSth of 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 333 

the same month. He married (i), in 1708, Jane, daughter of Sir 
Edward Wyndham, of Orchard-Wyndham, Bart., by whom he had 
a daughter Katharine, who died in infancy; and (2), in 1724, 
Jane, only daughter of Sir George Warburton, of Arley, who died 
childless February 18, 1729-30. Having no surviving issue, the 
baronetcy and estates devolved upon his next brother, Thomas, 
who was at the time his associate in the Parliamentary represen- 
tation of Chester ; but he did not long enjoy possession, his death 
occurring at Naples, from consumption, in January, 1732-3; and, 
being unmarried, the family inheritance passed to his younger 
brother, Robert, who had been returned as member for Chester on 
the death of Sir Richard, the eldest brother, in July, i 732, and who 
continued to sit for the same constituency in the four successive 
Parliaments of 8, 15, 21, and 27 George II. (1734, 1741, 1747, 
and 1754). He died on the ist August, 1755, and was buried at 
Eccleston, having had, by his wife, Jane, daughter and heiress of 
Thomas Warre, of Swell Court, Shepton-Beauchamp, county 
Somerset, and Sandhall, in Hampshire properties out of which he 
contrived to carve a considerable estate as the patrimony of his 
youngest son whom he married 2ist May, 1738, in addition to 
Richard, his heir, and four daughters, a son Thomas, born in 1734, 
who married at Walthamstow in 1758, Deborah, daughter and 
heiress of Stephen Skynner, of Walthamstow, by whom he was 
father, with other issue, of Richard Grosvenor, who made another 
lucky marriage (nth March, 1788), with Sarah Frances, the only 
daughter and heiress of Edward Drax, of Charborough Park, 
Wareham, the representative of an old Yorkshire family that had 
suffered for its loyalty in the troublous times of Charles I. This 
Richard, who represented Chester in the Parliament of 42 and 47 
George III. (1802 and 1806), and subsequently sat for the borough 
of West Looe, in Cornwall, assumed, in consequence of his 
marriage, the surname and arms of Drax, and with them the 
possession of some twenty thousand acres or thereabouts in Dorset- 
shire and other counties, but chiefly in the town of Wareham, an 
ancient borough and a noted capital in Saxon times. The issue 

334 County Families of 

of the marriage was a son, Richard Edward Erle-Drax, who 
died unmarried August 13, 1828, and a daughter, Jane Frances, 
who became heir to her brother. She married, May i, 1827, 
John Samuel Wanley Sawbridge, who, on succeeding to the 
estates in right of his wife on the demise of that lady's brother, 
assumed, in addition to his patronymic of Sawbridge, the sur- 
name of Erle-Drax, with the arms of that family. Mr. J. S. W. 
Snwbridge-Erle-Drax represented Wareham in the Parliaments of 
1841-57, 1859-65, and 1868-80. 

Richard Grosvenor, who succeeded as seventh baronet on the 
death of his father, Sir Robert, in 1755, had been elected in the 
preceding year as one of the members for Chester. In 1 759 he served 
the office of Mayor of Chester, and at the coronation of George III. 
(September 22, 1761) he officiated as Grand Cupbearer, as his uncle 
had done at the coronation of George II. In 1758 he made an 
addition to the family estates by the purchase of the Manor of 
Eccleston, with the hamlet of Belgrave, a minor manor on the 
confines of Eaton. Three years later, in recognition of services 
rendered in Parliament and his support of the Pitt Ministry, he 
was (April 8, 1761) raised to the peerage by the title of Baron 
Grosvenor of Eaton, and in July, 1784, was advanced to the 
dignity of Viscount Belgrave and Earl Grosvenor. He married, at 
St. George's, Hanover Square, London, July 19, 1764, Henrietta, 
daughter of Henry Vernon, of Hilton Park, Staffordshire, descended 
from the old Cheshire stock of the Vernons, Barons of Shipbrook ; 
but he was unhappy in his domestic relations, for his wife, while 
still young and beautiful, was seduced by the licentious Duke 
of Cumberland. Lady Grosvenor's husband, Lord Stanhope 
remarks, " it must be owned offered her no small grounds of 
alienation. The duke followed her secretly into Cheshire, 
meeting her in disguise, yet not unobserved, at various times and 
places. On the discovery which ensued, Lord Grosvenor, though 
from his own conduct hopeless of divorce, brought an action for 
criminal conversation, at which, for the first time, a prince of the 
blood appeared in the situation of defendant. The verdict was 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 335 

against him, and damages were awarded to the amount of 
;io,ooo;" the unhappy lady being, of course, immediately 
deserted by her royal admirer. A few weeks after the death of the 
earl she re-married, September i, 1802, Lieutenant-General George 
Porter, M.P. for Stockbridge ; her death occurred at an advanced 
age, January 2nd, 1828. A portrait of her ladyship, painted by 
Gainsborough shortly after her marriage, hangs in the ante 
dining-room at Eaton. It is in the artist's best style, and she is 
represented as a young and lovely woman, and as a picture it is 
wonderfully soft and pleasing in tone. 

The issue of the marriage was four sons, all of whom, with the 
exception of Robert, the third, died in infancy. This Rotert, 
Viscount Belgrave, born March 22, 1767, was a pnpil of Clifford, 
for many years the editor of the Quarterly Review, and was 
humorously dubbed by Walcot (Peter Pindar) "the Lord of 
Greek," for having startled the House of Commons (in which he 
sat as the representative of Chester) by introducing a quotation 
from the Greek of Demosthenes in one of his speeches. " Latin," 
says De Quincey, in relating the story, " is a privileged dialect in 
Parliament. But Greek ! It would not have been at all more 
startling to the usages of the House had his lordship quoted 
Persic or Telugu." Lord Belgrave was first returned for Chester 
in the Parliament of 30 George III. (1790), and he continued to 
represent the city until the death of his father in 1802. He was 
a powerful supporter of the policy of Pitt, in whose Government he 
had held office as a Lord of the Admiralty, 1789 to 1791, and was 
sufficiently prominent to attract the attention of Lord Stanhope, 
who, after observing that on the i2th April, 1802, Sir Francis 
Burdett, in moving for a committee of the whole House to inquire 
into the conduct of the late Administration, " inveighed especially 
against Pitt, and arraigned with much bitterness the entire course 
of the war," continues : " It may well be supposed that this attack 
was very offensive to the large majority of members who had 
supported Mr. Pitt in all his measures. Lord Belgrave became 
the mouthpiece of their indignation. He moved an amendment 

336 County Families of 

that, on the contrary, the thanks of the House should be given to 
the late Ministers for their wise and salutary conduct throughout 
the war. The Opposition cried out that such a motion was 
contrary to the forms of Parliament ; hut the Speaker decided that 
it was regular, though very unusual, and that it might be put. 
But here Pitt rose. In his loftiest tone he said that he would not 
offer one word on the original motion, but he hoped he might be 
allowed to suggest that the amendment was certainly, for want of 
notice, against the general course of proceeding in the House, and 
that it ought to be withdrawn. Lord Belgrave did accordingly 
withdraw it, and after some further debate the House divided, and 
the motion of Sir F. Burdett was rejected by an immense majority. 
Upon this Lord Belgrave gave notice that he would, after the 
recess, bring forward a vote of thanks to the late Administration. 
But a second attack upon Pitt being made on the 7th of May by 
a Mr. Nicholls, who concluded by moving an address of thanks to 
the King for having been pleased to remove the Right Hon. W. 
Pitt from his councils, Lord Belgrave rose, and pointed out that 
the foundation of the proposed address was entirely false. The 
King had not dismissed Mr. Pitt. That Minister had of himself 
resigned. He then re-stated the arguments he had urged in the 
former debate, and concluded by moving the amendment of which 
he had given notice. The amendment was vehemently opposed 
by Orey, Krskinc, Fox, and Tierney ; and supported by Wilber- 
forcc, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Hawkeshury, and Addington; and 
on a division Lord Belgrave's resolution was carried by a majority 
of 222 to 52." 

Following the example of so many of his progenitors, Lord 
Belgrave sought out a heiress for a wife, and in his choice showed 
that the luck of the Grosvenors had not deserted them. On the 
28th April, 1794, he married, at Lambeth, Eleanor, daughter 
and eventually sole heiress of Thomas Egerton, Earl of Wilton, and 
thus not only acquired the extensive estates of the Egertons, which 
had been largely augmented by the marriage of an ancestor with 
the heiress of Holland, but the Earldom and Viscounty of Wilton, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 337 

which was in consequence entailed upon a second son, Thomas, 
who thereupon assumed by sign-manual the surname and arms of 
Egerton, instead of the paternal family of Grosvenor, and who 
died March yth, 1882. 

On the death of his father, in 1802, Lord Belgrave succeeded to 
the earldom. Subsequently his political opinions underwent a 
gradual but decided change. After attaching himself for a time to 
the followers of Canning, he became an earnest supporter of the 
Whig party. On the gth September, 1831, he was created 
Marquis of Westminster, and within a month of that date he made 
a speech in the House of Lords, in which he strenuously supported 
Lord John Russell's first Reform Bill, affirming that he knew of his 
own knowledge that Mr. Pitt had never abandoned his desire for 
Parliamentary reform ; that he saw in it the only chance of " salva- 
tion" for Great Britain, but that he had thought it useless to 
contend with the " borough oligarchy." The views then expressed 
he retained all through the reaction which swept away so many 
great peers, and to the time of his death, which occurred February 
17, 1845, he remained a strenuous and consistent Whig and a 
supporter of the Grey and Melbourne Administrations. 

By his wife, who survived him a few months only, her death 
occurring November 30, 1845, he had, in addition to a daughter 
Amelia, who died in childhood, and was buried at Prestwich, 
three sons Richard, who succeeded to the marquisate ; Thomas, 
on whom, as already stated, the Earldom of Wilton was entailed, 
the father of the present earl; and Robert, born April 24, 1801, 
who entered the House of Commons as member for Chester in 

1830, and in 1857 was created Baron Ebury, of Ebury Manor, in 
Middlesex, there being then three brothers sitting side by side as 
members of the House of Peers. Lord Ebury married, May iSth, 

1831, Charlotte Arbuthnot, daughter of the Hon. Henry Wellesley, 
G.C.B., first Lord Cowley, and niece of Arthur, Duke of Welling- 
ton, the hero of Waterloo, by whom he has five sons and two 

On his elevation to the Marquisate of Westminster he had an 


County Families of 

honourable augmentation granted, which is now borne as the first 
and fourth quarterings of the family coat : Azure, a portcullis with 
chains pendent, or; on a chief of the second, in pale, the arms of 
Edward the Confessor, between two united roses of York and 
Lancaster (being the arms of the city of Westminster) ; the second 
and third quarters of the shield being Azure, a garb or, the family 
arms of Grosvenor. Crest : On a wreath, a talbot statant, or. 
Supporters : On either side a talbot rampant regardant, or, collared 


Richard Grosvcnor, who succeeded as second Marquis of 
^Vestminster at his father's death, as Viscount Belgrave represented 
Chester in Parliament from 1818 to 1830, when he was returned 
for the county, his younger brother, Lord Robert Grosvenor, 
succeeding him in the representation of Chester. He was 
appointed a Privy Councillor, had the Garter conferred upon him, 
and was made Lord Lieutenant and Gustos Rotitlorum of the 
county of Chester. His lordship married, September 16, 1819, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 339 

the Lady Elizabeth Mary Leveson-Gower, second daughter of 
George Granville, first Duke of Sutherland, and thus became one 
of that group of brothers-in-law who " form a clan without a rival 
in Great Britain," and by her he had four sons and nine daughters. 
He died October 31, 1869, being succeeded in the honours and 
family estates by his eldest son, Hugh Lupus Grosvenor, the 
present head of this illustrious house, born i8th October, 1825. 
His lordship, who has filled various public offices, represented 
Chester in Parliament from 1847 to 1869, and is a Privy Councillor. 
In the year following his accession to the title he was made a 
Knight of the Garter; by patent, dated 2yth February, 1874, 
he was created Duke of Westminster, and on the death of Lord 
Egerton of Tatton, in 1883, he had the Lord Lieutenancy of 
Cheshire conferred upon him. He married (i) his cousin, the 
Lady Constance Gertrude Sutherland Leveson-Gower, fourth 
daughter of George Granville, second Duke of Sutherland, who 
died December igth, 1880, having borne him, with other issue, 
five sons and three daughters ; and (2) the Honourable Katherine 
Caroline Cavendish, daughter of William George, second Lord 
Chesham, by whom he has further issue. 

For centuries past there has been a close connection between 
the Grosvenors and the city of Chester, to which they have been 
liberal benefactors. In the last century, and that which preceded 
it, the office of Mayor was more than once filled by a member of 
the family, and until very recently it was continuously represented 
by at least one of the name, and not unfrequently by two at the 
same time, certainly without a break from the accession of George 
I. to the reign of William IV. ; but the Independent party having 
gained strength and influence, only one member of the family has 
in recent years sat for the city, though it has occasionally, in 
addition, found representatives for the neighbouring county of 
Flint, and until the passing of the Reform Act of 1885 claimed a 
sort of prescriptive right to one of the seats for the county of 

We may fitly conclude this notice of one of the wealthiest and 

34O County Families of Lancashire, &c. 

most influential of our " County Families " by quoting some recent 
remarks made on the agreeable contrast between the Hugh Lupus 
of 1066 and his collateral descendant of the present day, as illus- 
trating the changed character of the times in which we live : " In 
addition to all the commanding influence, and extensive possessions 
and ardent love of field sports of the great Norman, we now, with 
gratitude and admiration, behold the high example of a pure and 
simple life ; the peace-loving, amiable disposition ; the unceasing 
care for the interests and comforts of the poor and the suffering 
the desire for the social and religious improvement of his country- 
men in all parts ; and the large-hearted, unstinting and, in many 
cases, secret generosity in support of all worthy objects, which are 
marked characteristics of the Hugh Lupus, Duke of Westminster, 
of 1886 ;" thus exemplifying the motto of the Grosvenors Virtus, 
non slcinma. 



HOUGH until lately describing themselves as of 
Ancoats, as well as of Rolleston, a goodly number 
of years have passed by since the Mosleys were 
actually resident in the sombre looking mansion 
which the Midland Railway Company of late trans- 
formed into business offices ; nevertheless, their long and close 
connection with Lancashire, the active part which their progenitors 
took in its affairs, and the interests which they themselves still 
retain, entitle them to a place among our " County Families." 

Whoever has wandered about the outskirts of that huge brick 
rookery Wolverhampton will remember the little hamlet of 
Moseley, with its quaint, picturesque, half-timbered hall, famed in 
history as one of the places where Charles the Second found a 
temporary shelter after the disastrous fight at Worcester, a house 
about which, says a local historian, " there is an air of seclusion 
and weather-beaten respectability redolent of jack-boots and 
bandalier, sack and buff-belt." The manor, in accordance with the 
custom of former days, gave name to its owners, a family repre- 
sented in the time of King John by a certain Ernald de Moseley, 
and from Oswald Moseley, the second son of this Ernald, the 
Lancashire Mosleys claim their descent. The name first occurs 
in the annals of this county in the reign of Edward IV., when, in 
1465, Jenkyn Moseley is mentioned as then residing at Hough 
End, in Withington, and a few years later (1473) ' ne narn e of 
Robert Moseley appears as the possessor of a burgage or tenement 


County Families of 

near the bridge in Manchester, presumably somewhere near the 
end of Deansgate and the present Victoria Street. Though 
descended from a younger brother of the blood and lineage, the 
social status of Jenkyn Moseley is sufficiently indicated by the fact 
that he not only bore arms, but, instead of impaling, quartered 
with the paternal coat that of his wife, an evidence that he had 


added to his possessions by marrying an heiress. It is not known 
with certainty who the lady was, but the heraldic insignia which 
Jenkyn used in her right was allowed by Richard St. George, the 
Norroy King of Arms, at his visitation in 1613, and his descend- 
ants have ever since continued to quarter the three eagles with the 
three mill-picks, the arms of the parent stock. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 343 

To Jenkyn Moseley a son was born in 1469, who received the 
name of John, and who was in turn the father of Edward Moseley. 
This Edward married Margaret, one of the daughters of Alexander 
Elcock, a wealthy Stockport trader, who resided in the Hillgate, 
and in 1549 filled the office of Mayor of the borough. The issue 
of the marriage in addition to a daughter named after her mother, 
who married William Prestley and went to reside in London 
was three sons Nicholas, Anthony, and Oswald, and they 
severally embarked in trade and throve apace by transactions 
which, in those days, were accounted considerable. 

Manchester had long been "a greate cloathing towne." As early 
as 1322 it had exhibited an aptitude for manufacture; a few years 
later some Flemings established themselves in the district and did 
much to improve the trade ; and when the Wars of the Roses were 
ended people settled down and devoted themselves steadily to the 
more peaceful and profitable pursuits of commerce. In Henry 
VIII. 's reign Manchester and Bolton had become the chief places 
of resort for both woollen and linen manufactures, and J. eland, 
the antiquary, who visited the two towns in 1538, describes 
Manchester as " the fairest, quickest, and most populous town of 
all Lancashire," though, as compared with its present extent, it could 
then only have been a hamlet. The Manchester cottons or coatings, 
which had added so much to the town's prosperity, were not, 
however, the productions which go by that name now-a-days; they 
were then, and for a couple of centuries to come, a rough kind of 
woollen cloth much esteemed for their warmth and durability. So 
much for the Manchester trade at the time the three sons of 
Edward Moseley embarked in it. 

Oswald, the youngest of the three brothers, married, at the 
Collegiate Church, June loth, 1589, Cicely, one of the daughters 
of Richard Tipping. Mr. Tipping, who had settled in Manchester, 
and was then accounted one of its merchant princes, was a Preston 
man; his father, Thomas Tipping, was Guild-Mayor in 1542, and 
Richard's name appears second on the list of burgesses for that 
year. He resided at a house in Hanging Ditch, near the church 


344 County Families of 

anent the churchyard, as it is described in some of the old Court 
Rolls. This house, which had belonged to Richard Brownsword, 
he afterwards purchased, enlarged, and in part re-built, and thence- 
forward it was known as Tipping Gates, a name that still survives 
in Tipping Street, near the lower end of Cannon Street and Hang- 
ing Ditch. Oswald Moseley must have prospered in his business 
as a " clothier," for a few years after his marriage he became the 
owner by purchase of Garratt Hall, a stately, many-gabled mansion 
standing on the banks of Shooter's Brook, near Garratt Road the 
present Brook Street. The hall had been for several generations 
the residence of a branch of the Traffords of Trafford, and was 
eventually conveyed in marriage by a heiress of that house to Sir 
Thomas Gerard, of Bryn, who sold it in 1595. Here is the 
presentment of the jury as entered on the Court-leet Records : 

Oswald Moseley hath purchased the Garrett of Sir Thomas Gerrarde, 
Knt., and the said Oswald to come, &c., but what is due to the lord we 
know not. 

Here Oswald Moseley resided, and here a family of three sons 
and one daughter was born to him. He was twice married, and 
in the Mosley pedigrees Cicely Tipping is commonly described as 
his second wife, but this is an error, as evidenced by the registers 
of the respective marriages. After Cicely's death he married, at 
the Parish Church of Stockport (February 13, 1616-17), Elizabeth, 
eldest daughter of the Rev. Richard Gerard, Rector of Stockport, 
an offshoot of the Gerards of Ince, descended from the Gerards of 
Bryn, and therefore remotely connected with the former owner of 
Garratt. The lady was very much younger than himself, for she 
was not born until two years after his first marriage ; he had no 
children by her. and did not survive the marriage many years, his 
death occurring at Garratt Hall in 1622. Of the children by the 
first marriage, Mary, the only daughter, in defiance of her father's 
expressed wish, as it is said, married John Vaudrey, of Riddings, in 
Cheshire ; the two eldest sons, Oswald and Rowland, died in their 
father's lifetime, and at his death the third son, Samuel, succeeded 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 345 

to the Garratt property, but he alienated the estates, which after- 
wards passed into the possession of Thomas Mynshull, and in 1631, 
or shortly after, he settled in Ireland. Francis, the youngest of 
the four sons of Oswald Moseley, of Garratt, had a son of the same 
name, who was father of Thomas Moseley, Lord Mayor of York in 
1687, and of Rowland Moseley, who held the shrievalty of the city 
in 1702. We are not so much concerned with the descendants of 
Oswald Moseley, who severed their connection with Lancashire, as 
with those of the two elder brothers, Nicholas and Anthony, whose 
interests continued to be identified with Manchester, and the latter 
of whom may be said to be the founder of two distinct houses the 
Mosleys of Ancoats, from whom the present Sir Tonman Mosley 
derives his descent, and the Mosleys of Hulme, who became 
extinct in the early part of the last century. 

The two brothers were woollen manufacturers or dothworkcrs, 
as it was then, the fashion to call them- the staple trade of the town. 
They were active, energetic, and their business prospered ; it is 
pleasant, too, to think that they were as noted for their integrity 
and fair dealing as for their success. A great portion of their 
productions were sent to London for shipment to distant countries, 
for Liverpool in those days was hardly recognised as a port, and 
this branch of their trade increasing, it was determined that 
Nicholas should remove to London, that he might the better direct 
the exportation of the goods destined for foreign markets. Success 
attended his efforts, and by skill and enterprise he rapidly advanced 
in fame and fortune. It is not unlikely that the worthy Nicholas, 
"whom," as Hollinworth says, "from a low estate God raised up 
to riches and honour," added to his wealth by a judicious invest- 
ment of his trading profits in loans on mortgage, for in 1579 we find 
him closely connected with his friend John Lacye, citizen and cloth- 
worker of London, who had advanced to Sir William West, then 
lord of the manor, a sum of ,3,000 on the security of the manor, 
lordship, and seignory of Manchester. The Wests failing to comply 
with the conditions of redemption, Nicholas Mosley, who had most 
likely been the intermediary in the transaction, was appointed with 

346 County Families of 

Christopher Anderton to take possession of the manor, which he 
did on the 6th August, 1580, though, through some legal delays, 
Lacye was not recognised as the lord of the manor until 1582. In 
1596 Lacye conveyed the manor, with all its appurtenances, to 
Nicholas Mosley and Rowland, his son and heir, for the sum of 
,3,500. It has been suggested that Nicholas was the real 
purchaser in the first instance, and Lacye merely his agent or 
trustee, but the idea is negatived by the fact that Lacye was 
recognised as the de facto lord for fourteen years, and that a period 
of seventeen years had elapsed from the time of the foreclosure to 
the re-sale in 1596 ; moreover, the deeds of transfer from the Wests 
to Lacye show that Mosley acted as the attorney for both parties, 
both to take and to give seisin and possession of the manor. From 
1596 to 1845, a period of well nigh two centuries and a half, the 
manor was held by the family, when it was sold, with all rights 
and privileges appendant, to the Corporation of Manchester for 

Nicholas Mosley contrived to obtain distinction as well as wealth ; 
the skill and enterprise he had shown as a trader and merchant 
adventurer ere long marked him out for municipal honours. Six 
years before his purchase of the lordship and seignority of Man- 
chester (1590) he was chosen alderman of Aldersgate Ward; four 
years later he was elected alderman of Langbourn Ward ; and in 
1599 the city conferred upof. him the highest dignity it was in its 
power to bestow that of Lord Mayor. It was a time of anxiety 
and unrest. Elizabeth's great minister, her " faithful Burleigh," had 
gone to his rest only a few months before, and within a month of 
his decease Philip of Spain died also, but the hostility of Spain 
towards England had in no degree abated. The memory of the 
Armada still lingered, and in the year in which Nicholas Mosley 
entered upon his office another invasion was threatened with the 
object of wiping out the stain of the previous disaster. Ireland was 
then, as now, the weak place of the Queen's dominions, and a 
perpetual trouble to the English Government. The Jesuits had 
been intriguing there, and Tyrone, who had received arms and 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 347 

military stores from Spain, rose in insurrection. Force was then 
considered the most effectual remedy. Essex was sent into Ireland 
to quell the revolt, and extensive preparations were made at home 
to resist any attack that might be made by the " most Catholic 
King." Nicholas Mosley, the Lord Mayor, lacked neither courage 
nor patriotism. He appealed to the loyalty of the Common Council, 
and as a result the citizens undertook to furnish the Queen's 
Government with 6,000 soldiers and sixteen ships of war for the 
defence of the country, and this was supplemented by a vote of 500 
men and several ships to aid in suppressing the insurrection in 
Ireland. The energy and zeal displayed by the sturdy Lancashire 
trader he was then 72 gained for him the admiration of the 
Queen, who, to mark her approval, conferred upon him the honour 
of knighthood, and, if tradition is to be believed, at the same, time 
presented him with a carved oak bedstead and other articles of 
furniture for the new house he had then lately built at Hough End, 
on the site of the old home of his ancestors. It is commonly 
believed that it was at this time he altered the orthography of his 
name from Moseley that of the parent stock to Mosley, that, as 
it is said, it might the better harmonise with the punning motto he 
had adopted Mas legem regit. In the later years of his life he 
resided chiefly at the house he had erected at Withington ; in 1604 
he served the orifice of sheriff for the county, and in 161 2, at Hough 
End, he closed a life of active usefulness at the ripe age of eighty- 
five. He was buried at Didsbury on the 8th December, and his 
monument may still be seen in what was formerly the Mosley 
Chapel in Didsbury Church; it is a somewhat heavy structure, 
divided by Ionic columns into compartments, in which are placed 
the kneeling figures of himself in his civic robes, his two wives, and 
his sons. The character of the old knight has been variously 
estimated, and an epitaph written by one of his contemporaries 
hints that he had not been over scrupulous in the mode of acquiring 
his wealth possibly he had charged an usurious interest on some 
loan to his detractor. But little information has been vouchsafed to 
us as to his habits as a merchant, and still less as to his private life, 

348 Coiinty Families of 

the scanty knowledge we have being only such as can be gleaned 
from his papers and his will. 

Sir Nicholas Mosley was twice married ; his first wife, who bore 
him six sons, some of whom, however, died in infancy, was 
Margaret, daughter of Hugh Whitbroke. After her death he 
married (1592) Elizabeth, daughter of John Rookes, the widow of 
a London citizen named Hendley. This lady survived him about 
five years, her death occurring in May, 1617. 

Three sons were living at the time of Sir Nicholas' death 
Rowland, who succeeded as heir ; Anthony, who married a sister 
of Sir William Hewett, Knt., but whose dissolute habits had led to 
a family estrangement ; and Edward, a barrister of Gray's Inn, who 
distinguished himself in his profession. He was appointed Attorney- 
General for the Duchy of Lancaster, and in 1614 received the honour 
of knighthood, being also chosen in the same year to represent 
1'reston the capital of the duchy in Parliament, a distinction 
that was renewed in the succeeding Parliaments of 1620 and 1624. 
Subsequently he acquired by purchase the Rolleston estate in 
Staffordshire, now the chief residence of the Mosley family, and 
lived there until his death in 1638, when, being unmarried, the 
property reverted to the son of his elder brother. 

Rowland Mosley succeeded to his father's estates, and to a heri- 
tage also of a much less satisfactory character, a law suit that had 
dragged its length for some time, and in which his father was 
involved at the time of his decease. Under the old feudal lords 
the townsmen of Manchester had time out of mind enjoyed the 
right of " pannage " that of pasturing their pigs on the common at 
Collyhurst, on the outskirts of the town. Compared with its 
present extent, Manchester was then but a hamlet, consisting of a 
few streets leading off from the church. Every inhabitant kept his 
porker, and the swineherd was an important functionary, his 
duty being to collect the animals from each householder every 
morning and drive them to the common to feed on the acorns and 
beech mast ; collecting them again in the evening, and returning 
them to their respective owners. Nicholas Mosley, on acquiring 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 349 

the lordship and manor of Manchester, repudiated the right so long 
exercised, and enclosed a part of the common for his own purposes, 
a procedure that was resisted by the inhabitants, who instituted 
proceedings for the recovery of their ancient privileges. The suit 
was pending when Rowland Mosley entered upon his inheritance, 
but eventually a compromise was effected, the conditions being 
that Mosley should be free to enclose the common, subject to his 
setting apart six acres of land which might be used for the isolation 
of persons stricken with plague, and the burial of those who died 
of it ; and, in addition, the payment of a yearly sum of ^,10 for 
the benefit of the poor. Rowland Mosley did not long enjoy 
possession of the property. In 1616 he was appointed to the 
shrievalty of the county, and he died before the completion of his 
year of office. Like his father, he was twice married. His first 
wife, Anne, daughter of Humphrey Houghton, of Manchester, died 
in May, 1613 five months after his succession to the estates- - 
leaving him an only surviving child, who afterwards became the 
wife of William Whitmore, of Appley, a Shropshire squire. On 
the 1 5th December, in the same year, he again entered the married 
state, his second wife being Anne, daughter of Francis, and sister 
and co-heir of Richard Sutton, of Sutton, near Macclesfield. ]!y 
this lady, who survived him and retained her widowhood for the 
long period of forty-five years, he had, in addition to a daughter, 
Anne, who died unmarried in 1656, a son Edward, born in 1616, 
who succeeded as heir, and who, as already stated, inherited the 
Rolleston estates on the death of his uncle, Sir Edward Mosley, 
in 1638. 

Edward Mosley was only a few months old at the time of his 
father's decease. When he had just completed his twentieth year 
he married (November 16, 1636) the richly-dowered daughter of 
a Yorkshire knight Maria, daughter of Sir Gervase Cutler, of 
Stainborough Hall and two years later he found his possessions 
agumented by the Staffordshire property bequeathed to him by his 
uncle. He was a wealthy commoner, and in the disputes between 
the King and the Commons which preceded the outbreak of the 

35O County Families of 

civil war, he took his stand on the side of his sovereign, and 
became a warm partisan of the Royalist cause. His services were 
recognised by the King; in July, 1640, a patent of baronetcy was 
granted to him, and two years later he was honoured with the 
shrievalty of the county of Stafford. It was a momentous year in 
the annals of England ; before even the Royal Standard had been 
raised at Nottingham, the first shot was fired at Manchester very 
nearly upon the spot where the statue of Cromwell now stands 
which proclaimed to anxious England that the dispute between 
sovereign and subject could only be settled by an appeal to arms. 
When in the autumn of that year Lord Strange led his forces to the 
attack of Manchester, Sir Edward Mosley placed his town residence 
The Lodge, in Alport Park, near the site of the present Camp 
Field at his lordship's disposal, and it became his headquarters. 
] hiring the siege it was set on fire by the townsmen and burned 
to the ground ; Rosworm's soldiers jocularly remarking that " the 
Cavaliers had been well entertained there; they had lodged with 
Mosley, and paid a good round reckoning in smoke and ashes, 
since which a cooler fire took down their lodging." Subsequently 
he was ordered by the King to fortify the castle of Tutbury, in 
Staffordshire, and in 1643 he joined a detachment of the Royalist 
forces in Cheshire under Sir Thomas Aston and Vincent Corbet. 
An engagement took place near Middlewich, in which the Parlia- 
mentarians, under Sir William Brereton, were victorious ; Aston 
escaped, but Mosley, who had taken refuge in the church, was 
made prisoner ; he was, however, liberated shortly afterwards on the 
promise that he would not again bear arms against the Parliament. 
The dominant party, however, determined on levying black-mail ; 
his estates were sequestrated, and he only recovered them by the 
payment into the Treasury of a sum of ^4,874 as the penalty of 
his '-delinquency. 1 ' During the dissensions of that turbulent period 
the splendid patrimony which Sir Edward Mosley had acquired 
became greatly encumbered. In addition to the forfeitures 
imposed upon him by the Republican party, it has been estimated 
that in loans and other ways he contributed no less a sum than 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 351 

.20,000 to the support of the Royalist cause. In the papers 
left by Humphrey Chetham, and now preserved in the library 
which he founded, there are several letters relating to Sir Edward's 
pecuniary obligations at this time ; several of them are written by 
his mother, who with his sister Anne had become surety to 
Chetham for advances he had made, and they are mostly apolo- 
getical, excusing delay and entreating further forbearance. The 
correspondence extends over a number of years, during which 
Chetham appears to have been receiving, or was at all events 
entitled to receive, the somewhat usurious interest of 8 per cent per 
annum ; but eventually legal action had to be taken by the lender 
for the recovery of the principal. Sir Edward Mosley did not live 
to see the Restoration. His lavish expenditure in the cause of his 
sovereign, as well as his personal extravagance, had greatly 
impoverished his estates ; his constitution had probably been 
impaired by his military campaigning and the anxieties inseparable 
from his financial difficulties, for he died in 1657 at the compara- 
tively early age of forty-one, and on the 4th December in that year 
was buried by the side of his forefathers at Didsbury. He was 
succeeded in the baronetcy by his only son, Edward, then a minor, 
but who must have reached full age in 1661, when he was returned 
to Parliament as the representative of St. Michael's, Cornwall. 
He became the purchaser of Hulme Hall, near Manchester the 
old ancestral home of the Prestwiches, a family whose fortunes had 
been ruined in the Civil War and in 1661 obtained an Act of 
Parliament confirming the sale to him. He married Katharine, 
daughter of William, Lord Grey of Wark, who survived him, and 
subsequently became the wife successively of Charles, son and heir 
of Dudley, Lord North, and Colonel Russell. He had no children, 
and died in 1665 at the early age of twenty-seven, bringing to a 
close the direct male descent from Sir Nicholas Mosley, the Lord 
Mayor of London, and the founder of the fortunes of the Mosley 

Edward Mosley, in whom it will be remembered the male line 
in direct descent from Sir Nicholas Mosley terminated shortly after 

352 County Families of 

attaining full age, made a will (December 18, 1660), disposing of 
his estates, but for some cause or other this was revoked a few days 
before his death, when another disposition of the property was 
made, a circumstance that gave rise to considerable litigation, the 
validity of the later instrument being disputed by those who would 
have inherited under the first will. After prolonged contention a 
compromise was effected by which the estates were partitioned in a 
way contemplated by neither of the disputed documents, the upshot 
being that the RoHeston estates in Staffordshire, then held as 
dower by the testator's widow, were to pass at her decease to 
Oswald, eldest son of Nicholas Mosley, of Ancoats, who also 
inherited from his uncle, Sir Edward Mosley, of Hulme, the manor 
and lordship of Manchester, subject to a life interest in favour of 
Sir Edward's daughter, who became the wife of Sir John Bland, 
of Kippax Park, in Yorkshire, the I^eicestershire estates at the 
same time passing to the testator's only surviving sister, Mary, wife 
of Joseph Maynard, of Ealing, in Middlesex, the ancestress of the 
Earl of Buckingham and the late Earl of Stamford and Warrington. 

('oing back to the time of the three sons of Edward Mosley, of 
Hough End, who, in Elizabeth's reign, diverged into trade, it will be 
remembered that when Nicholas took up his abode in London, in 
order to direct the exportation of the goods intended for foreign 
markets, his younger brother, Anthony, remained in Manchester to 
superintend the manufacture of the various fabrics dealt in. 
Anthony was as much engrossed in the business as his brother, 
and was withal as successful, the wealth he accumulated enabling 
him later in life to purchase the Hall of Ancoats, with its dependent 
estates, from Sir John Byron, of Newstcad, and his son the future 
Royalist commander whom Charles I. created Baron Byron of 
Rochdale, and the ancestor of the poet lord. Anthony Mosley 
died March 25th, 1607, at the age of seventy, having had by his 
wife Alice, daughter of Richard Webster, of Manchester, a family 
of nine sons and four daughters, several of whom had, however, 
pre-deceased him. 

Oswald, the eldest son, who was in his twenty-fourth year at the 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 353 

time of his father's death, resided at Ancoats. His name occurs in 
the Manchester Court-leet Records extending over a good many 
years as steward of the leet, his kinsman, Sir Edward Mosley, of 
Hough End, being the manorial lord. He died in 1630,31 the age of 
forty-seven, leaving by his wife Ann, daughter and co-heir of Ralph 
Lowe, of Mile End, near Stockport, who survived him and retained 
her widowhood for more than forty years, five sons and three 
daughters, three other daughters having died in infancy. Nicholas, 
the eldest son, who was then under age, resided at Ancoats with his 
widowed mother, and of him we shall have occasion to speak anon. 
Edward Mosley, the second son, then a youth of twelve years, was 
educated for the bar, and became one of the Commissioners for the 
Administration of Justice in Scotland, an office that was continued 
to him during the Commonwealth period. When the estates of the 
last direct male representative of Sir Nicholas Mosley were partitioned 
in accordance with the compromise to which reference has been 
made, this Edward received as his share the old ancestral home at 
Hough End, with the lands pertaining to it in Didsbury. Withing- 
ton, Heaton Norris, and Chorlton, Hulme Hall and Manor, the 
Cheshire estates at Cheadle Mosley, and the priory of Breadsall, 
in Derbyshire. 

A sister of Edward Mosley his senior in years became the 
second wife of that earnest Puritan divine, the Rev. John Angier, 
of Denton, his first wife leaving it as her dying request that " as 
soon as decency permitted the step, and the lady's consent could 
be obtained, he should take Miss Margaret Mosley as her successor." 
They were married very publicly in Manchester Church (November 
15, 1643) " in the heat of the wars, which was noticed as an act of 
faith in both of them," and the lady, we are told, was "a very pious, 
prudent, gentlewoman," and " an useful mother in Israel." It is 
not unlikely that the teaching and conversation of Angier and his 
wife Margaret had an influence on the mind of young Mosley. Be 
that as it may, while his elder brother of Ancoats and his kinsmen 
of Didsbury and Collyhurst were adherents of the High Church 
party and staunch supporters of the Stuarts, Edward Mosley, though 


354 Coimty Families of 

continuing within the communion of the Church of England, was 
ardently attached to the Puritan section, and when James II. 
manifested a desire to restore Roman Catholicism he joined the 
Whig party, and looked with favour on the bloodless revolution 
which placed William of Orange and Mary upon the English throne, 
his adherence being rewarded by a knighthood, which was conferred 
upon him at Whitehall in June, 1689. The wife of Sir Edward 
Jane Meriel, daughter of Richard Saltonstall, of Huntwick, near 
Halifax had been most strictly trained in the principles of the 
Presbyterians. She shared her husband's religious convictions, and 
was no less earnest in her attachment to Puritan principles. Three 
sons were born of the marriage, but they all died in the lifetime of 
their father, and at Sir Edward's death, which occurred in July, 
1695, at the age of seventy-seven, the estates passed to his daughter 
and only surviving child, Anne, who ten years before had been 
married at Chorlton Chapel to Sir John Bland, of Kippax Park, a 
Yorkshire baronet, who, to gain her hand and fortune, assumed an 
air of piety and appeared to be influenced by strong Puritan con- 
victions. The marriage, which gave such promise of future 
happiness, was in its results most disastrous. Having gained his 
object, Sir John gave early indication of a love of dissipation. His 
wife's ample fortune afforded him increased facilities for indulgence, 
and but for her prudence the whole of the estates she inherited 
would have been quickly squandered at the gaming table. Sir 
John represented the town of Appleby in Parliament for some time, 
and afterwards sat for Pontefract, in Yorkshire. He died October 
25, 1715, at the age of fifty-two regretted probably by none save 
those who had won his money, and who, perchance, hoped to win 
more and was buried at Didsbury, where his widow, who survived 
him nearly twenty years, erected a monument to his memory, on 
which is an inscription undeservedly laudatory. After her husband's 
death Lady Bland continued to reside at Hulme Hall, which may 
be said to have been the focus of fashion, and the centre of 
"society" of the Manchester of that day, and though she inherited 
the religious principles and the Whig sympathies of her parents, 

Lancashire and Cheshire, 355 

she offered a ready welcome to those of opposite opinions who 
had the recommendation of culture and refinement, for we read 
that " Dr." John Byrom the laureate of the Jacobites, as he has 
been called very frequently listened to sermons in her pew at St. 
Ann's, and not less frequently was the recipient of her hospitalities 
at Hulme. The Church of St. Ann's owed its existence in a great 
measure to her liberality ; she was the chief contributor to the cost 
of erection, and it was named St. Ann's in compliment to her. 
She laid the foundation stone, May 18, 1709, and at the consecra- 
tion, July 17, 1712, she gave a portion of the communion plate, 
and the covering for the communion table. The Collegiate 
Church the "old church," as it was thereafter called was the 
resort of the Jacobite and High Church party, while those who 
accepted the sovereign de facto, and repudiated the '' king over the 
water," found a more congenial sanctuary at St. Ann's. In those 
days party feeling ran very high. Lady Bland was the recognised 
leader of Whig and Low Church fashion, while her great rival, 
Madam Drake, held a similar position in regard to those of High 
Church and Jacobite proclivities, and political feeling not unfre- 
quently intruded itself in the social gatherings in the town. On one 
occasion it is recorded at a ball in the then newly-erected assembly 
room, the display of the Stuart tartan was so great as to disturb 
the equanimity of the Lady of Hulme, who in a fit of anger with- 
drew her fair followers, who had decked themselves with orange 
favours, and danced a minuet with them in the street by moon- 
light, a procedure that even in these " strong-minded " days would 
hardly be considered as decorous. She died July 26, 1734, and 
was buried by the side of her husband at Didsbury, being succeeded 
in the inheritance by a son who bore his father's name and shared 
his father's vices. The provision which she had made in her will 
for perpetuating the descent of the estates in her family was frustrated 
by his extravagance, and the large property which she had brought 
as her dowry passed into the hands of strangers ere many years had 
elapsed. The manor and mansion of Hulme was sold in 1751 to 
George, son of Gamaliel Lloyd, of Manchester, the grandfather of 

356 County Families of 

Mary Ann Lloyd, who became the wife of the late Rev. Canon Wray, 
of Manchester, and the direct ancestor of the present Thomas William 
Lloyd, Esq., of Cowesby Hall, Yorkshire, and Spotland, Lancashire ; 
and in 1764 they were resold to the Duke of Bridgewater, whose 
trustees subsequently pulled down the old hall ; and the Manor of 
Withington about the same time passed by purchase to the Eger- 
tons of Tatton, in whom it is vested at the present time. 

But to return to Nicholas, the eldest son of Oswald, and the 
grandson of Anthony Mosiey, the old Manchester clothier. As 
already stated, he was under age at the time of his father's death, 
though he had then reached his nineteenth year. The storm was 
then gathering which in a few years was to spend its force in that 
fratricidal struggle that drenched the country in civil slaughter. 
Nicholas Mosiey, having ample means at his disposal, followed the 
example of his uncle Francis and his kinsman, Sir Edward, of 
Rolleston, and joined the Royalists, though it does not appear that 
he took any very active part in the military operations of which 
Lancashire and Cheshire at that time became the theatre ; still his 
sympathy was sufficiently marked to render him obnoxious to the 
Cromwellian party, who manifested their displeasure by sequestrating 
his estates. His chief offence, as we gather from the resolution of 
the House of Commons, accepting the sum of ^120 as a compo- 
sition for his "delinquency," was that he had been "residing in the 
enemies' quarters." He wrote a book entitled Passions and 
Faculties of the Soul of Man, and his tastes and inclinations seem 
to have inclined more to the quietude of the library than the 
excitement of the camp. The penalty imposed upon him by the 
dominant party had a salutary effect, for from that time he seems to 
have kept his principles well under control until the Restoration 
gave him the opportunity of displaying his exuberant loyalty with- 
out let or hindrance. The coronation of Charles II. was celebrated 
in Manchester with every demonstration of joy. The sons of those 
who a generation before had resisted the demands of the first 
Charles, forgetting their old resentments, were now unable to set 
bounds to their demonstrations of affection for his son. The 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 357 

conduit, near the Market Place, we are told, ran wine instead of 
water ; the gutters flowed with strong beer, and bonfires blazed for 
a whole week. In a contemporary account of the festivities and 
rejoicings we read 

On Monday, the 22nd of April, being the day before his Majesty's corona- 
tion . . . Nicholas Mosley, Esquire, a sufferer for his late Majesty, 
captain of the auxiliaries raised in the town for the defence of his Majesty's 
royal person and prerogative, did march into the field with his company, 
consisting of about 220 men, most of them being of the better sort of this 
place, and bearing their own arms in great gallantry, and rich scarfs, 
expressing themselves with great acclamation of joy and freeness to serve 
his Majesty. The ensign for the auxiliaries was blue and white, and in the 
middle a very rich crown of gold on both sides, with this motto underneath 
Vincit qui patitur. In their marching from the field to the church (where 
Warden Heyricke preached a sermon fitted to the occasion) before Captain 
Mosley's company there marched, in honour of tha day, forty young boys 
about the age of seven years, all clothed in white stuff, plumes of feathers 
in their hats, blue scarfs, armed with little swords hanging from black belts 
and short pikes upon their shoulders ; and in the rear of the said Captain 
Mosley's company another company of elder boys, about twelve years of 
age, with muskets and pikes, drums beating and colours flying, marched in 
order. All being decently drawn up in the churchyard, laid down their 
arms, and so passed into the church to hear the sermon prepared for the 
day, at which time there was such a concourse of people, who civilly and 
soberly demeaned themselves all the whole day, the like was never seen in 
this nor any other place. 

After the sermon there was a grand procession to the cross in the 
Market Place, in which marched the boroughreeve and constables, 
the warden and fellows of the College, the burgesses of the town, 
and many of the neighbouring gentry. Arrived there, the King's 
health was drank with enthusiasm, amid the flaring of trumpets and 
the firing of musketry. So overflowing was Mosley's enthusiasm 
that on the ist of May, when he had received intelligence of the 
demonstrations in London, he again marched his men into the 
field, made them, as we are told, "a learned speech," and that 
ended, they marched into the town, where they were civilly enter- 
tained by Dr. Haworth and others, after which they proceeded to 
the Market Cross, where, all bareheaded, they drank his Majesty's 

358 County Families of 

health in sack, at the charge of Mr. Halliwell, the "sack" being 
doubtless as much appreciated as the " learned speech." 

Though a staunch Episcopalian, as well as an uncompromising 
Royalist, Nicholas Mosley showed much consideration for the 
religious scruples of the Puritan party, Adam Martindale bears 
testimony to his kindliness of disposition, and when the Act of 
Uniformity was passed he did much to mitigate the hardships of 
Henry Newcome and others who had gone out from the Church. 
He died in October, 1672, and was buried in the Collegiate 
Church. By his wife Jane, daughter of John Lever, of Alkrington, 
he had, in addition to Edward, who died unmarried, two sons, 
Oswald and Nicholas. The former succeeded to the Ancoats 
estates on the death of his father, and subsequently, on the death 
of Sir Edward Mosley's widow, then Lady North, to the Rolleston 
property as well. He served the office of High Sheriff of Stafford- 
shire in 1701, and died in 1726, leaving by his wife Mary, daughter 
of William Yates, of Stanley _House, near Blackburn, an only 
surviving son, Oswald, who, in addition to his patrimonial estates, 
succeeded on the death of Lady Bland in 1734 to the lordship and 
manor of Manchester. In 1720 he had a baronetcy conferred on 
him by George I., his father, who was then living, having declined 
the honour on account of age. During the time he held the 
lordship of Manchester he was frequently in litigation, sometimes 
with the burgesses, and on one occasion with the trustees of the 
Free Grammar School, whose rights he had infringed by erecting 
a malt mill in Hanging Ditch, which was then in reality a ditch or 
watercourse. Previously, while managing the manor for his 
relative, Lady Bland, he had opposed the erection of a workhouse 
in which to employ the poor, though he afterwards built one him- 
self in Miller's Lane, which the guardians eventually paid for. He 
also in 1729 built on a plot of land in the Market Place, imme- 
diately adjacent to the old " Booths," where the boroughreeves 
court was held, a new exchange for "chapmen to meet in and 
transact their business "- a stone building of the Ionic order with a 
portico in front, which was taken down in 1792. It is stated in 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 359 

some local histories, and the statement has gained credence by 
frequent repetition, that Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Preten- 
der, made a secret visit to Ancoats in 1744 the year before the 
Scottish rising and remained there for some weeks as the guest of 
Sir Edward Mosley. The story does not appear to rest on any 
reliable foundation, and, as a matter of fact, there was no Sir 
Edward Mosley living at the time nor had there been for many 
years. The tradition is that on the prince entering Manchester at 
the head of the Scottish army he was recognised as having been a 
guest at Ancoats in the previous year, but in that case he must have 
been the guest of Sir Oswald Mosley. Sir Oswald died at 
Rolleston, June 10, 1751, when the several estates, with the Manor 
of Manchester, devolved on his eldest surviving son, also named 
Oswald, who died unmarried February 26, 1757, when they passed 
to his only brother, John Mosley, then Rector of Rolleston, and of 
Warsop, in Nottinghamshire, who succeeded as third baronet, a 
gentleman concerning whose eccentricities many amusing anecdotes 
have been related. He never married, and at his death, which 
occurred at Rolleston, September 23, 1799, the baronetcy expired, 
the Lancashire and Staffordshire properties, in pursuance of the settle- 
ment made by his elder brother, passing to his second cousin, Sir 
John Parker Mosley, the grandson of Nicholas, younger son of 
Nicholas Mosiey, the hero of the jubilant display at the restoration 
of Charles II. His father, being of the younger line, had engaged 
in trade, his calling being that of a woollen draper and merchant, 
and Sir John himself had also carried on the business of a hat 
manufacturer on an extensive scale. In 1781 (before he succeeded 
to the manor) he was created a baronet the third time that 
distinction had been conferred upon the Mosleys and five years 
later he was honoured with the shrievalty of Lancashire. He 
married, April 7, 1760, Elizabeth, daughter of James Bayley, of 
Withington (the gentleman whom the Pretender's forces seized on 
their departure from Manchester in 1745, and carried with them to 
Derby as a hostage, to enforce the payment of ,5,000 levied on 
the inhabitants of the town during their hasty visit), the lady's 

360 Co^lnty Families of Lancashire, &c. 

mother being one of the daughters of gamuel Peplpe. D.D., Warden 
of Manchester and afterwards Bishop of Chester, three sons and 
four daughters being the issue. Sir John Parker Mosley died at 
Rolleston on the zgth September, 1798, at the age of sixty-seven. 
His eldest son, Oswald, of Bolesworth Castle, in Cheshire, had pre- 
deceased him, his death occurring July 27th, 1789, his wife Eliza- 
beth, daughter and heiress of the Rev. Thomas Tonman, Rector of 
Little Budworth, in Cheshire, following him to the grave three 
months after. The honours and estates consequently descended to 
deceased's grandson, who thus became Sir Oswald MosJey. Bart., of 
Ancoats, Lancashire; Rolleston, Staffordshire; and Bolesworth 
Castle, Cheshire. Sir Oswald, by an agreement dated June 24th, 
1845, sold the manor and manorial rights, which had been in his 
family for very nearly two centuries and a half, to the Mayor and 
Corporation of Manchester for the sum of .200,000, and they 
were finally conveyed to that body by deed, dated May 5, 1846. 
Sir Oswald (who for some years represented the Northern Division 
of Staffordshire in Parliament) married, January 31, 1804, Sophia 
Anne, second daughter of the late Sir Edward Every, Bart., of 
Egginton, and by her, who died June 8, 1859, he had a family of 
three sons and seven daughters. He survived his wife for a period 
of nearly twelve years, his death occurring May 24, 1871, at the 
advanced age of eighty-six, the estates devolving upon his second 
but eldest surviving son, Tonman Mosley, the present baronet. 



T is commonly said that English family history stops 
short at the Conquest, the tide of invasion which 
then submerged the country having, with rare 
exceptions, washed out the record of any family 
that might claim to have had root in the days of 
the Heptarchy ; and there is very little doubt that many even of 
those who carry their genealogies back to the time when the 
Norman adventurers dispossessed the Saxon thanes and petty- 
chieftains of their lands, owe a good deal to the powerful imagination 
of the heralds and pedigree-makers of a bygone age, for the pro- 
tracted struggle of the Plantagenets broke the backbone of society, 
and the cruelly subtle policy of the House of York and the extra- 
ordinary personal influence of the House of Tudor thinned the 
ranks of the nobles, shattered their power, and well-nigh destroyed 
their oligarchical influence ; few, comparatively, coming out of that 
bitter conflict with unimpoverished estates and undiminished 
splendour Among the few families that can, without cavil or 
question, carry the history of their line back to the time when even 
the Howards and the Nevilles were unknown, the Main wai ings of 
Peover may claim to take rank. When in the days of the Second 
Charles the county of Chester was agitated by a controversy that 
rivalled in the intense interest it excited the great Scrope and 
Grosvenor case of the time of the Second Richard, when the heads 
of the two knightly families of Mainwaring and Leycester buckled 
on their armour or, to speak more correctly, took up their pens 

362 County Families of 

to do battle for or against the Lady Amicia, one of the daughters 
of Hugh Kyvelioc, the great Norman Earl of Chester, whose 
legitimacy was called in question, and when, as has been said, the 
whole county " watched their skill in the use of their weapons, 
applauded or condemned each tilt in the combat, and awaited 
with interest the final result," the combatants found a common 
ground of agreement in the fact that whether the lady in question 
was base issue according to the Canon law or not, there could be 
no doubt that her husband, Ralph Mainwaring, the Justiciary of 
Chester and the possessor of the whole or the greater part of 
seventeen Cheshire manors, besides other possessions elsewhere, 
was the head of a stock descended from a fellow soldier of Hugh 
Lupus, the nephew of the Norman Conqueror, and first palatine 
Earl of Chester. 

When that great agrarian record, the Domesday Book, was 
compiled, 1080-1086, the township of Over Peover, the parish of 
Warmincham, with various manors and lands in Cheshire, and the 
lordship of Waburne, in Norfolk, belonged to a certain Ranulphus, 
and formed part of the great fee granted to him at the time of the 
Conquest. This Ranulphus, who is allowed by common consent 
to be the direct ancestor of the Mainwarings, had two sons, Richard 
Mesnilwarin and Roger Mesnilgarin, as the name was variously 
spelt ; for the family had very arbitrary notions as to the orthography 
of their patronymic, Dugdale, in his MS. collections, recording the 
extraordinary number of one hundred and thirty-one variations of 
spelling it, all drawn from authorised documents.* These sons were 
liberal benefactors to the Abbey at Chester, the first named having 

given the tithes of Blacon, in Wirral hundred, to that religious house 


sometime before the year 1093, and the latter having supplemented 
his brother's gift with the lands in Plumley before 1119, when he 
made his son, Wido, a monk there. The eldest son of Roger, 
William, the brother of Wido, who was a witness to his father's 
grant, had a son, Roger Mesnilwarun, who, following the example 

* In many old deeds the same name was spelt in every known way, for 
precaution's sake, on the same parchment. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 363 

of his grandfather, further enriched the monks at Chester by the 
gift, in the reign of Henry II., of one-third of the ville of Nether 
Tabley. This Roger was father of Ralph, of whom anon, and of 
Robert, whose son Robert had for his portion lands in Wynnington 
and Barnton, to which he added by purchase the Manor of 
Rostherne, a moiety of the ville of Tatton, which in the next 
generation passed by a daughter in marriage to \Villiam de 
Mascy, or Massey, a nephew of Hamon, Baron of Dunham 
Massey, the first of the line of Masseys, lords of Rostherne, which 
terminated about the reign of Edward IV., when loan, the only 
daughter and heiress of Sir Geoffrey de Massey, conveyed the 
estates in marriage to William Stanley, nephew of the first Earl of 
Derby, and son and heir of that Sir William Stanley, of Holt Castle, 
whom Henry VII., to gratify his unscrupulous passion for wealth, 
sent to the block. The only issue of the union was a daughter, 
Joan, who married Sir Richard Brereton, a cadet of the House of 
Brereton, of Malpas, and their grandson, Richard Brereton, having 
no children, settled the estates on Sir Thomas Egerton, afterwards 
created Baron Ellesmere and Viscount Brackley, Queen Elizabeth's 
Lord Keeper and King James's " most excellent pattern of a most 
excellent Lord Chancellor," from whom the present Lord Egerton 
of Tatton inherits by descent. 

To return to Ralph, the brother of Robert Mesnihvarin, of 
Wynnington, the founder of the Tatton line. As eldest son he 
succeeded, at his father's death, to the family possessions, which, as 
already stated, were very considerable. He was a person of much 
consequence in his day, and largely increased his social influence by 
a marriage he contracted with Amicia, one of the daughters of 
Hugh Kyvelioc, palatine Earl of Chester. 

In 1171 Earl Hugh took to himself a second wife in the person 
of Bertred, or Bertha, daughter of Simon, Earl of Montfort and 
Evereux, in Normandy, the lady being then fourteen years old, 
whilst the earl was of the more mature age of forty. It was a 
marrying year, for before its close Earl Hugh had given Amicia, a 
daughter by his first wife, in frank marriage to Ralph Mainwaring. 

364 County Families of 

He doubtless believed he was bestowing her upon a husband of 
suitable rank, and there was much ceremony, as was befitting so 
important an occasion. A liberal dowry was given with the bride, 
and, as we learn from the charters, a great array of distinguished 
persons appeared to witness the earl's grants. First on the list 
appears the name of the aged Abbot of Chester, Robert Fitz-Nigel, 
the son of the first Baron of Halton, and the grandson, as is 
believed, of that Ivo de Constance, who encountered the F.nglish 
whom King .^thelred, in Saxon times, sent to France, and slew 
them as they left their ships. The earl's wife, the child countess, 
Bcrtred, comes next ; and following her are the names of a dozen 
persons of more or less account, including the earl's chamberlain. 
In the following year a daughter was born of the marriage, to whom 
the name Bertred was given in compliment to the countess, who 
is said to have acted as godmother for her. The little lady in later 
years became the wife of Henry de Aldethlegh, and by him was 
ancestress of the Touchets, Lords Audley, the Nevilles, Lords of 
Middleham, and, through them, of King Edward IV., and the 
English sovereigns descended from him. 

It was this marriage with the daughter of the Earl of Chester 
that caused so much heartburning and so much angry disputation 
two centuries ago. The name of Amicia's mother has not been 
preserved, and the silence of the early chroniclers as to any marriage 
of Earl Hugh previous to that with Bertred of Evereux led Sir Peter 
1 .eycester to conclude somewhat hastily that Amicia, from whom 
he was himself descended, was necessarily base-born. No sooner 
was the statement published in Leycester's Historical Antiquities 
than Sir Thomas Mainwaring, of Peover, entered the lists in defence 
of the honour of his ancestress. The controversy began with a 
private correspondence, which was followed by an appeal to the 
public, in which no less than sixteen books or pamphlets were 
issued on one side or the other. It is not our purpose to notice 
at length the arguments adduced in this remarkable controversy, 
which, it may be said, related chiefly to abstruse points of law, and 
were based for the most part on pure hypotheses ; suffice it to say 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 365 

that Sir Thomas Mainwaring, who displayed unsuspected powers 
as a genealogist and an intimate acquaintance with the old 
chroniclers and text writers, fairly established the legitimacy of the 
lady, the story of whose marriage with their remote ancestor had 
been so fondly cherished by the members of the Mainwaring 
family.* The controversy formed the subject of a satirical ballad, 
a copy of which is preserved among the Ashmokan MSS. (No. 
860, iii., art. i, and No. 836, art. 183). It comprises sixteen 
stanzas, the two first of which may be given by way of illustration : 

Two famous wights, both Cheshire Knights, 

Thomas yclep'd and Petre, 
A quarrel had, which was too bad, 

As bad as is my metre. 
Neere kinsmen were they, yet had a great fray, 

Concerning things done quondam ; 
1 think as long since as Will Rufus was Prince, 

E'en about their Great-great-grandame. 

Earl Hugh, when a young man, had joined his father in the 
rebellion against Stephen, which ended in securing the reversion of 
the English Crown to Henry II. A year or two after his marriage 
the earl was equally ready to join in a confederacy to remove the 
King he had helped to place upon the throne. In 1173, when 
Henry's sons had risen in revolt and set up a pretension to divide 
the royal power with their father, Earl Hugh crossed over to France 
with a force, and joined their standard ; but in the autumn of the 
year the English King followed in pursuit of his rebellious sons, and 
within a month had scattered or terrified all his enemies. The 
Earl of Chester was closely besieged in his Castle of 1 )ole, in 
Britany, and on the 2 6th August had to surrender at discretion, 
when he was made prisoner, and did not regain his liberty until 
1177, when the King restored to him all his possessions. During 
the interval the affairs of the palatinate would seem to have been 

* A full account of this controversy, which extended over five years' 
with copies of the several pamphlets, edited by Mr. William Beamont, 
will be found in The Amicia Tracts, vols. Ixxviii., Ixxx., Chetham Society's 

366 Coiinty Families of 

administered by a commissioner acting on behalf of the Crown. 
As soon as he found himself rehabilitated in his county, the earl 
appointed his son-in-law, Sir Ralph Mainwaring, to the important 
post of Chief Justiciary of Chester, an office he held until the early 
part of the reign of Richard II. He appears to have been much 
attached to the earl's person, and was with him on the occasion of 
his granting a charter confirming his father's gifts and making 
further benefactions to the canons of Calke Abbey, in Derbyshire, 
his name appearing first among the list of witnesses. After the 
death of Earl Hugh he attended Earl Randle, his successor, and 
his wife's half-brother, to Coventry, and witnessed the charter 
granted by him to his burgesses there, and he is frequently found 
accompanying him on his visits to his more distant possessions, 
and on every occasion in which he appears as witness to a deed or 
charter, even after he had relinquished his office of justice, his name 
stands before the Constable and Steward, though they each had a 
patent of precedence over all the other barons and officers, an 
evidence of the intimate relations existing and of the high place he 
held at the earl's court. 

When Sir Ralph Mainwaring's daughter, Bertred, became the 
wife of Henry de Aldethlegh, her father gave her, as a marriage 
portion, Smallwood, Snelson, the half of Picmere, and certain rentals 
in Chester, Earl Randle being one of the witnesses to the gift. 
In addition to this daughter Bertred, the Lady Amicia bore him 
two sons Roger, his heir, and Randle, who had the Manor of 
Great Warford assigned to him. Roger was a liberal benefactor to 
the Abbey of 1 >ieu-la-Cresse, a religious house on the banks of the 
Churnet, near Leek, which had been founded by Earl Randle, 
whom, in his gift, he expressly calls his uncle. He left three sons - 
Sir Thomas, who succeeded ; Randle, an ecclesiastic ; and Sir 
William, who had the lordship of Over Peover by gift of his father, 
in the reign of Henry III., as appears by the charter transcribed by 
Sir Thomas Mainwaring in 1666, and which had a seal attached to 
it, with an escutcheon of six barrulets, the ancient coat of the 
family. Sir Thomas, who appears to have altered the family coat, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 367 

sealing with two bars instead of six, as his father had done, had an 
only son, Sir Warin de Meyngwaring, the last male representative 
of the direct line, who married Agnes, daughter of Sir Peter ,</ ( 
Arderne^of Aldford, Knt., by whom he had a daughter, eventually 
his sole heiress, who conveyed the Warmincham estates in marriage 
to Sir William Trussell, lord of Cubworth, and they continued in 
the Trussells until the reign of Henry VII., when they passed, by 
the marriage of Elizabeth, sister and sole 
heir of John Trussell, to John Vere, 
fifteenth Earl of Oxford and Lord High 
Chancellor of England, whose grandson, 
Edward, Earl of Oxford, sold them in 


1579-80 to Sir Christopher Hatton, K.G., V 

Queen Elizabeth's dancing Lord Keeper, \_ 
and his nephew and successor sold them > 

to Sir Randolph Crewe, in whose descen- 
dants they have continued to the present , 

On the death of Sir Warin Mainwaring, 
in 1288, without male issue, the descent 
was continued by his younger brother, 
Sir William, who fixed his habitation at 
Over Peover, which has ever since con- 
tinued to be the chief residence of the 
family. This William had, in addition to 
a daughter Maud, three sons, of whom 
the eldest, Roger, married Christiana de 

Bircheles, or Birtles, but, dying in his .,, (/ .,//.,,,/, 
father's lifetime, the estates passed to his (.i/<wVrj. 

son William, who was living in 1325-6. He married Mary, daughter 
of Henry Davenport, and had, with other issue, a son William, who 
succeeded as heir at his death, which occurred about the year 1340. 
This William was twice married, his first wife being Joan, daughter 
and co-heir of William Praers, of Baddeley, who bore him a son, 
William, the fourth of that name in direct succession, who eventually 

368 County Families of 

became heir to his mother's sister Margery, wife successively of 
Hugh Holt and John Honford, as well as to his mother, and thus 
acquired the whole of the Baddeley lands. After the death of 
Margaret Praers, William Mainwaring took to himself another wife 
in the person of Elizabeth, daughter of Nicholas and sister of John 
Leycester, of Nether Tabley, by whom he had, in addition to John 
and Randle, of whom anon, three sons Thomas, Alan, and 
Richard and three daughters, all of whom made successful 
marriages. He added to the armorial coat of the Peover line (to 
distinguish it from that of the Warmincham stock) a lion passant in 
chief, as appears by his seal, which may be heraldically described 
as argent, two bars gu/fs, on a chief of the second, a lion passant 
guardant or; round it is the legend, 


He died in 1364, when the son by his 
first marriage succeeded as heir. 

A few years later, when the long reign 

\l of Edward III. was drawing to its close, 
~~i and the great Prince of Wales, the hero 
V~~ ~~7 of Crescy and Poictiers, broken in health 
^^^r and worn out by the excitement of wars 

Arms of .<\rai, ma n,, e / and conquests, was lying sick of the fever 
he had caught in this Spanish campaign, 

we find this William receiving protection, November 27, 48 
and 49 Edward III. (1375), on his going abroad on the King's 
service in the retinue of Edmund, Earl of Cambridge. It 
was the long and harassing war that deprived England of so 
many of her strong places in France, and left her at last 
with only a very limited dominion as the costly purchase of the 
ambition of forty years. Another entry on the Plea Rolls records 
that on the 5th November, 1382, he had protection given to him 
on his going to Aquitaine on the King's service. Two years after 
his mother's sister, Margery, the co-heir of William de Praers, died, 
when, as already stated, he became entitled to her moiety of the 
Baddeley estates, in addition to that he had previously inherited. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 369 

A good deal of litigation followed, for it appears that Margery, who 
had no children in wedlock, had before her marriage an illegitimate 
son John, who set up a claim to his mother's share of the Baddeley 
property. An inspeximus and exemplification of the date 15 
Charles II. sets forth that on February 28, 1397-8, there was a 
commission and inquisition touching a conspiracy by John, son of 
John Mere, a bastard, viz., son of Margery, sister of Joan, mother 
of William Maynwarying, to defraud or disinherit the said William 
of his inheritance. The inquisition was taken at Chester, when it 
was found that John Honford (Honford was the name of Margery's 
third husband), the son, was a bastard, and that William Mainwaring 
was sole heir to Margery, et nullus alias. William Mainwaring, 
however, seems to have recognised the claim of kinship, for when 
he made his will, just before his death in the following year, he 
bequeathed a good slice of the Baddeley lands to John Honford, the 
residue, which comprised '' several thousand acres," being left to 
his half-brother John. The settlement, however, had reference only 
to the maternal estates, and neither then nor at any other time did 
he make any disposition of the patrimonial lands. It might be said 
of William Mainwaring as, in a later day, of Sir William Stanley, 
that " the camp was his school ; " he had been a soldier from his 
youth up, and in 1393, though he must have been then well 
stricken in years, we find him buckling on his armour and arranging 
his affairs preparatory to his departure out of England towards 
Guienne. He must have returned, however, in the following year, 
for he then made his will, feeling, probably, that he was fast 
approaching the evening of his days. Hitherto he had not paid 
much outward tribute to the church, but as life drew near its close 
he wished to sanctify the end and derive all the spiritual advantage 
possible from vicarious prayer- a desire very common among our 
forefathers, who believed that sins committed in life might be 
expiated after death by the invocation of saints through the medium 
of officiating ecclesiastics. Accordingly he made provision for a 
competent salary to be paid to a chaplain or chantry-priest, who 
should say prayers for the repose of his soul, for a period of seven 

3JO County Families of 

years, in the Chapel of St. Mary, in Aghton (Acton, near Nant- 
wich) Church a chantry at the north-east angle of the church still 
existing. This endowment he supplemented by a gift to the church 
of a very precious relic a fragment of the true cross which the wife 
of Randle Mainwaring, his half-brother, had in her custody shut up 
in wax. This relic, it may be presumed, had been brought from 
Spain on the occasion of some military expedition, during which 
he had paid a visit to Oveida, for St. Salvador, at Oveida, was well- 
nigh as famous in his day as Compostello, for there, it was said, was 
preserved the miraculous ark which Philip, Bishop of Jerusalem, 
had brought away with him when the Holy City was besieged by 
the Persian King in the time of the Emperor Heraclius. On the 
invasion of the Saracens, Philip, Bishop of Ruspine, conveyed it 
into Spain, where it found a resting-place in the Church of St. 
Salvador, at Oveida, where a service was held yearly in commemora- 
tion of its safe arrival. Within the ark were a number of smaller 
arks of gold, silver, and ivory, which contained 

The relics and the written works of saints, 

Toledo's treasure prized beyond 

All wealth, their living and th;ir dead remain, 

among them being a part of Christ's cross and of the crown of 
thorns, a part of Elijah's mantle, a sandal of St. Peter, and a long 
and incredible list of other relics. He gave certain vestments to 
the chapel at Over Peover, and further directed that his body 
should be buried in the church at Acton, and that his " picture in 
alabaster " should be placed over his tomb. His death did not 
occur until 1399, and in the meantime he made another will, in 
which he gave specific directions to his feoffees as to the disposal 
of his mother's lands. He was buried, in accordance with his 
expressed wish, at Acton, where, on the north side of St. Mary's 
chantry, is a richly-canopied altar-tomb, adorned with a profusion 
of heraldic shields, and surmounted with the sculptured crest of 
the Mainwarings an ass's head. His " picture in alabaster," 
which represents him full length and habited in plate armour, 
with his hands uplifted as if in supplication, rests upon the tomb, 
round the edge of which is the following inscription : 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 


It was in his lifetime that the parent house at Warmincham 
became extinct through failure of male issue ; and becoming then 
head of the family, he changed the family coat, and sealed thereafter 
with an escutcheon bearing two bars only, and surmounted with an 
ass's head couped for crest,* the inscription encircling it being 


s. WILLIELMI MAYNWARixtiE. Like his father, he married twice 
(i) in 1366, Katherine, daughter of John Belgrave, of Belgrave, 
in the township of Eaton, near Chester, a property now owned by 
the Duke of Westminster ; and (2) Clemence, or dementia, 
Cotton neither of whom, however, bore him any issue, and 

* At the Visitation of 1580 Randle Mainwaring bore for crest an ass's 
head argent, haltered or. The crest now used by the head of the line of 
Peover is an ass's head proper, issuing from a ducal coronet. 

3/2 Co^tnty Families of 

consequently at his death the estates passed, in accordance with 
the terms of his will, to his eldest half-brother, John, son of William 
Mainwaring the elder, by Elizabeth Leycester, who, along with his 
younger brother, Randle, was at the time in Ireland in the service 
of King Richard, who had gone there to avenge the death of Roger 
Mortimer and chastise the Irish chieftains who had risen in revolt. 
When the unfortunate Richard II. was compelled to resign his 
sceptre, crown, and heritage to his cousin, Henry of Lancaster, 
" the banished Bolingbroke," John Mainwaring attached himself 
to the winning side, and hastened to pay court to the usurper. In 
1403, when Harry Hotspur and the gallant Douglas joined Glen- 
dower in the revolt which terminated so fatally at Hateley Field, 
near Shrewsbury, he remained true to the Lancastrian King, and 
was rewarded for his fidelity with a grant, i8th August, 4 Henry IV. 
(1403), of the whole of the estates which Sir Hugh Brown had 
forfeited for his share in that rebellion. On the I2th June, in the 
same year, John had entered into a contract with this Sir Hugh 
for the marriage of Margaret, his wife's daughter by her first 
husband, Sir John Warren, of Poynton, with Robert, the son of Sir 
Hugh, but the contract was set aside because, as is stated, of the 
grant of Sir Hugh's possessions to John Mainwaring. The King's 
son, Harry of Monmouth, was then Earl of Chester, and busily 
employed as the representative of his father on the Welsh marches, 
where Glcndower was continually asserting his power and harassing 
the country. John Mainwaring was in great favour with him, and 
a month after the grant of Sir Hugh Brown's estates (September 18, 
4 Henry IV.), he was made Sheriff of Cheshire, an office he con- 
tinued to hold in the three succeeding years, being described in the 
writ of appointment as armigeruin suum. In 1405 he was 
constituted one of the judges of the gaol delivery at Chester, and 
when he retired from the shrievalty he had a pension of twenty 
marks a year granted him. He did not, however, long enjoy it, 
for his death occurred in the following year. He married in the 
lifetime of his father (about 1389) Margaret, daughter and heir of 
Sir John Stafford, of Wickham, in Norfolk, the widow of Sir John 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 

Warren, of Poynton, who survived, but bore him no issue. He 
had, however, an illegitimate son by Margery Winnington, Peter, 
who appears to be identical with the Peter named in some of the 
visitations as base-born son of his half-brother William, who was 
founder of the line of Mainwaring of Nantwich. 

Having no legitimate issue, Randle Mainwaring, the next 
brother, succeeded to the family inheritance. Bred up a soldier, 
he had, as already stated, served with King Richard in Ireland ; 
but when misfortune overtook his royal master he was ready to 
salute the rising sun, and to render an equally willing service to 
the King de facto. He attached himself to the earl's court at 
Chester, and in 1405 had conferred upon him for life the office of 
Equitator of the Forest of Mara and Mondrem a territory then 
embracing a large portion of the Hundred of Nantwich and nearly 
the whole of that of Eddesbury ; and shortly after the earl had 
succeeded to the Crown as Henry V. he had granted to him two 
parts of the serjeanty of Macclesfield during the minority of John 
Davenport, in whose family the hereditary serjeanty was vested. 
He married, in 1391, Margery, daughter of Hugh Venables, baron 
of Kinderton, the then youthful widow of Richard Bulkeley, lord of 
Cheadle-Bulkeley, who had died in the preceding year. The 
marriage had taken place without the King's license being first 
obtained, and consequently, on September 14, 1391, as appears 
by the Cheshire Recognisance Rolls, he petitioned the King for 
livery of her dower of the lands of which her husband had died 
seized, and in December of the following year he had full livery of 
them granted to him. By her he had, in addition to John, his heir, 
William, who married Margaret, daughter and heiress of John 
Warren, of Ightfield, in Shropshire, and by her was ancestor of the 
Mainwarings of Ightfield ; Ralph, who in 1432 acquired the Manor 
of Kermincham, or Carincham, by purchase, and marrying Margaret, 
daughter of Sir John Savage, of Clifton, was founder of the line of 
Mainwaring of Carincham, which became extinct in the male 
descent on the death of John Mainwaring in 1784; and six 
daughters Elizabeth, Cicely, Joan, Ellen, Agnes, and Margaret 

374 County Families of 

all of whom, with the exception of Agnes, who died young, married. 
In addition to these he had an illegitimate son, by Emma ffarington, 
who took his name, Hugh le Maynwarying, who married Margaret, 
sister and eventually heiress of Ralph Croxton, of Croxton, and by 
her was founder of the line of Mainwaring of Croxton. He was 
the father also of five other illegitimate children Thomas, of North 
Rode, Randle, and three daughters. 

Randle Mainwaring died in 1456, and was buried in the south 
chapel of Over Peover Church, which he had himself erected, 
where his widow, who survived him, and died in 1459, she being 
then about ninety years of age, erected a monument, which still 
remains in an excellent state of preservation. It is placed beneath 
a crocketted canopy, and upon the altar-tomb are the life-sized 
figures, in alabaster, of Randle and his wife, placed side by side, each 
with their hands uplifted as if in supplication. He is represented 
in a complete suit of plate armour ; the sword is broken off, but the 
sword-belt, which remains, is richly ornamented ; a collar of SS. is 
placed round the neck, and on the head is a helmet with the 
inscription on the fillet: I.H.C. NAZAREN. The lady is 
habited in long, flowing robes ; she wears a netted head-dress of 
mitre shape, and round her neck is a small chain, with a pendant, 
on which is inscribed the sacred monogram, I.H.C. 

Sir John Mainwaring must have been far advanced in life when 
he succeeded to the family estates, for he had been married forty- 
five years previously to his first wife, Margaret, daughter of John 
Delves, of Doddington, who bore him two sons, William and John, 
and two daughters Elizabeth, who married, in 1436, Piers, son 
and heir of Sir Geoffrey Warburton, of Arley ; and Margaret, who 
married, in 1 45 2, Hamnet, son and heir of John Ashley, of Ashley, 
in Bowdon parish. On the death of Margaret Delves, Sir John 
took to himself a second wife in the person of Joan, second daughter I 
of John Warren, of Poynton, by his wife Isabel daughter of Sir I 

T * ''' V' 

John Stanley, K.G., of Lathom, but he does not appear to have *" 
had children by her. In 1459, three years after he had entered 
upon possession of his inheritance, the first battle of St. Alban's was 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 375 

fought, which may he said to have been the commencement of the 
long and sanguinary struggle between the Rival Roses. The 
encounter at Blore Heath, in Staffordshire, in which the Earl of 
Salisbury, the father of Warwick the King-maker, defeated Lord 
Audley, followed on the 23rd September ; but the fortunes of the 
Lancastrian party were quickly restored, for the King marched 
rapidly on the insurgents, who had joined the Duke of York at 
Ludlow, and a decisive battle was only prevented by the desertion 
of a part of the Yorkist army and the disbandment of the rest. 
The Queen (Margaret of Anjou) summoned a Parliament, which 
met at Coventry on the 28th November, when she pressed on the 
attainder of all who had not surrendered ; they were in conse- 
quence declared traitors and their possessions forfeited. The 
proceedings of the Coventry Parliament stripped off all the then 
coverings of the ambition of the House of York, and almost imme- 
diately after it rose a letter was addressed by the King to Sir John 
Mainwaryng, authorising him to deliver to the Lord Stanley (his 
wife's uncle) the following persons, who were then in custody in the 
Castle of Chester for offences alleged against them in the late 
Parliament at Coventry, viz. : Thomas and John Neville, sons of 
the Earl of Salisbury ; Sir Thomas Harrington (of Hornby), James 
Harrington (of Brierly, his son), Ralph Rokeby, Thomas Ashton, and 
Robert Evereux, Esquires. He died full of years about the close 
of the year 1480, the precept to the escheator for his inquisition 
bearing date April 14, 20 Edward IV. (1481). 

Sir John's eldest son, William Mainwaring, had died during his 
lifetime, leaving by his wife Ellen, daughter of Sir John Butler, of 
Bewsey, whom he married January 21, 1444, an only son, John, 
who succeeded as next heir, of whom, however, little is known. 
He died July 8th, 1495, having had by his wife Maud, daughter of 
Robert Legh, of Adlington, who survived him, John, his heir, and 
Robert, and three daughters Maud, married to Thomas Starkey, 
of Wrenbury ; Joan, wife of Sir Thomas Ashton, of Ashton-on- 
Mersey ; and Agnes, who married Sir Robert Needham, of 
Crannach, afterwards of Shenton, in Shropshire. 

376 County Families of 

John, the eldest son, who succeeded, served the office of Sheriff 
of Flintshire in 23 and 24 Henry VII., 1508 and 1509. In 1513 
the storm-cloud of war had burst abroad ; Henry VIII. had crossed 
over to France with a great retinue, and was then in the Nether- 
lands besieging Tournay ; John Mainwaring was in his train, and 
for his services received the honour of knighthood. In the 
following year the shrievalty of Flintshire was again conferred upon 
him, and in that which succeeded he passed away, at the early age 
of forty-five years. In his will, which is dated March 4, 1515, he 
t>equeathes his black velvet gown, guarded with cloth of gold, for 
the use of the priest officiating in the Parish Church of Over 
1'eover, and 4 13*. 4d. to an honest priest to pray for his soul 
for four years in the same church ; to the illegitimate son of his 
father, Charles Mainwaring, he left an annuity of 1 6s. 8d. ; 
and he further bequeathed the sum of ,20 towards the making of 
a new steeple of stone at Over Peover, but his instructions in 
regard to this last bequest, for some cause or other, were not carried 
out. He was buried by the side of his father in the Church of 
Over 1'eover, where a monument was subsequently erected to his 
memory and that of his wife, which still remains. On an alabaster 
slab is a representation of the knight in plate armour, with his lady 
by his side. Over their legs and knees is a scroll, on which is 
depicted the figures of their fifteen children thirteen sons and two 
daughters and round the edge of the tomb is the following 
inscription : 


The Edward named was doubtless one of Sir John's sons, though 
he is nowhere else mentioned in the inscription, except that the 
name is inscribed over one of the fifteen figures. Sir John 
married Katharine, daughter of John Honford, of Honford, and 
sister of William Honford, one of the Cheshire men slain at Flodden 
in 1513. As shown upon their monument, the issue of the 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 377 

marriage was fifteen children, several of whom, however, died 
young. Of the sons, Randle, the eldest, succeeded as heir ; Philip, 
the seventh son, eventually succeeded as heir to his brother 
Randle ; Edward, the eighth but third surviving son, married 
Alice, grand-daughter and heiress of Humphrey de Boghey, or 
Bohun, of Whitmore, and was founder of the line of Mainwaring of 
Whitmore, now represented by Gordon Mainwaring, of Whitmore 
Hall and Biddulph, county Stafford, third but eldest surviving 
son of Rear-Admiral Rowland Mainwaring, a distinguished naval 
officer who served with Nelson at the Nile and at the blockade of 
Copenhagen ; and Robert, the ninth son, married, and was 
progenitor of the Mainwarings of Martin-Sands, in Cheshire. 

Sir Randle Mainwaring, who succeeded, was twice married. By 
his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Randle Brereton, of Malpas 
Ipstones and Shocklach the sister of that Sir William Brereton, 
Groom of the Chamber, whom Henry VIII. beheaded on the 
urisustained charge of criminal intercourse with his Queen, Anne 
Boleyn, and the widow of Richard Cholmondeley, of Cholmon- 
deiey he had three daughters, but no son. After the death of his 
first wife, he married (1552) Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Ralph 
Leycester, of Toft, but by this lady, who survived him, and 
re-married Sir Edmund Trafford, he had no issue. He died 
September 6th, 1557, when his eldest surviving brother, Philip, 
succeeded as next heir to the estates. This Philip had to wife 
Anne, another of the daughters of Sir Ralph Leycester, who bore 
him two sons Randle, who succeeded ; Edward, of Ranmore, 
near Nantwich and a daughter, Eli/.abeth, who died childless. 
He died on the nth April, 1573,* and was buried at Over Peover, 
his wife, who survived him, being laid by his side in 1587. In the 
church at Peover there is an alabaster slab, with the figures of the 
deceased and those of their three children at their feet; a scroll 

* In his will, dated 7th January, 1572-3, and which has been printed by 
the Chetham Society, he gives, among other bequests, " to Rondulph 
Meynwaringe my sonne and heire apparente my best chain of goulde and 
my velvet gowne . . . which hath my seale of Armes thereon." 

378 County Families of 

is laid across the figures, on which is a rhyming epitaph, and round 
the edges of the slab is the following inscription : 


The date of the lady's decease is not given, but as her will was 
made January 29, 1586-7, and probate granted April 27, 1587, it 
must have been early in that year. In her will she gives "one 
ringe of gould \v th the roe bucke (the crest of the Leycesters), and 
her name engraved thereon conteyning in value one angell," to be 
" made " by her executors. 

Philip Mainwaring was suceeded in his inheritance by his eldest 
son, Randle. The house at Peover, which had been the home of 
the family for so many generations, was probably at this time falling 
into a state of decay; at all events it must have been but ill-adapted 
to the changed customs and increased refinement of the times, and 
shortly after entering upon his patrimony Randle Mainwaring set 
about the re-building of the ancestral dwelling. It was a building 
age ; the country had enjoyed a lengthened period of prosperity, 
and as order had spread and law had superseded the power of the 
strong hand, men no longer built 

less against the elements, 
Than their next neighbours. 

Architecture marks the growth and development of human society, 
and presents a panoramic picture, so to speak, of social change 
and progress. Many of the picturesque, half-timbered halls and 
manor-houses for which Cheshire is so famous were erected 
during the Tudor reigns ; but Randle Mainwaring, desirous of 
employing what he conceived to be a more durable material, or 
being more ambitious, perhaps, than his neighbours, built his 
house of brick, a mode of construction which was then rapidly 
coming into fashion. The work was commenced in 1585, and 
completed a year or two after. The cost would seem to have 

Lancashire and C/ieshire. 379 

taxed somewhat the resources of the owner, for a few years later we 
find him mortgaging certain lands and messuages in Lower 
Withington, part of his inheritance, to Thomas Holcroft, of Vale 
Royal. Spending much of his time in his own county, and 
devoting his attention to the improvement of his estate, he does 
not appear to have taken any very active interest in public affairs, 
though he received the honour of knighthood, and in 3 James I. 
(1605) was made sheriff of his county. He married, at Gawsworth, 
September i, 1568, Margaret, one of the daughters of Sir Edward 
Fitton, of Gawsworth, Queen Elizabeth's first Lord President of the 
Council, within the province of Munster and Thomond, an office 
undertaken at a time when Ireland was in a state of anarchy and 
confusion through the rebellion of Shane O'Neill, the representa- 
tive of the royal race of Ulster, when the half-civilised inhabitants, 
led by the Desmonds and the Tyrones, were trying to free them- 
selves from the English yoke. By her he had a family of seven 
sons and four daughters: Randle, his heir; Edmund, LL. 1)., 
appointed chancellor of the diocese of Chester, 1642, who married 
Jane, daughter of Michael of York, and was father of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Sir William Mainwaring, the gallant defender of Chester 
in the Civil Wars, who fell during the siege of that city by the 
Parliamentarians, October 9, 1644, in his twenty-ninth year ; 
Thomas, who took orders and was rector of Weldon, in North- 
amptonshire ; Edward, John, and Arthur, who all died in infancy ; 
Philip, who filled the office of Secretary of State for Ireland in 
1638, and died unmarried August 2, 1661. Of the four daughters 
Anne, Katharine, Elizabeth, and Eleanor all with the exception 
of the last named married. Sir Randle, having survived his first 
wife, re-married Katharine, daughter of Roger Hurleston, of Chester, 
and widow of William Brereton, of Honford, but by her, who, 
surviving him, died April 2, 1618, and was buried at St. Mary's, 
Chester, he had no issue. He died May 26, 1612, and was buried 
in the Mainwaring Chapel at Over Peover, when his eldest son by 
the first marriage, also named Randle, succeeded as next heir. 
In his earlier life he had spent much of his time in Ireland, where 

380 County Families of 

as we have seen, his maternal grandfather held a very distinguished 
position, and for his services there received his knighthood. In 
the year in which his father held the shrievalty of Cheshire (1605) 
he served the like office for the county of Limerick; in 1619 he 
was nominated to the shrievalty of his own county, and before the 
close of the year was chosen Mayor of the city of Chester. He 
died at Chester, January 12, 1633-4, and was buried at Peover, his 
certificate being taken at Chester on the 4th of February following 
by Randle Holme, deputy to the office of arms, and testified under 
the hand of Philip, his son. By his marriage with Jane, daughter 
of Sir Thomas Smyth, of The Hough, in \Vybunbury parish, he 
had, in addition to Philip, his heir, born in 1594, George, of 
Marthall, who married, in 1622, Elizabeth, daughter of Robert 
Tatton, of Wythcnshawe, but died childless ; and four daughters 


all of whom, with the exception of the eldest, Margaret, who died 
in infancy, married. 

Philip Mainwaring was thirty-nine years of age when he succeeded 
to the ancestral estates. In 1617, when he had reached the age of 
twenty-three, he was united in marriage with Ellen, youngest 
daughter of Edward Minshull, of Stoke, near Nantwich, by his wife 
Margaret, daughter of Thomas Mainwaring, of the line of Nantwich, 
the lady being second cousin to Randle Minshull, of Wistaston, 
the father of Elizabeth, the third wife of the great epic poet, John 
Milton. On the 25th July, 1619, a son was born of the marriage, 
who was named after his grandfather, Randle. On the 25th May, 
1621, another son was born, to whom the father's name, Philip, 
was given. The eldest was living in 1634, but both died under 
age. A third son, Thomas, was born on the 7th April, 1623, who 
became heir, and, in addition, there were five other sons and a 
daughter, who all died young. In 1639 he was called upon to fill 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 381 

the office of sheriff of the county. It was a time of unrest; the 
political sky was darkening, and the gathering clouds presaged a 
coming storm. There was much muttering and discontent, but he 
had completed his term of office before the storm broke. It was 
not long, however, before he was called upon to decide as to which 
of the two parties in the State his adherence should be given. On 
the evening of a stormy and tempestuous day in August, 1642, 
Charles raised the Royal Standard on the castle-crowned rock at 
Nottingham a ceremony that had not been witnessed in England 
since the day when Richard III. raised his standard on Bosworth 
Field. It was equivalent to a declaration that the kingdom was in 
a state of war. Within one short month of that day Charles had 
addressed the following communication to the lord of Peovcr : 

Charles R. 

Trusty and Wellbeloved We greete you well. Whereas Wee have 
occasion to speake with yow about Our very especial! Service, Our will and 
pleasure is, that yow immediately make yor repayre Vnto Vs, And hereof 
yow may not fayle as yow tender Our high Displeasure and will answere the 
contrary at your Vttermost perill Since if yow shall neglect to attend Ys Wee 
cannot but conceive yow to be ill affected to Vs and Our sayd Seruice, and 
shall bee forced to proceede against you accordingly. Given at Our Court 
att Chester the 24 Sept. (1642). 

To Philip Mainwaring Esquire. 

We have no information as to whether this urgent summons was 
obeyed ; certain it is that though Philip Mainwaring had previously 
held a commission as captain of the light-horse of Cheshire, he held 
no appointment in either army, nor took any active part in the 
desolating war that was then just commencing. The probability is 
that he was in failing health, and unfitted for active service, for 
on the very day on which Charles entered Nottingham he was 
engaged in settling his worldly affairs, and doing what men in 
those days rarely did until life's taper was well-nigh burnt out 
making his will. But the end was not yet. He lived to see the 
flame of war burst forth, and his country drenched in civil slaughter, 
for his death did not occur until the loth December, 1647 ; a few 
days later, and his remains were quietly placed by the side of those 

382 County Families of 

of his progenitors in the church at Over Peover. His wife, Ellen, 
survived him, and in the year following erected a chapel on the 
north side of the chancel of the church at Peover, in which is an 
altar-tomb, with the recumbent figure of the deceased and his wife 
thereon, the one in plate armour and the other in a plain robe with 
a close handkerchief. At the head of the tomb is a shield, with 
the arms of Mainwaring quartering those of Kyvelioc and Praers, 
and at the opposite end another shield, with the arms of Main- 
waring impaling Minshull. On the side between two heraldic 
shields is this inscription : 


The widow of Philip Mainwaring seemed to have had a fondness 
for building, for in 1650 she erected the handsome and spacious 
range of stabling which at the present day forms such a notable 
feature in connection with the hall at Peover. They will accommo- 
date sixteen horses, but are more especially remarkable for their 
solidity and internal decorations. The architrave and cornice is 
elaborately carved, the upright timbers which separate the stalls are 
in the form of Tuscan columns resting upon octagonal bases, and 
the ceiling is arranged in a series of panels enriched with carvings, 
in which the coat of Mainwaring impaling Minshull is frequently 
repeated. Three years after the completion of this work she 
further added to the improvements of the family mansion by the 
erection of a dovehouse, which in those days was considered a 
necessary appendage to every house of distinction. She died in 
the same year, and was buried by the side of her husband in the 
chapel she had erected over his remains. 

Thomas, the third but eldest surviving son of Philip Main- 

Lancashire and Clieshire. 383 

waring, succeeded to the family estates. As already stated, he was 
born in 1623, and on the 2oth April, 1637, when he had just 
completed his fourteenth year, he was entered as a commoner at 
Brasenose College, Oxford. He did not, however, proceed to a 
degree, but on leaving the university he repaired to one of the 
inns of court to complete his education, and was admitted at 
Gray's on the 2nd December, 1641, the entry on the roll describing 
him as "Thomas Mainwaring of Chester city." Though there is 
little doubt that Philip Mainwaring's leanings were on the side of 
the Puritan party, his son was much more pronounced in his 
opinions. After the outbreak of hostilities he held up his hand for 
the solemn league and covenant, and after the execution of Charles, 
when the Commonwealth was set up, he took the " engagement " 
oath and promised to be faithful to the Government as then estab- 
lished, "without a King or House of Lords." The day following 
his father's death was that on which Charles escaped from Hampton 
Court and fled to the Isle of Wight. It was but a short step from 
Carisbrook to the scaffold, and it can hardly be supposed that, 
strong as his religious and political opinions might be, he viewed 
the tragedy at Whitehall with approval, for though Cromwell 
entrusted him with the shrievalty of the county in 1657, he never 
held a military commission or drew his sword in the interest of the 
Republican party. In 1660 he was returned with Sir George 
Booth, of Dunham, to represent the county in the Convention 
Parliament, and it may fairly be assumed, therefore, that his views 
had undergone a considerable change, and that, though he had 
not, like his kinsmen, "Roger Mainwaring, of Kermincham, and 
Elisha Mainwaring, of Martins, joined in the " Cheshire Rising,'' 
as it was called, he welcomed the restoration of monarchy and the 
establishment of government on a more solid foundation. He was 
received with favour at court, and as a mark of his sovereign's 
confidence he was, on the 22nd November in the year of the 
restoration, created a baronet. In the unsettled state of affairs 
during the later years of the usurpation he had withdrawn himself 
to a large extent from public life, and devoted his attention more to 


County Families of 

the improvement of his estates and the adornment of his house ; 
and in 1665, when the country had become more composed, he 
set about the construction of a park round the family mansion, 
which he stocked with deer. Five years after this he had the 
misfortune to lose his wife, Mary, daughter of Sir Henry Delves, 
of Doddington, to whom he was married May 26, 1642, her death 
occurring at Baddeley, another seat of the family, on the ist March, 
1670, whence her body was removed to Over Peover. The event 
cast a deep gloom over the remaining years of Sir Thomas's life; 
his mind inclined to seriousness, and it was his misfortune that 
the mistress of his house, the wife and friend of his youth, was taken 
away at a time when her sympathetic counsel was needed most. 
Had her life been prolonged but a few more years, there is very 
little doubt that her tenderness and affection would have helped 
him better to bear the worry and anxiety of the great controversy 
in which he shortly afterwards found himself so unexpectedly 
1 involved. In 1673 Sir Peter I^ycester gave to the world his 
Historical Antiquities, the materials for which he had been for \ 
years engaged in collecting. In the Prologomena of the work was a 
lengthy account of the Norman earls of Chester, and it was in this 
portion of the work that the legitimacy of the great ancestress of 
the Mainwarings was called in question. Sir Thomas, who had 
made his family descent a subject of especial study, at once entered 
the lists to champion the lady's honour, and a " Defence " was 
published, in which, in temperate language but with considerable 
power of reasoning, he sought to remove the blot cast upon her 
reputation. An " Answer " from Sir Peter Leycester followed, 
succeeded in turn by a " Reply," the controversy extending over a 
period of nearly six years, and, as may be supposed, becoming, 
before it closed, not only wordy, but characterised by no little 
bitterness and personal acrimony. 

Sir Thomas Mainwaring's lot was cast in the most eventful 
period of England's history. Born in the reign of the first of the 
Stuart kings, he lived to see the overthrow of monarchy, the estab- 
lishment of a Protectorate, the recall of a banished sovereign, and 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 385 

the final expulsion of the Stuarts in the bloodless revolution that 
placed William of Orange upon the English throne, and secured a 
Protestant succession to the English crown. He closed his eyes in 
peace at Peover on the 28th June, 1689, at the age of sixty-six, 
and was laid to rest in the little chapel erected by his mother 
where Dame Mary, his wife, had been laid nineteen years pre- 
viously ; though curiously enough, while that chapel contains many 
memorials of the Mainwaring family, there is none within its walls 
to perpetuate the name of Sir Thomas and his wife. 

Twelve children were the fruit of his marriage six sons and six 
daughters; but the greater portion of them died in childhood. 
John, the fourth son, survived his father, and succeeded to the 
baronetcy and the family estates. He had been chosen 1 in the 
previous year as one of the representatives of the county in Parlia- 
ment, a position to which he was re-elected in the Parliaments of 2 
William and Mary (1689-90), and the 7, 10, 12, and 13 William III. 
(1695, 1698, 1700, and 1701), the year following his last election 
being that in which his death occurred November 4, 1702. The 
period during which Sir John sat in Parliament was distinguished, 
if not disgraced, by a succession of intrigues and conspiracies for 
the overthrow of the reigning dynasty. The revolution had left the 
roots of discontent and dissatisfaction ; the country was in a state of 
political ferment; and the public mind, ever eager for some new 
sensation, caught with avidity and believed every story of real or 
pretended attempts to involve the nation in bloodshed. Plots 
were innumerable, and plot-hunting became as gainful a trade 
among unscrupulous knaves as witchfinding had been with their 
great-grandfathers a century previously. Sir John Mainwaring had 
aided in bringing about the "Protestant deliverance," and, being 
known to be a loyal supporter of King William the " Dutch 
usurper," as the disaffected styled him was, on the 22nd March, 
1692, appointed, with Sir Willoughby Aston and Mr. Norris, a 
commission to inquire into the conduct of certain gentlemen of 
known Jacobite sympathies, who were charged with treasonable 
practices and concerting together to bring back the exiled James. 

386 County Families of 

Two years later we find him acting in a somewhat high-handed 
manner towards Sir Rowland Stanley, of Hooton, who, having 
fallen under suspicion, was arrested at his house at Hooton, July 
17, 1694, by Mr. Francis Jackson, postmaster of Chester, and 
conveyed to Chester Castle, and that when Mr. Booth, the 
governor of the gaol, demanded the warrant authorising him to 
receive and detain Sir Rowland, he was answered that Sir John 
Mainwaring, a deputy-lieutenant and justice of the peace in Chester, 
had ordered it, and that his verbal order was sufficient ; whereupon 
Sir Rowland went to Sir John, desiring a copy of the warrant, 
and to know by what authority he was committed, when Sir John 
showed him the Duke of Shrewsbury's warrant, containing a charge 
of high treason for levying war against their majesties and adhering 
to their majesties' enemies. John Lunt, a quondam highwayman 
and cattle-lifter, who appears to have found treason-hunting a 
more profitable occupation, was one of the most active spirits in 
discovering persons who were alleged to have conspired against the 
reigning sovereign, and on one occasion, emboldened by his 
previous successes, he went so far as to accuse Sir John Main- 
waring of plotting, with others, to accomplish the murder of King 
William, but this was too much for even the capacious credulity of 
the Government. Lunt was discredited, and his evidence treated 
as altogether unworthy of belief. 

Before Sir John Mainwaring had completed his twenty-first year 
he married (September 28, 1676) Elizabeth, eldest daughter of 
Colonel Roger Whitley,* of Peel, and by this lady, who survived 
him, and died on the anniversary of his decease, 1719, he had, 

* Among the muniments at Peover are several commissions with wafer 
seals attached, undated, and signed in blank by Charles II., which appear 
to have been entrusted to Colonel Roger Whitley, in 1659, for him to fill up 
and use at his discretion. A Colonel Roger Whitley, who if not the father 
of Sir John Mainwaring's wife was probably her grandfather, was governor 
of Aberystwith Castle when it surrendered to the Parliamentarian troops 
during the Civil War ; and the " safe conduct " he received on the occasion 
of that capitulation is still preserved at Peover. He attended the King 
while in exile, and after the Restoration was appointed King's Harbinger 
and Deputy to Lord Arlington, the Postmaster-General. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 387 

with other issue, Thomas, his heir, and Henry. Sir John and his 
wife are both buried at Peover, where there is a mural tablet with 
an inscription, which sets forth that she was " a lady of many 
excellent qualities," and Sir John " a true patriot, and a steadfast 
asserter of the rights and liberties of the people." 

Thomas, the eldest son, who succeeded, was born at Peel, 
August 7, 1681, and married, March 28, 1724-5, Martha, eldest 
daughter and co-heir of William Lloyd, of Halghton, in Flintshire, 
but died childless on the 24th September in the following year, his 
widow afterwards becoming the wife of Edward Mainwaring, of 
Whitmore. At his death the baronetcy became dormant, and so 
remained until the birth, November 7, 1726, of a posthumous son 
of his brother Henry, fourth son of Sir John, by his wife, Diana, 
only daughter of William Blackett, and grand-daughter of Sir 
Edward Blackett, of Newby, in Yorkshire. This son, who was 
named after his father, was educated at Lincoln College, Oxford, at 
which university he proceeded to the M.A. degree, but died 
unmarried April 6th, 1797, when the baronetcy and the line of 
Mainwaring of Peover, after a continuance of so many centuries, 
became extinct. 

Diana, the young widow of Henry Mainwaring, the father, 
married again, her second husband being the Rev. Thomas 
Wetenhal, rector of Walthamstow, but afterwards of Nantwich, by 
whom she had a son Thomas, born November 26th, 1736, who, 
in accordance with the provisions of the will of his uterine half- 
brother, Sir Henry Mainwaring, succeeded to the Peover estates 
in 1797, assuming at the same time the arms and surname of 
Mainwaring, but he did not long enjoy possession, his death 
occurring on the 4th July in the following year. By his wife 
Katharine, eldest daughter of William Watkins, of Nantwich, he 
had, with other children, a son, Henry Mainwaring Mainwaring, 
who succeeded as heir, and who, by letters patent dated May 26, 
1804, was created a baronet. On the 29th September previously, 
when he had just completed his twenty-first year, he married Sophia, 
youngest daughter of Sir Robert Salusbury Cotton, Bart., of 

388 County Families of Lancashire, &c. 

Combermere Abbey, and sister of Sir Stapleton Stapleton-Cotton, 
who, for his brilliant military services, was created Viscount and 
Baron Combermere. Sir Henry served the office of sheriff of his 
county in 1806, and died January u, 1860, having had by his wife 
a family of ten children four sons and six daughters of whom the 
eldest, Harry, succeeded as second baronet of the new creation. 
He married, in January, 1832, Emma, daughter of Thomas 
William Tatton, of VVythenshawe, and died at Peover September 
23, 1875, having had seven sons and four daughters. Stapleton 
Thomas Mainwaring, the eldest son, born 6th January, 1837, who 
succeeded as third baronet, married, in 1867, Elizabeth, third 
daughter of Michael Kinneen, of Athenry, in Ireland, but dying 
without issue, August 4, 1878, the baronetcy and estates devolved 
upon his eldest surviving brother, Philip Tatton Mainwaring, born 
nth September, 1838, the fourth and present baronet, who 
married, October 7, 1875, his cousin Emily, daughter of the Rev. 
George Pitt, of Cricket Court, Somersetshire, by whom he has 



HOUGH never ennobled or claiming to rank among 
the great governing houses of the kingdom, there are 
few families that can boast a more ancient or more 
honourable descent than the Heskeths of Rufford. 
From the days of the crusading Coeur de Lion to 
the present time, a period of well-nigh eight hundred years, their 
influence has been used, for good or for evil, in every stirring event 
and every important movement that has occurred within the 
county. The " Old " Hall of Rufford, which was for so many 
generations their ancestral home, is one of the most venerable and 
picturesque relics of the feudal past which Lancashire possesses, 
and among the many treasures preserved within its walls, not the 
least interesting is the time-stained vellum roll, engrossed and made 
resplendent with a wealth of heraldic blazonry in the days when 
Elizabeth was Queen " The Genealogye of the Worshippfull and 
Ancient familie of the Heskaythes, of Ruffourd, in Lancashire." 
On the dexter side of this ancient parchment, running the whole 
length, is an oaken stem, with its green leaves and golden acorns, 
on which hang the circles enclosing each descendant of the 
Heskeths ; and on the sinister side are the pedigrees of the various 
co-heiresses with which the representatives of the senior line of the 
family have intermarried, the slim laurel stock of the Stafford 
and the Fitton heiresses mingling with the twining rosebranch of 
the lady of Tottleworth, who, it may be presumed, was not a " rose 
without a thorn," for stem and branches are represented with their 


County Families of 

full complement of prickly spines As we scan this chronicle of 
an ancient house, we may count the births and marriages and 
deaths, the fortunes and misfortunes, and the ceaseless changes in 
the lives of those who have gone before, their growth from infancy 
to youth and their progress from manhood to the tomb, and may 
read a lesson soaring far above the mere vanity which the ignorant 
or querulous are apt to attribute to its possession. 

The family derives 
its name from a manor 
lying on the southern 
shore of the Kibble 
estuary, near the con- 
fluence of the Douglas, 
and which was until 
1821 within the limits 
of the great parish of 
Croston. In this re- 
mote corner of the 
hundred of Leyland 
there was living as 
early as the reign of 
Richard I. or John a 
certain " de Heskaith," 
who held the lordship, 
but whose baptismal 
name is said, in the 
roll referred to, to be 
Rufford Hail. (Seepage jSg.) " unknowen." He was 

the father or grandfather of William de Hesketh, living in the reign 
of Henry III., who married Anabella, the daughter-heiress of Richard 
and Anabella Stafford, and who thus early began a series of 
matrimonial alliances which greatly enlarged the territorial posses- 
sions of the Heskeths, among the acquisitions being Rufford, which 
became the principal seat of the family, the old hall still existing, 
as well as the more modern mansion erected in 1798. To this 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 

William was born a son, named after himself, who in due time 
followed the father's example and married a heiress Elbora, 
daughter of Richard, who is styled of Tottleworth, and his wife, 
Isabella, daughter and sole heir of Richard, lord of Tottleworth, 
the bride eventually inheriting her maternal grandfather's estates in 
Tottleworth. The issue of the marriage was three sons : William, 
who succeeded as heir, and is described as " lord of Heskaith and 
Beconsawe (Becconsall);* John ; and Adam, who married Maude, 
one of the daughters of William Flemyng, baron of Wath, in 

The eldest of these three sons, William, treading in the steps of 
his progenitors, made further additions 
to the patrimonial lands by his marriage 
with Maude, or Matilda, one of the 
daughters of Richard Fitton, the repre- 
sentative of a family long seated at Gaws- 
worth and Bollin, in Cheshire, and who 
were lords of Great Harwood, in Lan- 
cashire, as well. On the death of her 
brother without issue, Maude Fitton, with 
her sisters, Anabella, wife of Edmund Arms / /./,,. 

de Leye, or Legh, of Croston, and Elizabeth, wife of Roger 
Nowell, became heirs of estates both in Leyland and Blackburn 
Hundreds, the larger portion of which, however, seem to have 
fallen to the share of Dame Maude. On acquiring possession of 
these properties, William Fitton, in accordance with the practice of 
the time, assumed for his arms the coat borne by his wife's family, 
changing the tincture of the bend only the shield being argent, on 
a bend sable, three garbs, or.\ William Hesketh, who appears to 

* Becconsall is a corruption of Beacon's Hill, a name derived from 
the beacon anciently placed on the hill near the point where the Douglas 
empties itself into the Kibble. 

t The Fittons (or Phytons, as they sometimes wrote their name) bore 
argent, on a bend azure, three garbs, or, a coat evidently derived from 
the Orrebys, through the marriage with an heiress of which family they 
acquired the Gawsworth estates. 


County Families of 

have been successful in adding land to land, considerably enlarged 
his territorial possessions, for in 1311 we find him holding two 
carucates of land in Great Harwood, the portion of land inherited by 
his brother-in-law, Edmund de Ley, by knight service and a rent of 
two shillings and sixpence payable to Clyderhoe Court, and in the 
reign of Richard II. John Nowell, of Great Mearley, did homage 
to his son Thomas, in Harwood Chapel, for the Netherton portion 
of this manor. By his marriage William Hesketh acquired his 
father-in-law's entire moiety of the ville of Rufford, which the 
Fittons obtained in the reign of Henry I. by grant from Richard 
Bussel, second baron of Penwortham. The charter conveying this 
property is without date, but Roger Dodsworth, the antiquary, says 
they were married 4 Edward I. (1275-6), and the witnesses, who 
were all men of mark in their day, enable us to fix very nearly the 
time. They are Sir Robert Banastre, Sir Henry de I^y, Sir William 
de Mara, Sir Richard Boteler, Henry de Shuttlesworth, Adam 
Banastre, Henry de Walt (on), Warino de Bespham, and others.* 

The grandson of William Hesketh and his wife Maude, Sir John 
Hesketh, Knight, married another heiress of the Fittons Alice, 
the only daughter of Edmund, with whom he acquired the other 
moiety of Rufford, and so became sole lord of the manor, Rufford 
thenceforward becoming the principal residence of the family. The 
issue of this marriage was, with other children, a son, Sir William 
de Hesketh, who is described as lord of Rufforde, Heskaith, 
Beconsawe, Great Harwood, Tottleworth, and other places. Ob- 
serving the traditions of his house, he also sought out a heiress for 
a wife, and found one in the person of Marcella, daughter and 
co-heir of Twenge, alias Doddingsells, lord of Kendal, in West- 
moreland. In 1339 he obtained from Edward III. a charter to hold 
a market every Friday at his manor of Rugford (Rufford), and a 
fair for one day on the feast of St. Philip and St. James the Apostles, 
together with " liberty of freewarren in all his demesne lands of 
Rugford in the county of Lancaster." He was in all probability 
one of the gallant band of heroes who fought at Crescy, for while 

* Harl. MSS., Cod. 2063, fo. 191. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 393 

the King (Edward III.) was in Normandy, conducting the French 
war in 1346, he granted Sir William a license to found a chantry in 
the chapel of St. Mary at Rufford (carlo, fca in Normannia Rex 
ded W Hesketh fundare cantaria in capella le Marie de Rufford. 
An. 20 E 3).* By his wife Marcella he had, in addition to a 
younger son named William, " who hadd landes in Beconsow a" 23. 
E.IIL," Thomas, his heir, who married into one of the most 
powerful and influential families in Lancashire, the baronial house 
of Banastre, of Banke, his wife being Agnes, daughter and co-heir 
of Thomas Banastre. Some confusion exists in the earlier pedigrees 
as to the identity of this lady's father, Thomas Banastre being 
frequently described as the one whom Edward III. created a 
Knight of the Garter on the institution of that order in 1348, and 
baron of Newton ; but Newton had passed by heir female from the 
Banastres to the Langtons near a century before this time, and, as a 
matter of fact, there never had been a Banastre, baron of Newton, 
named Thomas. The old genealogical roll at Rufford helps us to a 
solution of the difficulty, for he is therein described as " sonne to 
y 5 Baron y' was knight of the garter tepe R. 2." Each had a wife 
named Agnes, but the wife of Thomas Banastre, K,G., was a 
daughter of Sir Adam de Hoghton, by his wife, Ellen Venables ; 
while the wife of Thomas, the father of Margaret, wife of Thomas 
Hesketh, was the daughter of Henry fitz-William (presumably 
Botiler of Warrington). Margaret Banastre was also a heiress, and 
brought to her husband, in marriage, the manor of Much Hoole, in 
Croston parish, a part of the Bretherton estate, which had been in the 
possession of the Banastres, of Banke, for several generations. Their 
eldest surviving son, Nicholas, who was lord of Hesketh in 1415, 
married Margaret, a daughter and co-heiress of the house of Mynshull, 
a younger branch, as it would seem, of the Cheshire stock of that 
name ; the Cheshire Minshulls bearing as their coat, azure, a 
crescent beneath an estoile argent, the difference being that the lady 
of Rufford bore, as appears by the roll, sable three crescents argent. 
This Nicholas must have died in 1416 or 1417, for his inquisition 

* Hail. MSS., 2063, fo. 185. 


394 County Families of 

was taken at Ormskirk on the Thursday before the purification of 
the Virgin Mary, 4 Henry V. The only issue of this marriage was 
a son, Thomas, who, with the instincts of his family, married in 
5 Henry V. (1417-18), the year after his father's death, and when he 
was but ten years of age, " Sibell, daughter and one of the heires to 
Sir Robert Laurance, Knight," by whom he had three sons, Hugh, 
Thomas, and Nicholas, of whom the second, Thomas, succeeded 
as heir to his brother Hugh. He was called upon in 1446 to take 
up his knighthood, but declined. He married Margaret, one of the 
daughters and co-heirs of Hamnet Mascy, of Rixton, and by her 
was father of ten sons, three of whom entered the Church ; William, 
the sixth son, married twice, and was founder of the line of Hesketh 
of Aughton ; and Robert, the eldest, who on the death of his 
father, October 8, 1463, he being then aged 31 years, succeeded 
as lord of Hesketh and Rufford, and married Alice, one of the 
daughters of Sir Robert Bothe, or Booth, Knight, baron of Dunham 
Massey, in Cheshire. 

This Sir Robert Booth, who died in 1460, was a younger son of 
John Booth, of Barton, in Lancashire ; he was brother of William 
Booth, Archbishop of York, who died in 1464 ; brother in half- 
blood of Laurence Booth, successively Bishop of Durham, Arch- 
bishop of York, and Lord Keeper or Lord High Chancellor, who 
died in 1480;* brother of the whole blood of John, Prebend of 
Lincoln ; of Roger, who by Katharine Hatton, his wife, was father 
of Charles Booth, Bishop of Hereford, 1516; of John, Arch- 
deacon of Durham ; of Ralph, Dean of York ; and the father of 
Robert, Dean of York, and Edmund, or Edward, Archdeacon of 
Stow ; an extraordinary number of Church dignitaries, and such as 
few families in the fifteenth century could boast. 

The issue of the marriage of Robert Hesketh and Alice Booth 

* Lord Campbell describes this ecclesiastic as a man " who had risen by 
merit from obscurity," which, considering the social position of his family, 
is hardly in accordance with fact. Laurence Booth was noted for his learning, 
had been promoted when young to the headship of his college, and had also 
been Chancellor of the University of Cambridge. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 395 

was "Richard heskayth, atturney General to the most famous 
prince of memorye King Hen. 8 " ; Thomas, the second son, of 
whom anon ; and " Hugh heskayth, thirde sonne, a reverend 
father-in-god, the busshope of the Isle of Man." This right 
reverend prelate would appear to have been a contemporary of his 
grand-uncle on the mother's side, Laurence, Archbishop of York, 
and many of his uncles and cousins who held responsible positions 
in the Church, the Booths having had a happy facility for turning 
their younger sons into the Church, a practice that Robert Hesketh 
was evidently not disinclined to follow. Three daughters were 
born of the marriage, viz., Margaret, who married Henry, son and 
heir of Richard Keighley, Esq. ; Douce, who became the wife of 
John, son and heir of Roger Nowell, of Reade, Esq. ; and Alice, 
married to Sir Richard Aughton, Knight, lord of Meok 

Thomas, the eldest son of Robert Hesketh and Alice Booth, 
who succeeded to his father's inheritance, had during his nonage 
been contracted in marriage with Elizabeth, one of the two 
daughters of William Fleming, and co-heir of her brother, John 
Fleming, baron of Wath, in Yorkshire, and lord of Croston and 
Mawdeslegh, in Lancashire the other co-heiress being the wife of 
Richard Croston, of Croston, by whom she had a son, Roger de 
Croston, living in the time of Elizabeth ; but the lady, desiring a 
different husband, confessed to incontinence, and sued for a 
divorce, Thomas Hesketh consenting. The final decree was not 
given until 1497, in the fifth year of the pontificate of Alexander VI. 
But some years before that time, as we learn from a marriage bond 
among the Townley records, dated 5th August, 7 Henry VII. 
(1491-2), Thomas Hesketh had entered into a marriage with 
Grace, one of the daughters of Sir Richard Townley, of Townley, 
by his wife Joanna, daughter of Richard Southworth, of Samlesbury. 
This irregular proceeding in anticipation of the divorce necessitated 
a pardon in order to make the issue of the marriage capable of 
inheritance. The Hesketh roll says that Thomas Hesketh and 
Elizabeth Fleming had issue "Syr Robert Heskaith, knight, the 
only childe," but this statement, though repeated in some of the 

396 County Families of 

pedigrees, is incorrect, for Elizabeth Fleming had no issue to 
Hesketh ; she gave birth to a son, named Edward, and after the 
divorce was obtained became the wife of Thurston Hall. It is 
stated in Baines's History of Lancashire that Elizabeth Fleming 
gave to Thomas Hesketh part of her lands,. worth yearly between 
twenty and forty marks, " as by the law of England can be done." 
Probably it was the retention of these lands by Hesketh that led to 
the disputations referred to in the following memorandum preserved 
among the Harldan MSS. (1437, fo. 123) : 

John Kingsmill on(e) of the Kings Justices of the Common place (Pleas) 
and Humfry Coningsby on of the Kings serjaunts at law sendeth greting. 
Whereas for the appeasing of mattres of Controversy depending betwene 
Thomas Hesketh Esquire of the one partie & Mr William Wall, clerk, and 
Richard Dalton & Roger Dalton sonne of the said Richard & of Elizabeth 
his wife on of the da : & heires of William Fleming in Croston 24 yeare of 
H. 7. 

Whatever may have been the cause of the dispute, it must have 
extended over a number of years, for on the Calendar of Patent 
Rolls transferred from Lancaster Castle to the Record Office there 
is, under date 39 Henry VII. (1524-5), an inspeximus and exempli- 
fication at the instance of Thomas Hesketh, of a deed of Roger, 
son of Richard Dalton, John Todde, Hugh Mathew, and William 
Hoghton, granting to Thomas Hesketh, Thomas, Earl of Derby, 
Henry Halsall, Knt, Gilbert Scarisbrek, and Hugh Aghton, to the 
use of the said Thomas Hesketh and his heirs, certain manors and 
lands contained in a schedule annexed 8th April, 16 Henry VII. ; of 
a bargain and sale by the said Roger Dalton of all his lands and 
tenements in Croston, Maudsley, and Langton ; and of three other 
deeds concerning the said property. 

By his wife, Grace Townley, who, as appears by the monumental 
inscription in Rufford Chapel, died in 1510, Thomas Hesketh had 
no surviving issue, but two illegitimate sons, Robert and Charles, 
were born to him by, as is said, Alice, daughter of Christopher 
Haworth, the eldest being the " Syr Robert " named in the Hesketh 
Roll, who inherited the Rufford estates under his father's will, 
though not without his title being disputed. Thomas Hesketh 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 397 

died on the i4th August, 15 Henry VIII. (1523), and on the 
1 6th September following his inquisition was taken, in which the 
fact of the illegitimacy of the two sons is recited, and the descend- 
ants of Thomas Hesketh's three sisters Margaret, Douce, and 
Alice found to be the right heirs. 

Robert, the eldest of the two illegitimate sons, who succeeded to 
the patrimonial lands of the Heskeths, was under age at the time 
of his father's decease. Under the will referred to he was endowed 
with very large properties, not only in Lancashire, but extending 
into Yorkshire and Westmoreland. He acquitted himself well in 
arms, and, as a note on the family roll sets forth, " served king 
Henry Viij in fraunce and for his valoure 
forwardnes actyvytie and good service 
theare was knighted by the said kings 
own hand with great countenaunce and 
many good woordes w'bred great credijt 
to hym selfe to his people to his countreye 
for evV In the Visitation of Lancashire 
of 1533, made by special commission of 
Thomas Benalt, Clarencieux, Thomas 
Heskethe (Robard Hasket is the name ..), ,y Thomas 
written upon the office copy) entered his coat of arms, which are 
thus recorded argent, on a bend sable, three garbs or, over all a 
bendlet sinister of the field, the same coat, it will be remembered, 
that was assumed by Sir William Hesketh after his marriage, in 
the reign of Edward I., with the heiress of Fitton, of Gawsworth, 
but differenced by a bendlet sinister, as the mark of illegitimacy 
a mark that should have deterred William Flower, at his Visitation 
in 1567, from giving the coat as borne by the Heskeths for so many 
generations without differencing it, and also have prevented Richard 
St. George, Norroy, in 1613, sanctioning a coat of twelve quarter- 
ings, many of them being the earlier alliances of the Heskeths, and 
including also the coat of Fleming, of Wath. 

Sir Robert died February 8th, 1539, having had by his wife, 
Grace, daughter of Sir John Townley, of Townley, who survived 

398 County Families of 

him, and contracted a second marriage with Laurence Habergham, 
of Habergham, two sons and two daughters : Thomas, his heir ; 
Robert, who married and had issue ; Jane, wife of Richard 
Assheton,* of Croston, by whom she " leafte yssue diverse sonnes 
and daughters ;" and Ellen, who married Richard Barton, of Barton 
Row, near Preston, but died childless. 

Thomas Hesketh, the eldest son, who succeeded, must have been 
a minor at the time of his father's decease, for among the grants 
of wardship preserved among the Duchy Records is one under date 
33 Henry VIII. (1541), granting to Thomas Holcroft the wardship 
of the manor of Rufford, with the wardship and marrying of 
Robert (? Thomas), son and heir of Sir Robert Hesketh, Kt., a 
privilege that Thomas Holcroft exercised by marrying the youthful 
heir to his own daughter. On the 2nd December, i Edwd. VI. 
(1547), Thomas Hesketh had license to enter upon all the lands of 
his inheritance ; and he is described in the family roll as " lord of 
Rufford, holmes and holmes-woode, heskaith, houghwick (? Howick), 
Beconsawc, Martholme & harwood, &c." Like his father, he was 
distinguished as a soldier, and appears to have joined, like many of 
his Lancashire neighbours, the force under the command of the 
Earl of Hertford, which entered Scotland in May, 1544, to demand 
the surrender of the infant Queen, Mary Stuart, and which, after 
plundering Edinburgh and burning Leith, returned to Berwick and 
re-entered England an inglorious attack, that partook more of the 
character of a freebooting raid than a military campaign. The 
part borne by Thomas Hesketh in this enterprise is thus referred to 
in a note on the genealogical roll so often referred to: "He s'ved 
his sov'raigne in Scotland at the Seige of I>eethe and theeare was 
sore hurte in dvi'se placs and had his ensigne strooken downe 
w* hee recovered againe w* great comendacions for his forwardnes 
and good s'vice and was in his latter dayes a noteable great house- 

* The Asshetons of Croston and Euxton, though spelling their name the 
same way, were entirely distinct from the widespread family of Assheton in 
the southern part of the county, comprising the Asshetons of Middleton, of 
Lever, of Downham, and other places. 

Lancashire and C/ieshire. 399 

keep (housekeeper or despenser of hospitality) and Benefactor to 
all men singulor in eny science an greatlee repaired the house at 
Martholme (the manor house at Great Harwood, which had come 
to the Heskeths by the marriage with the heiress of Fitton) and 
homes wood and the chappell at Rufford." On the day after the 
coronation of Queen Mary, October 2, 1553, Thomas Hesketh 
received the honour of knighthood ; and four years later, when the 
Queen dowager of Scotland, Mary of Guise, made a furious raid 
along the Scottish border, and at the instigation of the King of 
France threatened to invade England for the purpose of avenging 
the French misfortune at St. Quentin, he assisted in raising a force 
of one hundred men for service against the Scots, and volunteered 
to become their captain. The Heskeths, like the Banastres, the 
Gerards, the Blundells, the Harringtons, and many other of the 
oldest and best families along the western side of Lancashire, 
remained staunch in their adherence to the ancient faith after the 
accession of Elizabeth, but continued loyal and peaceable, and 
preserved their allegiance to the Protestant Queen ; and though 
described as a "desperate Papist," Sir Thomas Hesketh had 
so far the confidence of his sovereign that in 1563 he was 
entrusted with the shrievalty of his county. But the times were 
full of trouble ; intriguing Jesuits and foreign emissaries were 
concealed in many of the halls and manor houses of Lancashire, 
who carried on their treasonable practices with comparative 
impunity, and throughout Elizabeth's reign they were continuously 
engaged in forming conspiracies and contriving plots to deprive her 
of her crown and life. In the Fylde country and along the coast 
between the mouth of the Ribble and Morecambe Bay, a district 
rarely visited by travellers, seminary priests and Papists from the 
colleges of Louvain, Mechlin, and Rome found shelter in the 
secluded farmhouses, and busied themselves in inducing the people 
to deny the supremacy and foreswear their allegiance to the Queen. 
To suppress these disorders a commission was appointed, and the 
powerful hand of the Earl of Derby was employed to restrain the 
teachers of sedition, and under the earl's direction offenders were 

400 County Families of 

hunted up with keen rapacity by a swarm of informers, and, as 
may be supposed, recusants had a hard time of it. In 1581 the 
persecutions against them were more urgently pressed by the lords 
of the council, and before the close of the year Sir Thomas 
Hesketh, with Margaret, the wife of his kinsman, Bartholomew 
Hesketh, of the Aughton stock, Edmund Campion, the notorious 
Jesuit, and many others of his co-religionists, were placed in confine- 
ment, and he was subjected with them, as the correspondence shows, 
to heavy penalties and privations. Sir Thomas married Alice, fifth 
daughter of Sir John Holcroft, of Holcroft, by his wife Anne, 
daughter of Ralph Standish, of Standish, niece of Sir Thomas 
Ilolcroft, who had been his companion in arms at Leith in 1544, 
and who subsequently, after enriching himself with the spoils of the 
dissolved monasteries, founded the line of Holcroft, of Vale Royal. 
Sir Thomas died at Rufford in 1588, his will bearing date June 2oth 
in that year, and was worshipfully buried in the chapel there, 
having had issue by his wife three sons Robert, Thomas, and 
Richard and two daughters Dorothy, who married Henry Squior, 
and had issue ; and Margaret, who became the wife of Nicholas 
Skillicorne, of Preece. 

On the igth May, 31 Elizabeth (1589), Robert Hesketh, the 
eldest son and next heir, had warrant for livery of his lands. He 
was one of the seventy-nine gentlemen of Lancashire who signed 
the address and " loyall bond of allegeance " to James I. on his 
accession to the English crown. During the lifetime of his father, 
and before 1567, he had been united in marriage with Mary, or 
Maria, daughter and heiress of Sir George Stanley, of Cross Hall, 
commonly called the " Black Knight," Marshal of Ireland and 
Captain of the Isle of Man, by his wife Isabella, daughter of Sir 
Sir John Dukinfield, of Dukinfield, county Chester. Sir George 
Stanley was the grandson of George, Lord Strange, of Knockyn, 
eldest son of the first Earl of Derby, and the alliance, in con- 
sequence, added many quarterings to the heraldic shield of the 

With this marriage of Robert Hesketh with Mary Stanley the 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 401 

old vellum pedigree of Rufford, which may be assumed to have 
been engrossed within a few years of the time, terminates. Not 
until the lapse of more than two centuries did any member of the 
Hesketh family think it his duty, or worth his while, to add the 
succeeding generations. This was, however, eventually done in a 
careful, though somewhat simpler manner, under the direction of 
the great grandfather of the present representative of the family, 
Sir Thomas Dalrymple Hesketh, Baronet. The caligraphy of this 
modern portion is much more faded than the characters of the 
older roll, which have retained their blackness through many 
centuries. From it we learn that Robert . Hpsk-pfh and Mary 
gtanlev " has issue five sons and three daughters : Thomas, eldest 
son and heir, who married, first, Susan Powes (PPowys), county Salop, 
and afterwards Jane Edmondson, and to his third wife, Catharine 
Briers, of La thorn, but died without issue A.D. 1646 ; Robert, 
second son, and ultimate heir to his father and brother ; Henry, 
third son, who died issueless ; George, fourth son, who married 

Jane, widow of Sherborn, a younger brother of Sherborn, of 

Stonyhurst, and had issue Robert ; John, fifth son, married Mary, 

daughter of Haydock, of Pheasantford, and had issue Robert; 

Holcroft, eldest daughter, married, first. Laurence Rosthorne, of 
Newhaw (New Hall), and afterwards to Roger Dodsworth, gent. ;* 
Mary, second daughter, married, first, Richard Barton, of Barton, 
gent., and afterwards to Thomas Stanley, of Eccleston, Esq., and 
had issue by both; and Jane, third daughter, married, first, 

Edward Raynall, and afterwards to Heneage, of the county of 

Salop, Esq." Having had the misfortune to lose his first wife, 
Robert Hesketh again entered the marriage state, his second wife 
being Blanche, daughter and co-heir of Henry Twyford, of Ken- 
wick, in Shropshire, but she bore him no issue, and at her death 
he married for his third wife (according to the visitation of 1664-5), 
Jane, daughter of Thomas Spencer, one of the tenants on the 
Rufford estate, by whom he had Robert, born before marriage, 

* This was Roger Dodsworth, Chancellor of York, the eminent antiquary, 
who is buried in the chapel at Rufford. 

S 1 

402 County Families of 

and Cuthbert, born in wedlock, who settled at Kenwick. His 
third wife, surviving him, is said, on the same authority, to have re- 
married Sir Richard Hoghton, of Hoghton Tower, though the 
name does not occur in any of the Hoghton pedigrees. 

Robert Hesketh died in 1620, and was succeeded in the family 
inheritance by his eldest son, Thomas, who, as already stated, 
though thrice married, died issueless in 1646, when the second son, 
Robert, succeeded as heir to his brother. He married Margaret, 
daughter of Alexander Standish, of Standish, and by her had an 
only son, Robert, who died in 1651, in the lifetime of his father, 
leaving by his wife, Lucy, only daughter of Alexander Rigby, of 
Middleton-in-Goosnargh, a lawyer, statesman, magistrate, and 
colonel, and eventually one of the barons of the Exchequer the 
"insolent rebel, Rigby," as Charlotte Tremoille, the heroic 
Countess of Derby, contemptuously designated him when he was 
besieging Lathom House, with other children, Thomas, who suc- 
ceeded as next heir on the death of his grandfather in January, 
1653, being then of the age of six years. His mother, Lucy Rigby, 
who survived her husband, re-married John, son and heir of Sir 
Francis Molyneux, of Fevershall, in Nottinghamshire, Bart. 

When in 1664 Sir William Dugdale, Norroy, made his visitation 
of Lancashire, Thomas Hesketh, who was then seventeen years of 
age, attended at Ormskirk and entered a pedigree of four descents. 
He had confirmed to him the coat armour allowed by Flower to 
his great grandfather in 1567 argent, on a bend sable, three garbs 
or ; omitting the bendlet sinister, the mark of illegitimacy. He 
married Sydney, one of the daughters of Sir Richard Grosvenor, of 
Eaton, ancestor of the present Duke of Westminster, who survived 
him, and re-married Colonel Spencer, and by her had issue, in 
addition to several children who died in infancy, Robert, father 
of Elizabeth Hesketh, who married Sir Edward Stanley, of Bicker- 
staffe, Bart., afterwards eleventh Earl of Derby, and by him was 
ancestress of the present Earl of Derby ; Anne, married to Hugh 
Warren, of Poynton, in Cheshire; another daughter, Jane, who 
became the wife of Henry, son of Sir Richard Brooke, of Norton, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 403 

Bart. ; and Thomas, who succeeded as heir to his father, and 
married Anne, fifth daughter of Sir Reginald Graham, of Norton 
Conyers, in Yorkshire, who bore him, in addition to a daughter 
Jane, who died in infancy, a son, Thomas Hesketh, who was 
returned as member of Parliament for the borough of Preston in 
1726, in opposition to Mr. Thomas Molyneux, who had represented 
the town in the Whig interest in the three Parliaments of 1695, 
1698, and 1701, and who petitioned against Mr. Hesketh's return, 
alleging bribery and corruption, but failed to establish the charge. 
Mr. Hesketh married Martha, only daughter of James St. Amand, 
of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, by Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William 
Juxon, of Little Compton, in Gloucestershire, Bart., nephew and 
heir of the pious and loyal William Juxon, Bishop of London, and 
subsequently Archbishop of Canterbury, who attended Charles I. 
upon the scaffold in 1649. By her he had Thomas, born 23rd Sep- 
tember, 1725, and Robert, both of whom died in infancy; Thomas, 
the second of that name, born at Preston zist January, 1727-8, and 
Robert, born at Rufford, 1729. 

Thomas Hesketh, the eldest surviving son, married, at Oxford 
Chapel, Cavendish Square, Harriet, daughter and co-heir of Ashley 
Cowper, Esq., Clerk of the Parliaments, cousin and favourite 
correspondent of the poet Cowper, and grand-niece of William, first 
Lord Cowper, but she bore him no issue. On the th May, 1761, 
he had a baronetcy conferred upon him, with special remainder, in 
default of direct male issue, to his brother Robert and the male issue 
of his body. He died childless, March 4th, 1778, when the 
baronetcy, with the ancestral estates, devolved upon his brother 
Robert, who succeeded as second baronet. In 1792 he obtained 
permission to assume the surname and arms of his maternal great- 
grandfather, Sir William Juxon, Bart., which he continued to bear 
during his lifetime. He died December 30, 1796, having had by 
his wife Sarah, daughter of William Plumbe, of Wavertree, who died 
in 1792, in addition to a daughter Anne, born 28th February, 1747, 
who married Henry Byrne, of Carshalton, county Surrey, two sons : 
Thomas, born at Wavertree, April, 1748, of whom anon; and 


County Families of 

Robert, born 23rd July, 1751, who served as a volunteer at the 
battle of Bunker's Hill, i;th June, 1775, where he was slain, dying 

Thomas, the eldest son, married Jacintha, daughter of Hugh 
Dalrymple, Esq., Attorney-General of Grenada, who survived him, 
and died 7th January, 1802. By her he had Thomas, born at 
Chatham, 1772, who died in infancy; Thomas Dalrymple, born 
at New York, January I3th, 1777, his heir; and five daughters 
Harriet Anne, Dorothea, Jacintha Catherine, Anne Charlotte, and 
Lucy, all of whom married. Thomas Hesketh died at Preston on 
the I3th January, 1781, in the lifetime of his father, and conse- 
quently his second but eldest surviving son, Thomas Dalrymple 
Hesketh, succeeded to the honours and estates on the death of Sir 
Robert, the second baronet, in 1796. 

Shortly after he succeeded to his inheritance (February ist, 1798), 
he married Sophia, daughter of the Rev. Nathaniel Hinde, vicar of 
Shifnall, county Salop, by whom he had a son, Thomas Henry, 
born nth February, 1798, and three daughters Harriett, Sophia 
Elizabeth, and Emma Suzette, each of whom married. Lady 
Sophia Hesketh died in 1817, when Sir Thomas again entered the 
marriage state, his second wife being Louisa Allemand, who died 
6th September, 1832, having borne him a son William, and three 
daughters Maria, Charlotte, and Mathilde. On the death of Sir 
Thomas Dalrymple Hesketh, July 27th, 1842, the son by his first 
marriage, Thomas Henry, succeeded to the baronetcy and estates, 
but he did not long enjoy possession, his death occurring on the 
joth February in the succeeding year. By his wife, Annette Maria, 
daughter of Robert Bomford, of Rahinstown House, county Meath, 
whom he married 3rd April, 1824, he had, in addition to a 
daughter, Maria Harriett, married November i5th, 1845, to Sir 
Lawrence Palk, Bart., of Haldon House, county Devon, who 
formerly represented South Devon in Parliament, an only son, 
Thomas George, born iith January, 1825, who, on his father's 
death in 1843, succeeded as fifth baronet. 

Sir Thomas George Hesketh was educated at Christ Church, 

Lancashire and Cheshire, 


Oxford, was placed on the commission of the peace, appointed a 
deputy-lieutenant of the county, and rose to the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel commandant of his regiment of militia, the Royal Lanca- 
shire Rifles. He also served in the riotous year of 1848 the 
important office of sheriff of the county ; and on Mr. Richard 
Assheton Cross (the present Lord Cross) accepting the steward- 
ship of the Chiltern Hundreds, March, 1862, was elected in the 
Conservative interest by a large majority over Mr. George Mclly 
to represent the ancient Parliamentary borough of Preston, a 
position one of his 
progenitors held in 
the time of George I., 
and one he retained 
up to the time of his 
death. He married, 
loth March, 1846, 
the Lady Anna Maria 
Arabella Fermor, 
eldest daughter of 
Thomas William, 
fourth Earl of Pom- 
fret, and eventually 
one of the co-heirs of 
her brother, George 
William Richard, the 


Pomfret, and on the 8th November, 1867, he had a royal license 
granted to him and to his second son, Thomas George, authorising 
the taking of the surname of Fermor before that of Hesketh, 
and to bear the arms of Fermor and Hesketh quarterly. Lady 
Hesketh died February 25th, 1870. Sir Thomas George Fermor- 
Hesketh survived her little more than two years, his death 
occurring August 2oth, 1872. He left issue, in addition to three 
daughters Edith Elizabeth, married i8th August, 1871, to 
Lawrence Rawstorne, of Penwortham Priory and Hutton Hall, 

406 County Families of Lancashire, &c. 

county Lancaster ; Constance Maria, and Augusta Sophia three 
sons : Thomas Henry Fermor-Hesketh, born gth January, 1847, 
who succeeded his father, and died 28th May, 1876, when t 
baronetcy and estates devolved upon the second son, Thoma 
George Fermor-Hesketh, born gth May, 1849, captain of t 
Second Lancashire Militia, the seventh baronet, and the prese 
owner of Rufford ; the third son being Hugh Robert Hesketh, 
nth Tune, 1850, the heir presumptive to the baronetcy. 



1 BOUT five miles north-east of the town of Sandbach, 
and about midway between Somerford and Holmes 
Chapel, where the river Dane winds its way through 
the broad flat pastures of Cheshire, is the little 
hamlet of Davenport, a place that eight centuries 
ago, or thereabouts, gave name to a family that increased 
in successive generations until it became one of the most 
wide-branched within the shire, including the several lines of 
Davenport of Davenport, Marton, Whcltrough Henbury, Wood- 
ford, Sutton, Capesthorne, Newton, and Butley.* In that great 
national record, the Domesday Survey, the Manor of Davenport 
is described as forming part of the possessions of that mighty 
hunter, Gilbert Venablcs, of Kindcrton, a younger son of Eudo, 
Earl of Blois, in Normandy, a companion in arms of the Conqueror 
at Hastings, and one of the eight barons whom Hugh Lupus, the 
great Norman earl, created within his palatinate of Cheshire, and 
endowed with extensive estates in the newly-conquered county. 

During the lifetime of this Gilbert, or in that of his grandson, 
who succeeded him, the manor, or ville, as it was then called, of 
Davenport was given to one Orme, who settled there, and who, 
in accordance with the custom of the age, was called after or 

* The frequency of this family name in Cheshire has led to the prover- 
bial saying 

" In Cheshire there are Leighs as plenty as fleas, 
And as many Davenports as dogs' tails." 

408 Coimty Families of 

assumed the name of the place of his'abode, and is described in the 
deeds and charters of the time as Orme de Davenport, or Orme of 
Davenport. He was living in the time of the Conqueror, and had 
a son Richard, who succeeded him, and married Amabilia, a 
daughter of the second Gilbert Venables, and a sister of Hugh 
Venables, a great Church pluralist, who held the rectories of 
Eccleston, Astbury, and Rostherne, all in Cheshire, in 1188. 
With this lady Richard de Davenport had a grant of a moiety of 
the Manor of Marlon, in Prestbury parish, which thenceforward 
was one of the chief seats of the family, the Old Hall of Marlon, a 
picturesque, half-timbered slruclure, Ihe successor of an earlier 
building, still remaining, and, though shorn of much of its prisline 
glory, presenting many features of anliquily. Some time after the 
marriage, Hugh Kyvelioc, Earl of Chester, conferred upon this 
Richard the important post of Masler-foresler of Ihe Foresls of 
Macclesfield and Leek. The appoinlmenl appears, from the 
names of the witnesses, to have been made between the years 1152 
and 1 1 60, and there is good reason to believe that it was extended 
to Richard's son and grandson in succession, Thomas and Richard 
1 Javenport, of Davenport and Marlon. 

Richard Davenport, the grandson, and the third in descent from 
Orme, the patriarch of the family, had, as appears by an inspeximus 
enrolled on the Plea Rolls (Plea Jtolls, 36 and 39 Edward III.), 
sometime between 1209 and 1216, had certain privileges secured 
to himself and his heirs by grant from Randle Blundeville, son of 
Hugh Kyvelioc, the crusader Earl of Chester ; to wit, exemption 
from suit and service in the County Court of Chester, the Hundred 
Court of Northwich, and of the Pleas of Middlewich, and also from 
serving on juries, in consideration of which privileges he and his 
successors were to render yearly to the earl a gilt spur or the sum 
of sixpence. The probability is that he was relieved from the 
discharge of these services in order that he might not, by a com- 
pulsory attendance at the several courts named, be prevented from 
discharging his foresterial duties in the districts assigned him. The 
forest laws were of great antiquity, and, like those of Draco, were 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 409 

written in blood. Before the granting of the Carta de Foresta the 
cruelties and hardships inflicted under them were almost insupport- 
able ; the life of a man was'placed on a level with the life of a stag, 
and offences against the earl's " vert and venison " were visited with 
the severest penalties. 

Vivian Davenport, the grandson of Richard, on whom the master- 
forestership was first conferred, held the office, and was also the 
owner of the Park and other estates in and about Macclesfield, 
which was then a walled town, and rising in importance. This 
Vivian steps out boldly from the canvas, and was certainly one of 
the most notable members of the ancient house. In 1220, or 
thereabouts, Randle Blundeville the earl who had granted the 
charter of exemptions to his father granted to him and his heirs 
the Grand Forestership of the Forests of Macclesfield, and also the 
hereditary office of Serjeant of the Peace for the Hundred of 
Macclesfield, a position of great honour and responsibility. But 
Vivian Davenport does not appear to have been altogether satisfied 
with the conditions precedent to the bestowal of this exalted office, 
and the grant itself is a curious illustration of the high-handed 
manner in which the Norman earls occasionally encroached upon 
the rights of feudatories within their palatinate, for, by an inquisition 
taken some years after the death of Vivian Davenport, it seems 
that the grant was made in compensation for the " park and vivaries 
of Maklesfelde otherwise called Wilwhich," worth about ^40 a year, 
which Vivian, "against his will," had "exchanged with" or, to 
speak more explicitly, had been deprived of by the earl. The 
inquisition further sets forth that this office, which was then not 
worth more than 12 6s. 8d. a year, had been previously held by 
Adam de Sutton ; and it may, therefore, be reasonably inferred that 
he had been forcibly dispossessed in order that Vivian might 
receive this inadequate compensation for the broad acres which his 
liege lords had thought fit to deprive him of. The original charter 
conferring the office was exhibited by John Davenport (son of John 
Davenport, Serjeant of the Peace for the Hundred of Macclesfield, 
who died in 1601) on the 8th January, 1601-2, when an inquisition 
5 2 

4io County Families of 

p.m. was taken (39th Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public 
Records). It reads : 

Rann' Com' Cestr' Lincoln' univ'sis p'sentib'z et futuris, salt' Sciatis 
me concessisse et dedisse et hac carta mea confirmasse Viviano de 
Daveneport Mag'ralem s'janciam de Macclesfeld illam scilit' q'm Ada' de 
Sutton tenuit h'ndam et tenendum illi et hered'ibus suis in escamb' t're de 
Wilewic q'm m'i reddidit cu' om'ibus p'tinentiis suis. Ita scilicet q'd si 
idem Vivian vl' aliq's h'edu' suor' forisfaciat un'no" possit vl' noluit pac' et 
gardu' curie mee ball'iam d'cam amittat in p'petuu' Et t'ra sua tola q'm de 
me tenet in capite incurrat. Hiis testib'z 










et multis aliis. 

Both the office of Serjeant of the Peace for the Hundred and 
that of Grand Forester of the Forests of Macclesfield were held by 
the descendants of Vivian Davenport in hereditary succession for 
many generations. The first-named office, when the Earldom of 
Chester passed to the Crown, being " held of the King as Earl of 
Chester by the service of finding eight Serjeants, one a horseman, to 
keep the peace, and coming at the summons of the King at their 
own costs in the county, and elsewhere out of the county at his 
cost's." The Grand Forestership, after the lapse of the earldom, 
appears to have dwindled down to a mere honorary office, and to 
have been superseded, so far as the active duties were concerned, 
by that of the stewards, who were appointed and removed at 
pleasure, until the reign of Edward IV., when it was, with the 
Stewardship of the Hundred and Forest, granted to Thomas, Ixird 
Stanley, and, with a single exception, when Sir William Brereton, 
the Parliamentarian general during the disorders of the Common- 
wealth period, obtruded, has remained in the family of the Earls 
of Derby ever since. In addition to the Chiet or Grand Forester, 


Lancashire and Cheshire. 411 

there were eight subordinate hereditary foresters, who were bound 
to perform forest duties by the tenure of their several estates, and 
who enjoyed various privileges thereby. They perambulated their 
respective districts in the same manner and with the same powers 
as their chief, and in the discharge of their local duties were pro- 
tected by the rigid enactments of the forest laws. 

The office of Grand Serjeant was one of the most important it 
was in the power of the earl to bestow, and the holder of it was a 
person of rank and consequence ; the earl, who exercised almost 
regal powers within his palatinate, only could sit in judgment upon 
him, and he in turn sat in judgment upon his subordinate officers. 
Within his jurisdiction he was entrusted with the power of life 
and death, without delay and without appeal ; execution was by 
decapitation, and heads of offenders were sent to Chester. The 
emoluments of the office were 12 6s. Sd. a year as puture, and 
245. a year for finding mantles for the under Serjeants, in addition 
to the fees of two shillings and a salmon for the capture of a master- 
robber, and one shilling for the decapitation of a common thief; 
and his perquisites included the goods, chattels, and growing pro- 
duce of felons and fugitives condemned and to be condemned. As 
Chief Forester, he further claimed to be entitled to treasure trove, 
felo-de-se escheats, and, as "deodands," all such articles as might 
have accidentally caused the death of any person within the limits 
of his fee a claim that often brought him in conflict with the local 
manorial lords on the plea that he was infringing their rights. 
Some of these demands were very curious. Thus we read in 1730 
of an inventory of felon's goods in Pott Shrigley, a village a few 
miles from Macclesfield and within the limits of the forest ; and as 
late as 1734 of three claims, one on account of a horse that had 
killed a man at Disley, another of a coach from the box of which 
the coachman of- Mr. Arderne fell and was killed, and a third of a 
dog which killed a child at Stockport ; the horse, the coach, and 
the dog being severally found to be deodands. Mr. Earwaker 
also mentions a bell at Prestbury which, in falling, killed a man, 
two gravestones which killed a man at Butley, and part of a cart 


County Families of 

wheel which had killed a man at Adlington, being also claimed as 

These references to an office which, though still nominally held, 
has, through the changes of law and custom and the advance of 
civilisation, so far as the duties and emoluments are concerned, 
fallen into desuetude, have an interest in that they enable us to 

steal fire 

From the fountains of the past 
To glorify the present. 

They bring vividly before the mind's eye the condition of society 
long centuries ago, when the wooded slopes, the secluded dingles, 
and the bleak moorland wastes that separate Cheshire from the 
wild country of the Peak, were thronged with deer and other 
animals of the chase, and the hunting-loving Norman preferring 
hart and buck to man enforced his cruel forest laws. The forest 
was at the time the resort also of predatory bands, the descendants, 
it may be, of Gurth the swineherd, and Higg the son of Snell, who, 
in a spirit of wild retributive justice, as exemplified in the " Ballad- 
Singers' Joy" Robin Hood and his "gestes" made free with the 
earl's game and venison, defied the authority of their Norman 
oppressors, and sought to evade pursuit by retreating into the 
remote fastnesses of the forest. These outlaws and cut-purses were 
usually found in gangs of four or five, their chief, who was not 
unfrequently a person of some note, being denominated the 
" master-robber ; " and some idea of the extent to which the forest 
was infested may be gathered from the fact that when, in the time 
of Henry VI., a writ was issued by the Prince of Wales, as Earl of 
Chester, to the Serjeant for keeping the peace within the hundred 
to take certain outlaws, above 120 persons were named as having 
been outlawed in the preceding seven years. 

Among the archives of the Davenports preserved at Capes- 
thorne is an inquisition taken at Chester 2oth June, 26 Edward 
III. (1352), which exhibits the members of the family in their 
double capacity of grand Serjeants and chief foresters. Annexed 
to it is a curious old parchment, about three inches wide and of 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 4 1 3 

considerable length, which sets forth the names of the several 
master-robbers and their companions who were decapitated by 
Vivian Davenport and his successors, Roger and Thomas Daven- 
port. The document is written in Latin, and is in several places 
illegible, but sufficient remains to show its general purport. Some 
years ago the late Mr. \V. Bromley-Davenport had a translation 
made of such parts as could be deciphered, and this, we believe, is 
preserved among the muniments at Capesthorne. 

It is very generally believed that it was in allusion to their 
hereditary office and the arbitrary powers they exercised that the 
peculiar crest borne by the Davenports a felon's head couped 
proper, haltered or ; in simple English, a robber's head cut short, 
with a halter round the neck was adopted. This crest is said to 
have been borne on the helmets of the Grand Serjeants in their 
perambulations of the forest, which extended over a great part of 
the Hundred of Macclesfield, to the manifest terror of the numerous 
banditti who at the time infested this wild district. The tradition 
of its use in the forest seems somewhat fanciful, though not altogether 
improbable, but the story is denied by Mr. Lower, who, in his 
Curiosities of Heraldry (p. 194) assigns another and entirely 
different origin. " According to the tradition of the family," he 
says, " it originated after a battle between the Yorkists and the 
Lancastrians, in which one of the Davenports, being of the 
vanquished party, was spared execution by the commander on the 
opposite side on the humiliating condition that he and all his 
posterity should bear this crest." As if this was not sufficiently 
perplexing, we have a third version by an anonymous writer, who, 
in a brochure, published some forty years ago, says that in a 
" curious " manuscript work of great antiquity and value there is an 
entry to this effect : " Davenport's crest was a man's head dolant 
(i.e., grieving) as a prisoner. The reason of which, as I am 
informed by the present head of the family, was that one of his 
ancestors, for stealing a heiress, was obliged to walk three times 
round a gallows with a halter round his neck." This latest attempt 
to break up a long-cherished tradition may, we think, be dismissed 

414 County Families of 

without hesitation. The crime of abduction was by no means 
uncommon at the period referred to. In Lancashire John of Gaunt 
found it necessary to issue a command to the sheriffs to deal severely 
with all stealers of wives and daughters, as well of the nobles and 
others as he might find, and the epidemic spread among the 
gentry of the adjoining county, for in the Cheshire Records we read 
that Thomas, son of Ralph de Vernon, n Richard II. (1387), 
was indicted, tried, and found guilty of having, with others his 
followers, forcibly entered the house of Margaret de Caryngton, 
the widow of Sir Thomas de Caryngton, of a great Cheshire 
family at Weaver, and having then violated and carried her away. 
It is possible that one of the Davenports may have been guilty of a 
similar outrage, but it is extremely improbable that he or his 
descendants would desire to perpetuate the remembrance of it by a 
pointed allusion in the helm totem, or crest, which, in the era of 
true heraldry, was accounted the ensign of a family's highest dignity 
and honour. We are inclined, therefore, to accept the first story of 
the origin of this singular device as the most trustworthy, and the 
one most in accord with the warlike spirit of the age in which it was 
adopted, as well as indicative of the arbitrary powers exercised by 
its owners. 

The date of the death of Vivian Davenport is not known with 
absolute certainty, but the latest instance in which his name 
occurs is as witness to a charter of Robert Pygot, one of the Pygots 
of Butley, in Prestbury parish, granted in the time that Richard de 
Wibinbure was sheriff of Cheshire, and consequently in or after 
18 Henry III. (1233-4), and the probability is that he died shortly 
afterwards. He appears to have been buried at Prestbury, in which 
parish, Marton, the then chief residence of the Davenports, is situated, 
and a few years ago there was discovered beneath the pavement of 
the Tytherington chantry in Prestbury Church the fragments of 
what unquestionably was originally the covering of his stone coffin, 
the coffin to which it belonged having also been found during the 
restoration of the fabric three or four years ago. The two ends of 
the slab alone are recovered, the intervening fragments, indicated 

Lancashire and Clieshire. 415 

in the illustration by dotted lines, being still missing. The design, 
it will be observed, is of a geometrical character, comprising a 
double floriated cross, with a stem enriched by a series of stalked 
lilies springing in graceful curves from each side. Along the 
margin are the remains of a Norman-French inscription in Lom- 
bardic capitals : 


ISIdO = AHI = lOd 

The inscription, as will be seen, is incomplete ; but the general 
design of the cross, the conventional epitaph, with its pathetic and 
deprecatory apostrophe, expressed, too, in a language that was in 
vogue ere Latin had become common in monumental inscriptions, 
the Lombardic lettering which preceded the character called black- 
letter, that only came into use near the close of the reign of Edward 
III., all combine to show that this interesting memorial dates from 
the middle or later half of the thirteenth century, and there can be 
little doubt, from the Christian name (Vivyanl and the initial letter 
of the surname (D), that it covered the remains of the Cheshire 
celebrity the first of his house who combined in his person the 
double office of Grand Serjeant of the Hundred and Chief Forester 
of the Forest of Macclesfield, or Forest of Lyme, as it was anciently 
denominated, from its position on the bounds or limits of the 

Roger, the son of Vivian Davenport, who succeeded, married a 
heiress Mary, daughter of Robert Salmon, of Wythington, and 
acquired in right of his wife a moiety of the Manors of Wythington, 
Tunstide, and Wheltrough ; another son, Edward, of Newton, was 
the father of Robert, who held lands in Lawton about the close of 
the reign of Henry III., and, taking the name of his abode, was 
founder of the line of Lawton of Lawton, a family that continues 
to bear the heraldic coat of Davenport, with the substitution of a 
fess for the chevron, as the mark of difference the paternal coat 
of Davenport being argent, a chevron sable between three cross- 
crosslets fitche of the second. Thomas, the son of Roger, who 


County Families of 

was living in 1320, married Agnes, daughter of Thomas de 
Macclesfield, and by her had a numerous issue, of whom Thomas, 
the second son, had given to him by his father lands in Withington, 
Wheltrough, Tunstide, and Marlon, and had, with other issue, three 
sons : (i) Thomas, the founder of the line of Davenport of Whel- 
trough; (2) John, founder of the line of Davenport of Bramall, 


near Stockport ; and (3) Jenkin, who was knighted, and founded 
the line of Davenport of Henbury, from which sprang in the next 
generation the Davenports of Woodford. 

Sir John Davenport, the elder brother of Thomas, and the great- 
grandson of Vivian, according to the Cheshire Church Notes (Harl. 
MSS., 2151, p. 54), joined with his younger son Vivian (? Urian) 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 417 

in founding the chapel at Marton, a dependency of Prestbury, 1 7 
Edward III. (1343-4) a chantry that was dissolved at the time of 
the Reformation and until the last few years, when they were 
removed and placed within the tower of the recently restored edifice, 
there were on the south side of the graveyard two recumbent 
effigies, much mutilated, which, according to current tradition, were 
those of Sir John and his son Vivian, or Urian.* In 1301 Sir 
John, who was then in his infancy, appears to have been contracted 
in marriage to his father's step-daughter, Margery, daughter of Sir 
William Brereton, " for 60 marks " (^40). The agreement is dated 
at Brereton, and is witnessed by, among others, three Cheshire 
knights Hugh Massey, Ralph Vernon, and Hugh de Venables ; 
but the young people seem to have resented this mercenary mode 
of disposing of their hands and hearts, for four years later a sentence 
was obtained from the Court at Chester declaring the marriage null 
on the ground of its having been celebrated against the consent of 
the parties, both being under age. They would seem, however, to 
have been afterwards re-united, for there is documentary evidence 
to show that this Margery was the mother of Sir John's numerous 
issue. Of these children, Thomas, the eldest, was twice married, 
but died childless ; Arthur, a younger son, who was slain at the 
battle of Shrewsbury in 1403, married, before 1369, Katharine, 
daughter of Robert and sister and co-heir of Ralph Calveley, lord 
of Calveley, and by her was founder of the line of Davenport of 
Calveley. Ralph, the second but eldest surviving son, who 
succeeded as heir to his father, distinguished himself in the field, 
and won his spurs in the service of the ill-fated Richard II. In 
1373, while Richard was Earl of Chester, he had a grant of the 
custody of the Castle of Flint, with fifty marks yearly, " to serve the 
Prince in time of war, with one esquire." After Richard's accession 
to the Crown he was appointed sheriff and "raglor" of the county 
of Flint, and by indenture 3 Richard II. (1379-80) he bound him- 

* The Davenport pedigree expressly says Urian, "jacet ccemeterio de 
Marton," and adds that he was distinguished for his great stature, and also 
for his military achievements. 


4i 8 Cotmty Families of 

self "to serve the King, with three archers, well mounted and 
armed, to make war for a year in parts beyond the sea, where God 
pleased." He died three years after this, leaving by his wife Joyce 
a daughter of the House of Filton, of Gawsworth, as is believed 
who survived him, and re-married (i) Sir William de Legh, of 
Baguley, and (2) Sir John Kighley, with other issue, a son Ralph, 
his heir, who was a minor at the time of his decease, his mother 
Joyce holding the Grand Serjeanty of the Hundred of Macclesfield, 
which she leased to Piers Legh, of Lyme, during his nonage or 
minority. He made proof of age in 1399 a year of change and 
unrest, and of sorrow to many Cheshire men, for it was that which 
witnessed the overthrow of Richard and the enthronement of the 
usurper Henry IV. He died in 1416, having had by his wife 
Joan, daughter of Sir Robert Legh, of Adlington, five sons and two 
daughters, the eldest of whom, John, was then a minor, but who, 
three years later, had livery of his inheritance. In his father's life- 
time he had been contracted in marriage with Joan, daughter of 
Randle Mainwaring, of Peover, receiving with her the Manor of 
Swettenham, with the advowson of the church, and other lands in 
Cheshire, the marriage covenant, which is still extant, being sealed 
with " a man's head couped in a rundell " the old crest of the 
Davenports. His mother re-married John, son and heir of 
Richard de Legh, of High Legh, and there seems to have been 
some litigation in regard to her dower after her second marriage, 
for, as appears by an entry on the Plea Rolls, he was, in 5 Henry 
VI. (1426-7), sued by his mother and her second husband, John, son 
of Richard de Legh, for dower of 200 messuages, 500 acres of land, 
40 of meadow, 100 of wood, and 400 of pasture in Davenport, 
Marton, Wythynton, Swettenham, Carincham, Somerford, Chirche- 
hulme, and Bramall. He took an active part in the business of his 
county during the turbulent reign of Henry VI. In 1430 he was 
appointed collector of a subsidy in the Hundred of Northwich ; five 
years later he was summoned to attend the King's Council at 
Chester with reference to the granting of another subsidy ; and in 
the 21 Henry VI. (1442-3) he was commissioned as Serjeant of the 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 419 

Peace for the Hundred of Macclesfield to arrest Nicholas, Peter, 
William, Edward, George, and Edmund de Caryngton. Near the 
close of the '"meek usurper's" reign, and just before the great 
struggle with the House of York at Towton Field, the King's son, 
Edward, Earl of Chester, issued his writ to this John Davenport, as 
his Serjeant for keeping the peace within the Hundred of Maccles- 
field, to take 120 persons who had been outlawed in the seven 
preceding years, and who are mentioned by name in the writ. 
It was almost the last official act of the unfortunate prince, for the 
defeat at Towton placed Edward of York upon the throne, and at 
Tewkesbury, ten years later, when the fight was over, he was taken 
prisoner, "fleeing to the townwards, and slain in the field," 
"crying for succour," as Warkworth, a Lancastrian adds, "to his 
brother-in-law, the Duke of Clarence." His name occurs as a 
collector of a subsidy in 1464, but it does not appear again, and 
the probability is, that he was then getting well stricken in years, 
and was exempted from similar offices. He died about 1474, his 
inquisition being taken 14 Edward IV., when his eldest son, also 
named John, succeeded to the family estates, but he enjoyed 
possession for only a comparatively brief period, his death occurring 
seven years afterwards (21 Edward IV). By his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir John Savage, of Clifton, he had, with other children, 
a son, Ralph, who married his kinswoman Margery, daughter 
of Hugh Davenport, of Henbury, and had livery of his father's 
lands June i4th, i Richard III., 1484. Family quarrels seem to 
have arisen with reference to the division of the family estates, for 
in the year in which he gained possession he had to enter into a 
recognisance of 1,000 marks to keep the peace, and in the following 
year he w'as bound over in a like sum to keep the peace towards 
" Robert Mascy, Robert Knottesford, and all the children of John 
Davenport," his father. His eldest son, John, born in 1480, was 
thrice married, but had children only by his first wife. He died 
May aist, i Philip and Mary (1555), at the advanced age of 
seventy-four, and was succeeded by his eldest son, John, then aged 
forty-eight. This representative of the House of Davenport, like 

42O County Families of 

his father, had three wives, but, unlike him, had children by each. 
By the first, Eleanor, daughter of Thurston Holland, of Denton, in 
Lancashire, he had John, his heir, born in 1527 ; Urian, who died 
young ; and six daughters. At her death he married Jane, daughter 
and co-heiress of Richard Mascy, younger brother of Sir Geoffrey 
Massey, of Tatton one of the few heiresses that have added to the 
patrimonial lands of the Davenports who bore him four sons and 
three daughters ; and for his third wife he married Anne, daughter 
of Randle Mainwaring, of Carincham, by whom he had ten sons 
and five daughters, in all a family of thirty children. He died on 
the i ith June, 1582, at the advanced age of seventy-seven, and was 
buried at Swettenham. 

The subsequent history of the Davenports calls for little remark 
at our hands, for there is not much in the records of their, lives 
beyond the short tale of baptism and burial. In each succeeding 
generation they married and were given in marriage, performed the 
various duties that pertained to their station, and identified them- 
selves in various ways with matters that concerned the well-being 
of their own county ; but they " neither plotted nor dissembled," 
nor busied themselves over much with the more exciting and 
perilous affairs that from time to time stirred the pulse of the 
nation. The grandson of the John Davenport last mentioned, 
who bore the same name, served the office of Sheriff of Cheshire 
in 1617. It was the year in which King James, in returning from 
Scotland, made a royal progress through Lancashire, knighted the 
sirloin of beef, as tradition affirms, at Hoghton Tower, offended the 
" Puritans and precise people " by his encouragement of "piping 
and dancing " on the Sabbath, and sowed the seeds of discontent 
that bore bitter fruit in the succeeding reign. From Lancashire 
he extended his "progress" through loyal Cheshire to Vale Royal 
Abbey, and thence to Chester, where he was presented by the 
Mayor with a double gilt "standing cup," containing, what was 
even better, "an hundred jacobins of gold." Before taking his 
departure he paid a visit to the ancestral hall at Davenport, and, 
as the old chronicler Webb informs us, John Davenport, the sheriff, 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 421 

"performing his service and duty to his excellent majesty here in 
his highness progress, at his taking leave in the confines of the 
county, his majesty not only gave him thanks for his attendance, 
but of his royal benignity called him to come near him, and 
bestowed upon him the degree of knighthood, and graced him 
with a pleasant princely farewell, You shall carry me this token to 
your wife, graciously so meant by his majesty ; but the gentle- 
woman having indeed before that attained to a better ladyship, 
being gone to her Lord and Saviour in heaven." The "gentle- 
woman " was Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Wilbraham, of Nant- 
wich, attorney of the Court of Wards, who had passed to her rest 
four years previously, and was buried at Swettenham, as the register 
there testifies, on the 8th August, 1613. Sir John himself died in 
1625, at the age of 76, and was also buried at Swettenham. 

Sir John's great grandson, who bore the same baptismal name 
the twentieth in lineal male descent from Orme de Davenport, the 
patriarch of the house, was born at Swettenham in 1706, and 
married Anne, daughter of Sir Peter Richaut, of London, by whom 
he had a son, John Davenport, who died in childhood in his 
lifetime, and two daughters, Elizabeth and Anne, who became his 
co-heirs. The eldest, Elizabeth, became (March 23, 1676) the 
wife of Robert Davies, of Moldsworth ; and the younger, Anne, 
married at Prestbury, March 6th, 1676, her kinsman, John Daven- 
port, of Woodford. On the 23rd March, 29 Charles II. (1678), 
articles were entered into between Robert Davies and John 
Davenport, setting forth that they have respectively married 
Elizabeth and Anne, the co-heirs of John Davenport, and had 
agreed that the real and personal estate of the deceased should be 
divided into two equal parts ; and that after such division, to be 
made by William Sneyd, of Keel, the said Robert Davies should first 
choose his moiety, and pay ^100 in consideration thereof to John 
Davenport, the husband of the younger co-heir. In accordance 
with this agreement, the Manor and mansion of Davenport and a 
moiety of Marton passed to Mr. Davies, and at the same time the 
mansion and half of the mere and the Manor of Marton became 

422 County Families of 

the property of John Davenport, the representative of the line of 
Davenport seated at Woodford from the time of Edward III. 

The granddaughter of Robert Davies, Salisbury Davies, who 
eventually became sole heir of her father and brother, married Sir 
Matthew Deane, of Dromore, in Ireland; but he dying without issue, 
his brother, Sir Robert Deane, who succeeded, sold Davenport, with 
the old family residence and the moiety of Marlon, to Richard 
Davenport, of Calveley, the representative of the oldest known 
existing main line of the ancient possessors, the latter being pur- 
chased in trust for her grandson in the female line, Davies Daven- 
port, of Capesthorne. 

John Davenport, who married the younger of the co-heiresses, 
and in her right had Marton, and also the Forestership, with half 
the profits of the Serjeancy of Macclesfield Hundred, died February 
4th, 1733; but having no surviving issue, the property passed to 
his nephew, Davies, eldest son of his younger brother, Monk 
Davenport, who had married, at Kensington, October igth, 1721, 
Penelope, daughter and sole heir of John Ward, of Capesthorne, a 
marriage that brought Capesthorne, now the principal residence of 
the family, into the possession of the Davenports. She died 
November nth, 1737, and on the decease of her husband, which 
occurred in May, 1740, the Marton, Woodford, and Capesthorne 
properties descended to the second but eldest surviving son, 
Davies Davenport, who married Phcebe, daughter and co-heir of 
Richard Davenport, of Calveley and Davenport, the two properties, 
with the exception of the hall and Manor of Davenport, becoming 
thus re-united, and by her was father of a third Davies Davenport, 
who served the office of high sheriff of the county in 1783, and 
represented it in Parliament from 1806 to 1830, when he retired. 
He died in February, 1837, having had by his wife Charlotte, 
daughter of Ralph Sneyd, of Keel, whom he survived, three sons 
Edward Davies, his heir ; Henry William, who pre-deceased him ; 
Walter, in holy orders and two daughters, Charlotte Almeira and 
Harriet Catherine. 

Edward Davies Davenport, who succeeded, left at his death, in 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 423 

1847, an only son, Arthur Henry Davenport, who died unmarried, 
when the family estates passed to his cousin, William Bromley, only 
son of the Rev. Walter Davenport, third son of Davies Davenport 
and Charlotte Sneyd, who had, by sign manual in 1822, on suc- 
ceeding to the Bromley property, assumed the additional name of 

Mr. William Bromley, who was born at Capesthorne, August 
2oth, 1821, and educated at Harrow and Christ Church, Oxford, 
on succeeding to the ancestral lands in 1867, in compliance with 
the will of his cousin, assumed by royal license the name of Daven- 
port, in addition to that of Bromley ; he was appointed a deputy- 
lieutenant of the county of Stafford, and also held the office of 
Lieut.-Colonel of the Staffordshire Yeomanry Cavalry. In 1824 he 
was elected member of Parliament for North Warwickshire, and he 
continued to represent that constituency until his death, which 
occured very suddenly at Lichfield, July, 1884. He married, 
July 5, 1858, Augusta Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Walter 
Frederick Campbell, of Islay, and by her, who survives him, he 
had, with other issue, William Bromley -Davenport, born January 
2ist, 1862, educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, and who, 
in July, 1886, was elected representative in Parliament of the 
Macclesfield Division of the County of Chester, the present owner 
of Capesthorne and the other estates of the I )avenports. 

The ancient hall of Davenport has survived the vicissitudes of 
time, though it has undergone many changes and submitted to 
not a few indignities. Marlon still survives, and though let to 
humbler occupants, makes a struggle to retain its ancient features. 
The " old " hall of Woodford, for many generations the residence of 
a younger line of the Davenports, though presenting many of the 
picturesque features of the old half-timbered manor houses of 
Cheshire, has little to remind the spectator of its former conse- 
quence; and the " new " hall, which superseded it in 1630, as the date 
over the doorway testifies, has shared a similar fate, and passed 
into the occupancy of strangers. Chorley Hall, another seat of the 
family, like Davenport and Marlon, is tenanted by farmers; and 

424 County Families of Lancashire, &c. 

Bramall, the most stately and withal the most charming in its 
situation and external features of all the houses of the Davenports, 
has within the last few years passed beneath the auctioneer's 
hammer, and the many precious relics, the accumulation of 
centuries, stored within its walls, have been scattered to the winds ; 
but Capesthorne, the latest of the family acquisitions, remains. It 
is a stately structure of red brick, with stones, and was in great part 
re-built about the beginning of the present century from the design 
of Mr. Edward Blore. Unfortunately, in 1 86 1 a fire broke out in 
the central block, which destroyed a considerable portion of the hall ; 
but the two wings were preserved, and the portions injured were 
subsequently restored under the direction of Salvin. 


Acton Church, 370 
Adair, Serjeant, 163 
Aghton, Hugh, 396 
Agincourt, Battle of, 253, 259 
A Idirley Beacon ,112 

Edge, 112 
Aldingham, 249 
Aldithlega, Adam, i 
Aldithley, Henry, 3^4, 366 
Allemand, Louisa, 404 
Allen, Cardinal, 142, 198 

Gabriel, 195 
Allington, Diana, 239 
Lord, 239 
Allostock, 297 
Alport Park, 60, 64, 350 
Alvanley, Lord, 201 
Amonnde, Anna, 262 
Amyon Hill, 27 
Ancoats Hall, 352 
Anderton, Christopher, 346 
,, Colonel, 91 
Edmund, 147 
Angier, John, 353 
Anjou, Margaret of, 256, 375 
Anson, William Reynell, 275 
Antrobus, Randolph, 232 
Arden, Mary, 263 
John, 263 
Arderne, Agnes, 367 

Beatrice, 313 

John, 13, 201, 313 

Matilda, 13 

Mr., 411 

Peter, 367 

Richard Pepper, 201 

Thomas, 260 
Argyle, Duke of, 238 
Arlcy Hall, 226 
Arlington, Lord, 386 
Arnold's Eye, 313 


Arragon, Katharine of, 48 
Arundel, Earl of, 64, 299 
Ashburnham, Lord, 108 
Ashton, Elizabeth, 174, 177 

John, 37, 173 

Thomas, 170, 171, 173 

!74, 177, 375 
Aske, Robert, 41, 49 
Assheton, Anne, 214 

Colonel, 84, 85 
Edmund, 261 
Eleanor, 153 
Ralph, 153, 211, 293 
Richard, 210, 214, 398 
Thomas, 182, 214, 260 
William, 214 
Astbury Church, 3 
Aston, Thomas, 350 
William, 385 
Atherton, Elizabeth, 279 

,, William, 279 
Athole, Duke of, 105 
,, Earl of, 100 
Marquess of, 100 
Audleigh, Adam, i, 2 

Joan, 2 

Lyulph, 2 
,, William, 2 

Audley, Lord, 2, 129, 137, 315, 375 
Aughton, Alice, 395 

,, Richard, 395 
Avranche, Hugh, 297 

BABINGTON, Thomas, 143 
Backford, William, 270 
Bacon, Lord, 36, 227 
Baggaley, Humphrey, 97 
Bailey, John Eglington, 232 
Baines, Edward, 177 
Balderstone, Elizabeth, 257 
William 257 



Baliol, John, 301 
Bamville, Joan, 4, n 

Philip, 3 
Banaster, Adam, 248, 253 

Katharine, 248, 253 
Robert, 268 
Banastre, Adam, 392 
Agnes, 393 
Margaret, 393 
Robert, 392 
Thomas, 393 
Bangoi'-is-y-cocd, 117 
Barkloughly Castle, 126 
Barlow, Roger, 180 
Barnard, Ann, 144 

,, . Robert, 144 
Barnes, Philip, 211 
Birrett, Thomas, iSS, 189 
Barton, Edith, 213, 272 
Gilbert, 270 
Richard, 398, 401 

Roger, 52 
I? i.ssett, Margaret, 134 

,, Ralph, 134, Elizabeth, 152 

William, 152 
Bnyley, Christopher, 203 
Elizabeth, 359 
,. James, 359 
Beamont, William, 25, 126, 130, 

131, 226, 259, 365 
Beauchamp, Baron, 251, 252 
Bjaufort, John, 19 

Margaret, 18 
j, Thomas, 254 
Beaumaris Castle, 126 
Bjbington, Robert, 178 
Bceston, Thomas, 8 
Bjdingfield, Agnes Mary, 265 

Richard, 266 

Belgreave, Joan, 305 
John. 371 

Thomas, 306, 308 

Bell, Isaac Lowthian, 114 
,, James, 198 
Mary Katharine, 114 
Bellott, Edward, 147 
Jielward, John, 119 

William, 119, 155 
Bcnalt, Thomas, 190, 397 
Bendloes, Robert, 71 
Beresford, Frances, 152 

Joseph, 152 

Bjrlingham, Juliana, 248 
,, Richard, 248 

Bcrw/ck-upoii-Twced, 300 
Bjspham, Warino, 392 

Boston, Thomas, 311 
Bjthum, Roger, 249 
Bewsey Hall, 71 
Birch, Colonel, 99 
Thomas, 94, 95, 97 
William, 196 
Birches, Robert, 308 
Biron, Dr., 325 
Birscough Priory, 50 
Birtles, Christiama, 367 
Bishop, Diana, 237 

,, Edward, 237 
Black Prince, Edward, the, 221 
Blackburn, Adam, 274 
Agnes, 275 
Beatrice, 274 
Blackett, Diana, 387 

William, 387 
Blainscough Hall, 198 
Bldlte Castle, 8 
Bland, Anne, 352, 354, 355, 358 

John, 352, 354 
Blois, Earl of, 298, 407 
Blore, Edward, 424 
Bloreheath, Battle of, 15, 129, ^15, 


Blundeville, RanJle, 169, 408, 409 
Boghey, Alice, 377 

,, Humphrey, 377 
Bohemia, Queen of, 72, too 
Bolesworth Castlf, 360 
Boleyn, Anne, 48, 49, 190, 377, 
Bjlingbroke, Henry, 9, 126, 306, 

Ballon, 82, 83, 84 89, 90, 98 

Castle, 302 
B.jlton, John, 264 
Bjmford, Annette Maria, 404 

,, Robert, 404 
Bonville, Lord, 250, 253 
Booth, Alice, 394, 395, 

,, Archbishop, 44 

Charles, 394 

Dulcia, 170 

,, Edmund, 394 

George, I, 2, 157, 189, 325, 
326, 383 

,, Henry, 159, 160 

John, 59, 173, 178, 184 

Laurence, 394, 395 

Margaret, 194, 202 
Mr., 386 

Ralph, 394 

Robert, 170, 394 

., Roger, 394 

Thomas, 310, 311, 

,, William, 311, 394 



Bootle, Thomas, 108 
Bootle-Wilbraham, Edward, 108 
Bostock, Adam, 8 

John, 178, 320 
Laurence, 219 
Boswell, Isabella, 164 

,, Robert, 164 
Bosworth, Battle of, 26, 27, 36, 226, 


Boteler, John, 254, 304 
Richard, 392 
Thomas, 44, 180, 181 
William, 254 
Boulter, W. Consett, 209 
Bourne, Thomas, 162 
,, William, 163 
Boyle, Richard, 58 
Brackley, Viscount, 140, 363 
Braddyll, Margaret, 254 
., Richard, 255 
Bradshaigh, Anne, 318 

Elizabeth, 259 

Roger, 318 
William, 259 

Bradshaw, Henry, 97 
John, 325 
Bradshawe, John, 281 
Braithwaite, Richard, 235 
Brandon, Charles, 42, 64, 251 
Frances, 251 
,, Mary, 42 
Bran/isolme Moor, 178 
Braylesford, Henry, 223 
Breadsall, Prior of, 353 
Breres, Elizabeth, 264 
Lawrence, 264 
Robert, 264 
Roger, 262, 264 
Brereton, Elizabeth, 377 

Ellen, 128 

., Katharine, 279 
Margery, 417 
Philip, 138 
Randle, 128, 129, 138, 

.141, 377 
Richard, 37, 3^3 
Unan, 116, 128, 129, 178 
William, 123, 139, 140, 
157, 158, 305, 350, 377, 
379, 417 

Bridgenorth Castle, 299 
Bridgewater, Duke of, 350 

Earl of, 66, 154 

Briers, Catherine, 401 
Britland, Mrs., 151 
Brock, Elizabeth, 162 
William, 162 

Brocklehurst, Philip Lancaster, 

Bromley, John, 132, 133 

William, 423 
Brooke, Christian. 318, 319, 323 

Henry, 324, 402 

Jane, 294 

John, 152 

Peter, 157, 294 

Richard, 241, 318, 323, 402 

,, Thomas, 152 
Broughton, Thomas, 29 
Brown, Anthony, 251 

Hugh, 372 

,, Mary, 251 

Robert, 372 
Browne, John Rowlls, 29.4 
Brownsword, Richard, 344 
Bruckshawe, John, 157 
Bruyn, Ellen, 224 

., John, 224 
Buckingham, Duke of, 22, 23, 24, 


Earl of, 224 

Bndworth Church (Great ), 228, 231 
(Little), 140, 14 T, 


Bulkeley, Hugh, 175 
,, Margery, 373 
Richard, 373 
,, Robert, 123 
Bunbury Church, 136 
Burdett, Francis, 335, 336 
Burgundy, Duchess of, 30 
Burleigh, Lord, 56, 68, 69, 203, 346 
Burton-on-Trent, 307 
Bury, Geoffrey, 270 
Richard, 221 
Bussell, Richard, 392 
,, Warin, 212 
William, 212 
Butler, Ellen, 375 
Frances, in 
George; in 

,, John, 375 

Thomas, 26, 35, 43, 46, 59 
Byrne, Henry, 403 
Byrom, John, 355 
Byron, Geoffiy, 213 

., James, 173 

John, 173, 235, 352 

Lord, 352 

Carnarvon Castle, 126 
Caldecote, Amelia, 121 

David, 121 
Caldewall, Mr., 61, 187 



Calveley, Elizabeth, 315 

Hugh, 134, 310, 315 
Katharine, 417 
Ralph, 417 
Robert, 417 
Cambridge, Earl of, 368 
Cambden, William, 60 
Campbell, Augusta Elizabeth, 423 
,, Louisa Caroline, 293 
John Hooke, 293 

Walter Frederick, 423 
Camperdown, Earl of, 54, 69 
Campion, Edmund, 400 
Cancefield, Agnes, 246 

,, John, 243, 244, 246 

,, Richard, 243, 246, 

,, William, 243, 246 

Cnpcsthoriie, 424 
Caryngton, Edmund, 419 
Edward, 419 

George, 222, 419 

Margaret, 414 

Nicholas, 419 

Peter, 419 

Thomas, 414 

,, William, 419 
Castile, Henry of, 221 
Castlehaven, Earl of, 66 
Cathcart, Alexander, 216 
,, Charles, 216 
,. Earl, 216 
Cave, Eleanor, 152 

Roger, 152 

Cavendish, Katharine Caroline, 339 
Camooti Castle, 213 
Cecil, Mildred, 203 
Robert, 69, 204 
Secretary, 55, 56, 68 
Thomas, 203 
Chadderton, Geoffrey, 169 

William, 60, 64, 68, 

197, 199 

Challiner, Thomas, Go 
Chamberlain, Mr., 145 
Chandos, Lord, 66 
Charles I., 156, 235, 381, 383 

II-, 159 

V, 46 

Charlton, Edmund, 37 
Chaucer, Geoffrey, 278, 303 
Chesham, Lord, 339 
Cheshire Rising, 102, 326, 363 
Chester, 101, 126 

Abbey, 362 

Abbot of, 364 

Bishop of, 53, 54,60,61,71, 
289, 360 

Chester Castle, 96, 213, 324, 375, 


Cathedral, 163 
Earl of, 118, 119, 126, 135, 
169, 172, 221, 223, 299, 

307, 3M, 32, 363, 364 
367, 408, 419 
Chetham, Adam, 169 
Elizabeth, 213 
Humphrey, 207, 213, 351 
,, Ralph, 213 
Chirk Castle, 326 
Chisnall, Captain, 87 
Cholmondeley, Elizabeth, 161 

Hugh, 145, 322,323 

Lettice, 322, 323 
Randle, 137, 138 
Richard, 127, 137, 

i3, 377 
Robert, 161 
Thomas, 8, 159, 160, 


Charley Hall, no, 423 
Chorlton, Alexander, 192 
Gospatric, 166 
Clarence, Duke of, 419 
Clarendon, Lord, 74, 79, 107 
Clayton, Randle, 185 

Thomasin, 185 
Clerc, David le, 119 
Clifford, The Black-faced, 132, 256 
Henry, 64 
Margaret, 64 
Matilda, 255 
Robert, 30 
Thomas, 255 
Ciifton, Edmund, 215 
Gilbert, 71 
John, 215 
Clowes, Edward, 293 
Clyve, Richard, 128, 314 
Cobler, Captain, 41 
Cochersand Abbey, 169, 220 
Cochey Moor, 81 
Cocks, Roger, 77 
Collingbourne, William, 29 
Collyer, George, 186 
Colman, Francis, 215 

,, Laura Anne, 215 
Constance, Ivo, 364 
Coningsby, Humphrey, 396 
Conway Castle, g, 126 
Conway, Catharine, 147, 161 

,, Piers, 147, 161 
Cook, John, 262 
Cooke, William, 326 
Copley, Catharine, 152 



Copley, Eleanor, 293 

John, 152, 293 
Corbet, Vincent, 350 
Cork, Earl of, 58 
Cotes, George, 50 
Colon, Hugh, 305 
Cotton, Clemence, 371 
Elizabeth, 325 
George, 59, 317 
Katharine, 316 
Mary, 59 
Richard, 316 
Robert, 160 
Robert Salisbury, 387 
Stapleton Stapluton, 388 
Couper, Mr., 237 
Couplond, Dawe, 3, 4 
Courtray, Katherine, 120 

,, Matilda, 120 
Coventry, Bishop of, 213 
Cowley, Lord, 154, 337 
Cowper, Ashley, 403 
Harriet, 403 
Cranmer, Archbishop, 49 
Craven, Earl, 155 
Crawford and Balcarres, 318 
Crescy, Battle of, 301 
Crewe, Randolph, 367 
Cromwell, Oliver, 78, 97, 156, 158, 

321, 324, 320 
Richard, 102, 158 
,, Thomas, 49 
Crophall, Roger, 305 
Cross, Richard Assheton, 405 
Cross Hall, 63 
Crossen, 97, 213 
Croston, Edward, 213 
,, Eleanor, 213 
George, 213 
Henry, 213 
Isabel, 213 
Jeremy, 97, 213 
John, 97, 213 
Lyulph, 212 
Richard, 213, 395 
Roger, 213, 395 
,, William, 213 
Croxton, Emma, 164, 241 
James, 164, 241 
Margaret, 374 

Ralph, 374 
Thomas, 311 
Cuerdley, 138 

Chapel, 138 
Culcheth, Anne, 214 

Thomas, 214 
Cumberland, Di.kj of, 334 

Cutler, Gervase, 349 
Maria, 349 

DACRE, Elizabeth, 255 
Edmund, 255 
,, Thomas, 255 
Dalton, Frances, 214 

Laurence, 168, 208, 286 
John, 214 
Richard, 296 
Roger, 296 
Dalrymple, Hugh, 404 

Jacintha, 404 
Daniel, Joan, 302 
John, 302 
Margaret, 305 
Peter, 321 
Daniell, Emma, 188 
D.ivis, Mrs., 237 
Duvftifort Hall, 423 
Henry, 367 
Humphrey, 206, 210 
Mary, 367 
John, 373 
Ralph, 8 
Davenports, The, 407-424 
Davies, Alexander, 327, 328 
Mary, 327, 328 
Robert, 421, 422 
Salisbury, 422 
Deane, Matthew, 422 

Robert, 422 
Dee, Dr., 65, 68 
,, River, 314 
Delamere, Isolda, 214 
John, 213, 214 
Lord, 326 
Delves, Henry, 384 

John, 123, 124, 224, 374 
Margaret, 374 
,, Mary, 384 
Denston, Geoflrey, 122 
Derby, Earl of, 197, 199, 20^, 213, 

226, 228, 231, 233, 396 
Deventer, Siege of, 142 
Devereux, Frances, 252 
Didsbury Church, 347 
Diculacres Abbey, 317, 366 
Digby, Simon, 37 
Dillon, Henrietta Maria, 114 

,, Viscount, 114 
Dockwra, Anne, 240 
Martha, 240 
Thomas, 239 
William, 240 
Dod, Anne, 150 
Stephen, 122 



Dod, Thomas, 150 
William, 122 
Dodding, Colonel, 91 
Doddingsells, Marcella, 392, 393 
Dodsworth, Roger, 392, 401 
Dole Castle, 365 
Done, Ellena, 143 
Elyn, 326 
Hugh, 137 

John, 8, 137, 143, 326 
Lady, 322 
Ralph, 140, 143 
Richard, 189, 326 
Dorset, Marquess of, 250, 251, 252 
Dorsetshire, Marquess of, 100 
Douglas, Earl, 258 
Downham, George, 54, 60 
Downes, Francis, 206 
,, John, 206, 210 
Penelope, 210 
,, Roger, 210 
Drake, Madam, 355 
Drayton, Michael, 129, 256 
Drax, Edward, 333 

J. S. W. Sawbridge-Erle, 334 
Richard Edward Erie, 334 
,, Sarah Frances, 333 
Draycott, Frances, 210 

,, Philip, 210 
Drinkwater, Arnold, 237 
Dudley, Lord Guildford, 251 
Dugdale, William, 208, 209, 252, 


Dukinfield, Colonel, 89, 56, 99 
,, Isabel, 400 

,, Jhn, 400 

Dunbar, Battle of, 94 
Dupre, Josias, 165 

,, Rebecca, 165 
Dutton, Adam, 219 
,, Geoffrey, 219 

Hugh, 219 

,, Peter, 125, 311, 315 
Durham, Bishop of, 214 

RAKWAKER, J. P., 411 
Eaton, Richard, 232 
,, Boat, 313, 314 
Ebury, Alexander, 328 
Ecdcs Church, 172, 269, 270 
Robert, 271 
William, 271 
Eccleston Green, 89 

,, Margaret, 261 
Ralph, 261 
Edge, Oliver, 96 
Edmundson, Jane, 401 

Edward III., 301 

IV., 16, 364 

VI, 51. 52, 68 
Edwards, Walter, 237 
Edwin, Earl, 119 
Egerton, Colonel, 92 

Eleanor, 336 

J. 237 

it Lc ""d, 339, 3&3 

,, Ralph, 234, 311 

Rowland, 241 

,, Rowland-Eyles, 241 

Thomas, 67, 233, 293, 

336, 337. 363 
Egertons, The, 117 165 

of Oulton, 155 165 
Elcock, Alexander, 343 

Margaret, 343 
Elizabeth, yueen, 5, 6, 32, 65, 68, 

Ellesmere, Baron, 67, 363 

Lady, 69 

Lord Chancellor, 67 
Eltonhead, Nicholas, 261 
Ely, Bishop of, 22, 138, 257 

House, 21 
English, Isabella, 253 
,, William, 253 
Erasmus, 35 
Erdwick. 2 

Essex, Earl of, 61, 347 
Eton, Hamor, 314 
,, Joan, 312 
John, 312, 313 
Weir, 313 
Evans, Mrs. 237 
Everaux, Robert, 375 
Every, Edward, 360 

,, Sophia Anne, 360 
Evesham, Battle of, 274 
Exeter, Duke of, 254 
Exton, Piers, 126, 306 
Eyles, Francis, 162 

John, 162 
Eyton, Mr., 299 

FAIRFAX, Lord, 324 

Thomas, 83,85,88, 94,99 
ffarington, Emma, 324, 

Henry, 87 

William, 65, 207 
Farmer, William, 87 
Farndon Bridge, 117 

Sectary, 325 
Farnworth Grammar School, 227 
Farren, Miss, 154 
Faulkner, Elizabeth, 187 



Faulkner, James, 187 

Faux, Guy, 69 

Fermor, Anna Maria Annabella, 


Thomas William, 405 
Ferrers, Earl, 271, 274 
Robert, 34 
William, 169, 225 
Finch, James, 198 

Windsor, 148 
Finlow, John, in 
Fisher, Lady 162 
Fitton, Alice, 392 
Anne, 230 
Edmund, 392 
Edward, 189, 230, 379 
Hugh, 311 
Joan, 310 
John, 130 
Katharine, 315 
Laurence, 310, 311 
Margaret, 379 
Maude, 391 
Richard, 391 
Thomas, 189, 315 
William, 391 
Fitz-Alan, Elizabeth, 13 

,, Richard, 13 
Fitz-Herbert, Anthony, 181 
Fleetwood, Henry, 263 

,, Richard, 203 
Fleming, Alina, 246 
Daniel, 245 
,, Elizabeth, 395, 396 
Goditha, 245 
Michael, 243, 244, 245, 


,, John, 213 
Richard, 244 
Thomas, 213, 244 
William, 243, 244, 246, 

395, 396 
Flemyng, Maude, 391 

William, 391 
Fletcher, Robert, 318 
Flint Castle, 417 
Flodden, Battle of, 40, 135, 178, 


Flower, William, 177, 232, 397 
Ford, Maria, 294 

,, Randle, 294 
Forton, John, 249 
Fox, Richard, 87 
Foxdenton Hall, 189 
Foxley, William, 232 
Foxwist, Vivian, 5 
Francis I., 48 

Franklin, Captain, 216 

,, Violet, 216 
Frechleton Marsh, 91 
Fulleshurst, Isabella, 121 

Richard, 121 

Robert, 178 

Fuhoood Moor, 81 
Furnese, Henry, 108 
FyUe, The, go 

GAINSBOROUGH, Thomas, 335 
Gardiner, John, 148 
Garrett Hall, 170, 184, 344, 345 
Garstang, 91 

Bridge, 34 
Gascoyne, John, 192 

,, Thomas, 209 
Gaunt, John of, 126, 278, 303, 306, 


Gaveston, Piers, 20 
Gee, Charles, 193 
George I., 358 
Gerard, Gilbert, 184 

Lady, 68 

,, Thomas, 304 
Gernons, Randle, 299 
Gerrard, Thomas, iSo, 181, 344 

Richard, 344 
Gerston, Adam, 270 
Gifjlis, John, 203 
Gildehusistidt, 168 
Girlington, John, 83 
Gladstone, William Ewart, 103 
Gleaston Castle, 249 
Glendower, Owen, 6, 127, 223, 278, 

3''3, 37, 38, 372 
Glendower, Percy, 223 
Gloddacth, 324 
Gloucester, Duke of, iS, 20, 21, 

22, 23 

Glover, Robert, 232 
Glynn, Serjeant, 103 

Stephen Richard, 103 
Goch, Philip, 272 
Godiva, Lady, 118 
Gosnell, James, 198 
Gossen, Thomas, 68 
Goushill, James, 13 
,, Robert, 13 
Gower, Baron, 332 

,, Constance Gertrude 

Sutherland Leveson, 339 
Elizabeth Mary Leveson, 


John, 332 
,, Mr., 160 
William Leveson, 332 



Grace, Pilgrimage of, 49, 177, 191 
Grafton, Duke of, 104 
Graham, Anne, 403 

Reginald, 403 
Gretnhalgk Castle, 91 
Gregorie, John, 192 
Grelle, Robert, 271 
Gresham, Thomas, 203 
Grey, Arthur, 144 

Bridget, 144, 145, 147 

Cecilia, 250 

Edward. 59 

Elizabeth, 16 

Henry, 251 252 

Jane Sibilla, 144 

John, 16, 250 

Katharine, 251, 351 

Lady Jane, 51, 193, 251 

Lord, 20, 250, 351 

Mary, -252 

Thomas, 144, 250 

William, 351 

of Groby, 250, 252 
Grift'yn, John, 193 
Grimshaw, Thomas, 258 
Grosvenor, Earl, 154 
,. Mrs , 257 

Richard, 88, 239, 402 
,, Robert, 154, 278 

Sidney, 402 

Grosvenors, The, 297, 340 
Guise, Mary of, 53 
Gwynned, Owen, 268 

Halkin Castle 329 
Hall, Anne, 293 
Humphrey, 232 
John, 293 
,, Thnrston, 396 
Halley, Dr., 104, 292 
Halliwell, Mr., 358 
Halsall, Henry, 258, 396 

Jane, 65, 258 

,, Maude, 258 

,, Thomas, 258 
Halton, Baron of, 364 

Castle, 126, 226 
Hamilton, Master, 68 
Hamilton and Brandon, Dukcof, 106 
Hanmer. John, 160 
Hardy, Elizabeth, 229 

,, Robert, 229 
1 1 arc field, 167 
Harland, John, 240 
Harrington, 242 

Katharine, 281 

Harrington, James, 281, 283, 375 

., Thomas, 375 
Harringtons, The, 242, 266 

of Farleton, 253, 


of Hornby,255,26i 

of Huyton,26i,263 

Harrison, John, 146 

Richard, 331 
Hart, Anne, 47 
John, 47 
Haryngton, Anne, 38, 41 

,, James, 29, 38, 181, 182, 


John, 38, 41 
,, Thomas, 38 
William, 181, 182 
Hastings, Lord, 21, 47, 259 
Hateley Field, Battle of, 127, 22j, 

258, 37 2 

Hatton, Christopher, 367 
Katherine, 394 
Roger, 394 
Haut, Richard, 137 
Hawardcn, 103 

Bryan, 265 
Margaret, 265 
Hawkesbury, Lord, 336 
Hawkstone, Ellen, 121 
,, John, 121 

Hawkins, John, 66 
Haworth, Alice, 396 

Christopher, 396 

Dr., 357 

Edmund, 291 
,, Grace, 291 
Haydock, Mary, 401 
Ilcaton House, 152 
Helsby, Thomas, 131, 226 
Henrietta, Queen, 77 
Henry IV., 307 

VI., 170, 171, 173, 257 
VII., 29, 31, 32, 33, 37, 45 
VIII., 39, 48 
Matthew, 180, 229, 290, 327 
Philip, 159, 160, 327 
Herbert, Lord, 251, 327 
Herle, Charles, 76 
Hertford, Earl of, 139, 140, 192, 

251, 252 

Hesketh, Agnes, 310 
Elizabeth, 234 
T. G. Fermor, 182 
Thomas, 234 
Robert, 105 

Heskeths, The, of Hesketh and 
Rufford, 389-406 



Hewett, William, 348 
Hexham, Battle of, 132 
Heyricke, Warden, 257 
Heywood, Oliver, 104, 290 
Hildyard, Thomas, 148 
Hinde, Nathaniel, 404 

,, Sophia, 404 
Hockenhull, Peter, 140 
Hoghton. Adam, 393 

,, Richard, 402 

,, Tower, 71, 206 
Holcroft, Alice, 400 

John, 242, 400 

Thomas, 204, 232, 379, 

398, 400 

Holford, George, 229 
John, 299 

Thomas, 8, 231 
Holingshed, Raphael, 27, 58 
Holland, Colonel, 291 

Edward, 149, 151 

Elizabeth, 149 
Henry, 151 

,, Piers, 326 

Richard, 151 

,, Robert, 149 

,, Thomas, 149 

,, William, 149, 150 
Hollingworth, Richard, 206,345 
Holm Town, 9 

Holme, Randle, 179, 237, 380 
Holroyd, Maria-Josepha, 113 

John, 113 
Holt CasUe, 36 
Hugh, 368 
James, 178 
Thomas, 186 
Honford, John, 175, 178, 179, 368, 

369, 37C 

Katharine, 376 
Margaret, 178 
William, 178, 180, 376 
Hoole Heath, 78 
Hooton, Margaret, 5 
William, 5 
Hopkins, John, 318 
Hornby Castle , 38, 40, 41, 42, 255, 


Hoton, Adam, 3, 4 
Hotspur, Henry, 6, 7, 127, 223, 372 
Hough End. 341, 347, 333 
Houghton, Anne, 349 

Humphrey, 341 
Moor, 81 
Howard, Catharine, 193, 194 

Dorothy, 59 

Edmund, 193 


Howard, Mary, 193 
Philip, 64 
Thomas, 49, 59 
Huddlestone, Eleanor, 181 
,, John, 181 

Richard, 206 

Hudson, Alice, 192 
Hulme Hall, 351, 353, 354 
Hulton, Adam, 261 

,, Anchorette, 120 
,, Blethyn, 120 
Christopher, 182, 260 
Jorveth, 120 
,, Roger, 261 

Hultons, The, of Hulton, 267, 294 
Hunt, John, 241 
Huntington, Earl of, 56 
Hurleston, Katharine, 379 

Roger, 379 
Hnrleton, Thomas, 134 
Hutchinson, John, 162 
Hyde, Katharine, 290 
Robert, 290 
Thomas, 169 

INCE, Margery, 170 

,, Robert, 170 
Inskip, Henry, 290 

,, Margaret, 289 
Ireland, Anne, 263 

Edward, 263 

George, 140 

Gilbert, 71, 264 

Jane, 264 

Margaret, 262 

Robert, 262 

JACKSON, Francis, 386 
Maria, 163 
,, Thomas Scott, T6; 
James, I., 69, 70, 420, 4.11 

,, II., 160, 161 
Jeftryes, Frances, 162 
Griffith, 162 
Jessop, Anne, 291 

William, 291 
Johnson, John, 264, 331 
Jones, Jo., 237 
Juxon, Bishop, 403 

Elizabeth, 403 
,, William, 403 

KAVE, Georgina, 294 

John Lister, 294 
Keighley, Henry, 395 

,, Richard, 395 
Kennest, Bishop, 33 



Kent, Earl of, 59 
Keys, Martin, 252 
Kighley, John, 418 
Kildare, Earl of, 136 
Kilmory, Viscount, 234 
Kinderton, Baron of, 223, 307, 309 
Kingsmill. John, 396 
Kinneen, Elizabeth, 388 

Michael, 388 
Kirkhoven, John, 100 
Knowsley, 33 

,, Thomas, n 

Kyveliock, 119, 362, 363, 365, 366, 

LACY, Alice, 219 
,, Henry, 271 
,, John, 219, 271, 276 
,, Kobert, 270, 271 
I.acye, John, 345, 346 
Lambert, Colonel, 102 
Lancaster, 83 

,, Castlf, 95 
,, Isabel, 244 
,, Joseph, 244 
Lane, Colonel, 182 

,, Jane, it>2 
Langley, Ralph, 38 

Robert, iSG 
Langton, John, 254 

William, 268, 269 
Latham House, 23, 26, 31, 33, 47, 52, 
58, 59, 60, 71, 73, 76, 85, 
86, 88, 90, 92, 97, 100, 
103, 118 
Isabel, n 
Margaret, 253, 261 
,, Thomas, 253, 261 
Lauderdale, Lord, 96 
Laurance, Sibell, 394 

Robert, 394 
Lawton, Thomas, 127 
William, 127 
Lea, William, 214 
Lee, Isabel, 185 
Matthew Henry, 150 
,, Richard, 233 
Thomas, 185 
Leek, Forest, 408 
,, Francis, 55 
Legh, Agnes, 278 
Anabella, 391 
,, Anna Elizabeth, i(~>5 
Charles, 112, 241 
Edmund, 391, 392 
Elizabeth, 284 
,, Ellen, 225 

Legh, George John, 165 
Isabel, 308 
,, John, 311. 312, 418 
Maud, 375 
Mr., 68 
Peter, 59, 153, 174, 205, 224, 


Piers, 418 
i, Richard, 418 
Robert, 278, 308, 309, 378, 


Thomas, 199, 200, 284 
Urian, 199, 200, 201, 205 
William, 125,418 
Leicester, Earl of, 142, 197 
Leigh Church, 281 
,, Elizabeth, in 
,, John, in 
William, 293 
Leighe, Isabel, 184 

Thomas, 184 
I. eland, John, 249 
Lely, Peter, 332 
Lcofric, Earl, 118 
Leonard, Christiana, 1 1 1 

Stephen, in 
Lester, Robert, 160 
Lever, John, 358 
Ley, Annabella, 391 
Edmund, 391, 392 
,, Henry, 392 
John, 236 
Leybourne, James, 198 
Leycester, Anne, 377, 378 
Catherine, 113 

Elizabeth, 372, 377 
John, 182, 260 
Oswald, 113 
Peter, 219, 224,225, 226, 
234, 238, 304, 364, 
365, 384 
Ralph, 377, 378 
Thomas, 311 
Leyland, William, 189 
Lick fa Id. 317 

,, ' Bishop of, 279 
Liddington, Bishop of, 55 
Lilburne, Colonel, 95 
Lilford, Lord, 259 
Lincoln, Battle of, 299 
Bishop of, 227 
Earl of, 29 
Litherland, John, 5 
Livesay, Henry, 215 
Lloyd, Gamaliel, 355 
George, 355 
Mary Anne, 356 



Lloyd, Martha, 387 
Mr., 237 

Thomas William, 356 
William, 387 
Londesborough, Lord, 165 
Longford, Elizabeth, 183 
,, Maude, 180 
Margaret, 169, 179 
Nicholas, 180 
Ralph, 179, 180,181, 183 
Loring, Isabel, 248 
Lostock, 299 
Lousada, Anna Maria, 266 

,, Duke of, 266 
Lovel, Lord, 29, 33 
Lovell, 41 
Lowe, Anne, 353 
Ralph, 353 
Lower, Mr., 413 
Lumley, John, 182, 260 
Lunt, John, 292, 386 
Lupus, Hugh, 118, 154, 155, 298, 

299, 320, 362 
Lynton, Cadogan, 119 

Chunk, 308 

Earl of, 331 

Forest, 408, 409 

,, Thomas, 416 

Machin, Mr., in 
Mainvvaring, Anne, 420 
,, Colonel, 89 

,, Elizabeth, 224 

Margery, 132 
Mr., 146 

Joan, 418 

John, 128, 224 

Philip, 231 

,, Randle, 194, 418, 420 

,, Roger, 134 

William, 132, 231 

Mainwarings, The, of Warmincham 

and Peover, 361, 388 
Maisterson, Thomas, 178 
Malpas, 117, 118 
,, Baron of, 119 
Church, 141, 150 
David, 121, 127, 272 
,, Matilda, 121 
Mamecestre, Geoffrey, 275 
Hugh, 275 

Joan, 275 

John, 275 

Richard, 275 

Roger, 275 

Mandeville, Alice, 271 

Mandeville, William, 271 
Manley, Ellen, 313 
John, 132, 313 
,, Thomas, 311 
Mara, William, 392 
Marbury, Thomas, 234 
March, Earl of, 306 
Mareschall William, 248 
Margaret, Queen, 16 
Market liosworth, 27 
Marleigh, Richard, 313 
Markham, John, 179 
Marprelate, Martin, 64 
Marsh, George, 52, 53, 54, 290 
Mars ton Moor, 90 
Martindale, Adam, 102, 358 
Marion Chapel, 417 

llall, 408, 423 
Mary, Princess, iGi 

,, Queen, 52, 53 
Mascie, Hainan, 169 
Mascy, Hamnet, 394 

Hamon, 363 
Hugh, 417 

John, 125 

,, Margaret, 394 

,, Richard, 420 

Robert, 419 
Massey, Dulcia, 222 

Geoffrey, 37, 262, 420 
Jane, 37 
John, 222 

William, 71, 210 
Massie, William, 199 
Matthew, Hugh, 396 

,, Tobias, 213 
Maud, Empress, 219 
Maximilian, Emperor, 45, 131; 
Maynard, Joseph, 352 
Mayre, William, 140 
Meldrum, John, 90 
Melly, George, 405 
Merbury, Laurence, 309 
Mercia, Earl of, 118 
Mere, John, 369 
Merfyld, William, 182 
Midiilfham Castle, 129 
Middleton, Mr., 160 

,, Roger, 270 

Midgeley, Richard 61 
Midleton, Anne, 237 
Lady, 237 

Mr., 237 
,, Sara, 237 
Thomas, 237 
Milfonl Haven, 26 
Milton, John, 380 



Minshull, Edward, 380, 382 

Ellen, 380, 382 
Meravalc Abbey, 27 
Mirfyld, William, 182, 261 
Mobbcrley Church, 182, 183 
Molyneux, Elizabeth, 164 
,, Frances, 265, 402 

John, 263, 264, 2(35, 402 
Richard, 202, 263, 264 
Robert, 262 
Thomas, 403 
Viscount, 263 
,, William, 263 

of Huyton, 263-260 

Molynox, Richard, 08 
Monk, General, 159 
Monmouth, Duke of, 331 
Montalt, Beatrice, ny 

,, Robert, i 19 
Monteagle, Lord, 40, 41, 42, 43,61, 

228, 285 

Montfora, Simon, 274 
Montgomery, Roger, 299 
More, Colonel, 85, yo 
,, Edward, 71 
Thomas, 22 
Morccambe Buy, 83 
Morison, Jane Sibilla, 144 

Richard, 144 
Morley, Lord, 42 
Mary, 105 
,, William, 105 
Mortimer, Roger, 306 
Mosley, Edward, 203 
,, Elizabeth, 211 
,, Mr., 210 
Nicholas, 203 
Oswald, 2 1 1 
Mosleys, The, 341-360 
Moston, Richard, 170 
Mostyn, Jane, 141 
Lord, 324 
Piers, 141 
Roger. 324 
Sydney, 324 
Mowbray, Thomas, 14 
Mnlyngton, Roger, 172 
Murray, Charlotte, 10 
George, 76 
James, 10 
John, 100 
Richard, 76 
Myddelton, Hugh, 236 

Thomas, 236 

Myddleton, David, 326 
Hugh, 326 
Thomas, 326, 327 

Mynshull. Margaret, 393 

Nantwich, 96 

Battle of, 299 

Needham, Eleanor, 234 

Robert, 234, 375 

Neville, Edward, 248 
Eleanor, 15 

Joan, 256 

John, 256, 375 
Margaret, 253 
Richard, 15, 175, 226 
,, Thomas, 375 
William, 248, 253 
Newcastle, Marquess of, 82, go 
Newcome, Henry, in, 151, 292, 


New Park, 88 
Newport, Mr., 160 
Newton, Marmaduke, 62 

Thomas, 61 
Nichell, Laurence, 214 
Nicholls, Mr., 336 
Nicoll, Thomas, 249 
Norfolk, Duke of, 27, 49, 50, 57 
Norrcs, Henry, 182 
Norreys, Anne, 261 

Clemence, 285 
Edward, 239 
Henry, 261 
Susannah, 239 
William, 261, 285 
Norris, Mr., 385 
North, Charles, 351 
Dudley, 351 

Lady, 358 
Lord, 351 
Rising of the, 56, 57 
Northampton, Battle of, 132 

,, Earl of, 302 

Northumberland, Earl of, 55, 56, 

Northumberland, Duke of, 51 
Northwicli, 102 
Norton Priory, 318 
Notion, Gilbert, 269, 272 

,, William, 269 
Nowell, Katharine, 290 

John, 392, 395 

Roger, 290, 395 

OFFLEY, Francis, 162 

John, 162 
Ogle, Captain, 87 

Cuthbert, 262 

,, John, 261 
Oldham, Hugh, 35, 43, 183 



O'Neill, Shane, 379 
Orange, William of, 104, 105, 161 
Ormerod, Dr., 66 
Ormond, Duke of, 104 
Earl of, 136 
OrmMrk, 59 

Church, 59, 64, 73, 99, 

Orreby, Herbert, 219 

Philip, 219 
Osbaldeston, Edward, 71 

Richard, 128 

Oultoii Park, 130, 139, 161, 162 
Owen, Hugh, 112 
Oxford, Earl of, 27, 33, G8, 367 

PAGET, William, 318 
Paine, Margery, 169 

Roger, 169 
Palk, Lawrence, 404 
Parker, Alice, 241 

Edward, 42 

Elizabeth, 42 

John, 241 
Parma, Prince of, 62 
Parr, Mr., 264 

Richard, 282 
Parry, Margaret, 237 
Paslew, John, 177 
Paston, John, 132 
Patric, Robert, 120 

William, 120 
Paul, Pope, 224 
Peel House, 138 
Robert, 33(1 
Pembroke, Earl of, 248, 251 

,, Marchioness of, 48 

Pendlebury, Elias, 168 
Pennant, Richard, 239 
Penrhyn, Baron, 239 
Peovcr Chapel, 309, 376, 377, 382 
Peploe, Samuel, 360 
Percy, Earl, 56 

Henry, 6, 7, 9 
Perpoint, Thomas, 271 
Peterborough House, 331 
Phesant, Joan, 309 

William, 309, 310 
Philippa, Queen, 301 
Phillips, Mr., 237 
Pierpoint, William, 100 
Pilkington, Edmund, 260 
John, 173 
John Edward, 289 
Margery, 174 
Robert, 259 
Roger, 260 

Pilkington, Thomas, 29, 260 
Pitt, Emily, 388 

George, 388 

William, 335, 336 
Plantagenet, Richard, 256 
Playt, Elizabeth, 213 
Plumbe, Sarah, 403 

William, 403 
Plumpton, Edward, 23 
Poictou Roger, 169 
Pole, William, 317 
Pomfret, Earl, 405 
Pontefract Castle, 20, 49, 126, 

Poole, Randle, 310 

,, William, 318 
Port, John, 180 
Porter, George, 335 
Powys, Susan, 401 
Praers ( Joan, 367 

,, Margaret, 368, 369 
,, William, 367, 308 
Prescot, William, (j8 
Piestbui'y Church, 201, 414 
Preston, 84 

I'restwich, Ralph. 180 
Prichard, Mr., 237 
Priestley, William, 343 
Pryme, Professor, 107 
Pudsey, Thomas, 260 
Puleston, Mary, 162 

,, Richard, 162 
Pulfonl Church, 308, 310 

Robert 30(1 
Pull. John, 128 
Pygot, Robert, 414 
Py'tts, Elizabeth, 109 

James, 109 

KAOCLIFFE, Alexander, 173, i8j, 

186, 1 88, i8y, 234, 

260, 263 
Anne, 182, 116, 190, 


,, Charles James, 254 

,, Eleanor, 263 

., Elizabeth, 170, 278 

Isabella, 260 

,, James, 189 

John, 1 88, 276 

Margery, 276, 277 

Ralph, 170 

Richard, 263, 276, 277, 


,, Robert, 189, 276, 277 

,, Thomas, 175 

Tower, 276 



Radcliffe, William, 147, 173, 179, 

180, 188, 277, 319 
Radclyffe, Charles James, 189 
Radely, Lady, 210 
Raff aid, Mrs., 240 
Raines, Canon, 86, 174, 209 
Ramsey Bay, 98 
Ravenspurg, 6, 126, 306 
Ravensworth, Henry, 172 

,, Lord, 245 

Rawsthorne, Edward, 87, go 
Rawstorne, Laurence, 405 
Raynall, Edward, 401 
Rhodes Old Hall, 75 
Richard II., 8, 20, 125, 306, 372 

III., 27, 28, 36 
Richmond, Countess of, 23 

Earl of, 19, 24, 27, 28, 


Richaut Anne, 421 
,, Peter, 421 
Ricson, Pier, 232 
Rigby, Alexander, 80, 85, 8j, 92, 

93, 291, 325,402 
George, 291 
Hugh, 262 
,, Lucy, 402 

Ringlcy Chapel, 75 
Rivers, Earl, 20 
Kivington Pike, 63 
Roberts, Ellen, 186 

William, 186 
Robinson, William, 237 
Roby, Mr., 12, 52 
Rochester, Bishop of, 19 
Rokeby, Ralph, 375 
Rollo, 297 
Rookes, Elizabeth, 348 

,, John, 348 
Roseworm, Colons!, 350 
Ross, Bishop of, 55, 57 
Rossall Hall, 198 
Rosthorne, Lawrence, 401 
Roundway Down, Battle of, 235 
Rowlls, John, 240 
Rufford Hall, 387, 390, 392, 398 
Rupa, Baron, 100 
Rupert, Prince, 85, 88, 89, 90 
Ruslicn Castle, 85, 93 
Rushworth, 91 
Russell, Colonel, 351 
Rutland, Earl of, 132 
Ryland, Nicholas, 281 

William, 281 
Ryle, Henry, 180, 187 

SALEBURY, Diana, 271 

Salebury, Hugh, 272 

Ranulph, 272 

Salisbury, 69 

Earl of, 129, 
Salley, Abbot of, 191 
Salmon, Mary, 415 

Robert, 415 
Saltonstall, Jane Meriel, 354 

Richard, 354 

Savage, Alice, 260 

Archbishop, 284 
Christopher, 178 
Elizabeth, 419 
Ellen, 224, 225, 227 
John, 28, 175, 178, 224, 
225, 260, 284, 373, 419 
Katharine, 284 
Lord, 299, 302 
Margaret, 173, 373 
Thomas, 284 
Sawbridge, John Samuel Wanley, 


Scarisbrick, Gilbert, 396 
Scrope, Archbishop, 9 

John, 12 

,, Richard, 278 
Scots, Mary Queen of, 55, 57, 62 
Seacombe, 97 
Seaton, John, 207 
Seddon, Ralph, 75, 76 
Thomas, 211 
William, 75 
Seel, Thomas, 265 
Seel-Molyneux Edmund Haryng- 

ton, 266 
Seel-Molyneux, Edmund Richard 

Thomas, 266 
Seel-Molyneux, Thomas, 
Seintpier, David, 172 
Seymour, William, 252 
Shackerley, Charles Watkin, 312 

Geoffrey, 284 

Peter, 312 

Sheffield Castle, 57 

,, Earl of, 1 14 
Sherborn, Jane, 401 
Sherburne, Robert, 248 
Shipbroke, Baron of, 223 
Shocklache, David 127 
Shorrock, Alice, 214 
James, 214 
Shrewsbury, 82 

Battle of, 307, 417 

Duke of, 263, 386 

,, Earl of, 57, 108, 216 

Shuttlesworth, Henry, 392 



Simnel, Lambert, 29 
Skillicorne, Nicholas, 400 
Skelmersdale, Lord, 107 
Skynner, Deborah, 333 
Stephen, 333 
Smedley, Leonard, 205 
Smith, Elton, 155 
;, Hugh, 105 
Laurence, 230 
Susannah Isabella, 155 
Thomas, 143 
Smyth, Gilbert, 138 
James, 380 
Robert, 138 
,, Thomas, 380 
William, 35, 43, 139 
Sneyd, Charlotte, 421 
Ralph, 422, 423 
,, William, 422 
Sotney, John, 185 
Somerset, Protector, 50 
Southworth, Johanna, 395 
Richard, 395 

Sparke, Alice, 140 
Spencer, Colonel, 402 
Jane, 401 
John, 65 
Thomas, 401 
Spittal Boughtoa, 50 
Spotland, Michael, 271 
S juior, Henry, 400 
St. Albans, Battle of, 375 
St. A-mand, Martha, 403 

,, James, 403 
St. Bees, 242 
St. George, 177 

Richard, 342, 397 
St. John, Barbara, 147 

John, 147 
St. Pierre, John, 121 

Philip, 122 
Stafford, Annabella, 390 

John, 372 
Margaret, 372 
Richard, 390 
Standish, Alexander, 402 
Anne, 400 
Margaret, 402 
Ralph, 182, 260, 400 
Staneley, Oliver, 172 
Stanhope, Lord, 334, 335 
Stanlawe Abbey, 271, 276 
Stanley, Bishop, 257 

Edward, 136, 228, 234, 256, 

257, 402 
Eleanor, 226 

Stanley, Elizabeth, 240, 322 
George, 400 
House, 73 
Isabel, 374 
James, 257 
Joan, 2, 3 
Johanna, 227 

John, 257, 258, 374 
John Thomas, 239 
Lord, 226, 257, 375, 410 
Mary, 400, 401 
Mary Margaret, 154 
Roland, 141, 143 
Rowland, 386 
Thomas, 257, 258, 285, 322, 

401, 410 

William, 135, I4r, 142, 
143, 182, 225, 227, 261, 
263, 311, 362 
Stanleys, The, I, 114 

,. of Aldrrlcy, The, 108, 1 14 
,, of Latham anil Knowsk-y, 

The, 8, 1 08 

of Storeton, The, 3, S 
Starke, Thomas, 232 
Starkey, Hugh, 138 
Margaret, 138 
,, Thomas, 375 
Sterne, Bishop, 230 
Stevenson, Nicholas, in 
Stoketield, Battle of, 29, 260 
Strange, Lord, 350 
Ktret/ord Chaff I, 176 
Stuart, Charles Edward, 359 
Styles, F. H. Eeyles, 163 
,, John Haskyn, 163 
Mary, 163 
SulTield, 293 
Suffolk, Uukc of, 64 
Sutherland, Duke of, 154, 339 
Sutton, Adam, 409, 410 
Anne, 349 
Ellen, 237 
Francis, 349 
Richard, 138, 227, 349 
Swanock, Mrs., 237 
Swartz, Martin, 260 
Swettenham, Thomas, 238 
Swyft, John, 258 

TAI.BOT Bertram Arthur, 216 

Chetwynd, W. P. M., 108 

,, Edmund, 257 

,, Gerard, 

John, 71 

rd, 96 
Mary Annette, 216 



Talbot, Thomas, 257 

William, 257 
Tallyrand, Baron, 8 
Tatton, Elizabeth, 380 
Emma, 388 
Robert, 380 
Thomas William, 388 
Taylboys, Ivo, 214 
Tempest, Elizabeth, 215 

Stephen Walter, 215 
Tewkesbury, Battle of, 419 
Thicknesse, Ralph, 148 
Thornbury, Elizabeth, 214 
Thornton, Cecilia, 120 
,, Randle, 120 
Thorp, Mr., 6r 
T/nirhuid Castle, 85 
Tickell, Margery, 265 
,, Richard, 2f>5 
Tildcsley, Thomas, 282 
Tipping, Cecily, 343, 34.) 
Richard, 343 
Thomas, 343 
Tiptoft, John, 37 
Todde, John, 396 
Tollemache, Lionel, 161 
Tonman, Elizabeth, 360 

Thomas, 360 
Torbock, Alice, 262 

,, Thomas, 262 
Tottleworth, Elbora, 391 
Richard, 391 

Touchet, Anne, 137 
James, 137 
Townley, Grace, 395, 396, 397 
John, 397 
Richard, 395 
Towton, Battle of, 16, 132, 218 
Trafford, Edmund, 261, 377 

Henry, 270 
Traffords of Trafford, The. iGfi- 


of Croston, The, 212-216 
Trappes, Francis, 144 
Tremoille, Charlotte, 72, 73, 76, 
80,92, 100, 102, io(5, 
213, 291,402 
Duchess of, 78 

Trcntham, Christopher, 234 
Tresham, 182 

,, John, 261 
Trevor, John, 160 
Troubridgc, Charlotte, 164 

Thomas, 164 

Trussell, Elizabeth, 367 

William, 367 
Tudor, Elizabeth, 55 

Tudor, Henry, 23 
Tunstall, Bryan, 178 
Tutbitry Castle, 350 
Twyford, Blanche, 401 

Henry, 262, 401 

Ursula, 262 
Tyldesley, James, 280 

Thomas, 90, 91, 96, 98, 

Tyrone, Earl of, 346 

UNSWORTH, Thomas, 265 
Upton, Catherine, 162 

William, 162 
Urmston, Adam, 169 

Richard, 169 
Urswick, Adam, 244 

Christopher, 259 

Elizabeth, 244 

Ellen, 253, 259 

Robert, 280 

Thomas, 253, 259 

VAOIIAN, Catharine, 119 

Owen, 119 
Vale Royal A bbey, 7 1 

Abbot of, 31, 299 
Vaudrey, John, 344 
Vaughan, Elizabeth, 38 

Thomas, 21, 38 
Vaux, Laurence, 196 
Venables, Alice, 170, 171, 172 
,, Amabilia, 408 
Douce, 172 

Ellen, 393 
Gilbert, 407, 408 

Hugh, 122, 373, 408, 


Isabel, 122 
Joan, 309 
John, 123 

Katharine, 229 
Margery, 373 
Richard, 170, 307, 309 
Roger, 275 

Thomas, 140, 178, 316 
William, 122, 172, 316 
Venator, Roger, 299 
Verdon, John, 259 

Margaret, 259 
Vere, Edward, 68 

John, 367 
Vernon, Agatha, 122 
Dorothy, 3, 180 
George, 59, 180 
Henrietta, 334 
Henry, 334 



Vernon, Jane, 320, 323 
Margaret, 59 
Maud, 122 
Ralph, 122, 414, 417 
Richard, 122, 223, 269, 309 
Thomas, 320, 323, 414 ' 
,, William, 272 

Villiers, Constance, 107 

Waddington Hall, 256 

Wakefield, Battle of, 255, 258 

Walcott, Mackenzie, 328 

Walker, Jacobus, 192 

Wall, William, 396 

Wallop, John, 41 

Walsh, Thomas, 264 

Walsingham, Secretary, 65 

Walthal, Alexander, 150 
,, Cicilie, 150 

Walton, Henry, 392 

Warburton, Catharine, 2 1 1 
Elizabeth, 323 

Geoffrey, 128, 311 

George, 211, 333 

,, J an e, 333 

Peter, 109, 164, 322, 


Priory, 220 

Ralph, 311 
Richard, 128 

Rowland Eyles 

Egerton, 164 
Warburtons, The, of Warburton 

and Arley, 218-241 
Ward, John, 422 
Mary, 112 
Penelope, 422 
,, Thomas, 112 
Ware, Dr. Hibbert, 196 
Warre, Jane, 333 

Thomas, 170, 279, 333 
Warren, Earl, 167 
Hugh, 402 
.. Joan, 374 
John, 372, 373, 374 
Margaret, 372, 373 
Warrington, 85, 96 

,, Baron of, 254 

Warwick, Earl of, 175, 22(1, 375 
Watkins, Katharine, 387 

William, 387 
Webb, William, 233, 420 
Webster, Alice, 352 

Richard, 352 
Wellesley, Charlotte, 154 

Charlotte Arbuthnot, 


Wellesley, Henry, 337 
Wellington, Duke of, 337 
Wentworth, William, 101 
West, William, 345 
Westbury, Thomas, 43 
Westminster, Duke of, 308, 371, 


Marquess of, 154 

Westmoreland, Earl of, 55, 57 
Wetenhal, Thomas, 387 
Weverham, Matthew, 313 
Wevre, Alice, 222 
George, 314 
John, 311 
Richard, 222 
Whalley, 84, 85 

Abbey, 177 
Abbot of, 50, 177 
John, 264 
Margaret, 264 
Whelock, Richard, 314 
Whitaker, Dr., 41, 117, 256 

Elizabeth, 240 
Whitbroke, Hugh, 348 

Margaret, 348 

Whitelock, 146 
Whitley, John, 160 
Mr., 160 
Roger, 386 
Whitmore, William, 349 
Wigan Lane, Battle of, 96 
Wilbraham, Dorothy, 322 
,, Edward, 107 

Elizabeth, 322, 323, 


,, Emma Caroline, 107 

Randle, ill 

,, Thomas, 234, 322, 323. 


Willett, Thomas, 189 
Williams, Anne, 238 
Mr., 160 
,, Robert, 238 
Williamson, Robert, 192 
Wilmslow Chunk, 173, 176, 180 
Wilton, Earl of, 293 
Windell, Eleanor, 325 
Winnington, Margery, 373 

Bridge, Battle of, 326 

Wintour, Anne, 148 

George, 148 
Wode, Richard, 122 
Wolferstan, Anne, 152 

Francis, 152 

Wolsey, Cardinal, 48 
Woodford Hall, 423 
Woods, James, 292, 293 



Woolfall, Anne, 262 

Thomas, 262 
Wooton, 147 

,, Margaret, 251 
Robert, 251 
Worcester, 96 
Warden Hall, 65, 87 
Wordhull, Hugh, 122 
Worsley, Geoffrey, 269 

Robert, 197 
Worthington, Thomas, 198 
Wray, Canon, 356 
Wraysholme Tower, 254 
Wrenbury, Margaret, 120 

Richard, 120 
Wyat, Thomas, 251, 
Wygynton, John, 122 


Wydville, Elizabeth, 250 
Wyndham, Edward, 333 

Jane, 333 
Wynne, Richard, 327 
Wynnington, Elizabeth, 227 
Joan. 138 

Katharine, 229 

Richard, 138, 

229, 311 

YATES, Mail, 211 
Mary, 358 
William, 358 
York, Archbishop of, 214, 

Duke of, 132, 160, 256, 303, 


Yorke, Rowland, 142 
Yeatman, Mr., 299 


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RICHMOND, THOMAS GOODIER, Esq., F.R.C.S., Ford House, Prestbury. 
RIGBY, SAMUEL, Esq., Fern Bank, Liverpool Road, Chester. 
ROPTUDREN, M., Esq., Swinton. 
ROYLE, JOHN, Esq., 53, Port Street, Piccadilly, Manchester, 

SAXBY, Miss, Brook Hill, Wokingham, Berkshire. 

SCARLETT,- Mrs. LEOPOLD, Boscombe Manor, Bournemouth. 

SCHOFIELD, ROBERT WILLIAM, Harefield, Rochdale. 

SHAW, GILES, Esq., 72, Manchester Road, Oldham. 

SMITH, Mrs. C. T., Broadwood Park, Lanchester, Co. Durham. 

SMITH, G. F., Esq., Grovehurst, Tunbridge Wells. 

SMITH, J. J., Esq., Heywood, 

SNEYD, DRYDEN, Esq., J.P., Ashcombe Park, near Leek, Staffordshire. 

SOTHERAN, HENRY & Co., Messrs., Booksellers, Cross Street, Manchester. 

STARKIE, CHARLES W., Esq., 49, Dickinson Road, Rusholme. 

STEVENS, EDWARD, Esq., Alderley Edge, Cheshire. 

STEVENS, JAMES, Esq., F.R.I. B.A., Lime Tree House, Macclesfield. 

STUTTER, T. G., Esq., Calverley. 


SUTCLIFFE, FREDK., Esq., Bacup. 

SUTTON, ALBERT, Esq , 130, Portland Street, Manchester. 

SUTTON, R. H., Esq , 25, Princess Street, Manchester. 

SYKES, THOMAS HARDCASTLE, Esq., J.P., Cheadle, Cheshire. 

TAYLOR, JOSEPH, Esq., Eagle Brewery, Lloyd Street, Greenheys. 
TEMPEST, Mrs. ARTHUR, Coleby Hall, Lincoln. 

44 8 


THORP, J. WALTER H., Esq., J.P., Jordangate House, Macclesfield. 
TINKLER, JOHN E., Esq., Chetham Library, Manchester. 
TONGE, WILLIAM ASHTON, Esq., Croston Towers, Alderley Edge, Cheshire. 
TRAPPES, CHARLES J. B., Esq., Midd Lodge, Higher Broughton, Manchester. 
TURNER, WILLIAM, Esq., Westlands, Plymouth Grove, Manchester. 
TWEEDALL, Captain A. A., Blenheim Villa, Sale, Cheshire, 

WALKER, JOHN, Esq., 282, Upper Brook Street, Manchester. 

WALKER, JOHN, Esq., Lagos House, Prestwich. 

WALMSLEY, G. G., Esq., Stationer, 50, Lord Street, Liverpool. 

WALTON, Rev. THOMAS, Alston Lane Church, near Preston. 

WARBURTON, SAM, Esq., 10, Wilton Polygon, Cheetham Hill, Manchester. 

WARD, THOMAS, Esq., Brookfield House, Northwich. 

WHATTON, Mrs., 9, Somers Place, Hyde Park, London, W. 

WELSBY, W., Esq., J.P., The Grange, Southport. 

WHITE, CHARLES, Esq., Holly House, Warrington. 

WHITTAKER, JOHN, Esq., Lostock Hall, Walton-le-Dale, near Preston. 

WHITTAKER, ROBERT, Esq., J.P., Birch House, Lees, near Oldham. 

WHITTAKER, THOMAS, Esq., Prospect Hill, Walton-le-Dale, near Prestcn. 

WILSON, Rev. Canon, M.A., Prestbury Vicarage, Macclesfield. 

WOOD, JOHN, Esq., J.P., Arden, Stockport. 

WOODMASS, Mrs. MONTAGUE, Compstall, Marple Bridge. 

WRIGHT, EDWARD ABBOTT, Esq., Castle Park, Frodsham, Cheshire. 

YOUNG, HAROLD EDGAR, Esq., 6, ArundUl Avenue, Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

JOHN HEVWOOD, Excelsior Steam Printing and liookbiuding Works, Hulme Hall Road, 





DA Croston, James 

670 County families of Lancashir 

L2C86 and Cheshire